List of national parks of Japan

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Itsukushima in Setonaikai National Park, the first of Japan's National Parks (established 1934)

National Parks (国立公園, Kokuritsu Kōen) and Quasi-National Parks (国定公園, Kokutei Kōen) in Japan are places of scenic beauty designated for protection and sustainable usage by the Minister of the Environment under the Natural Parks Law (自然公園法) of 1957.[1] National Parks are designated and in principle managed by the Ministry of the Environment. Quasi-National Parks, of a slightly lesser beauty, size, diversity, or state of preservation, are recommended for ministerial designation and managed by the Prefectures under the supervision of the Ministry.[2]

History[edit]

Japan established its first kōen (公園) or public parks in 1873 (Asakusa Park, Asukayama Park, Fukagawa Park, Shiba Park, and Ueno Park). In 1911 local citizens petitioned that the shrines and forests of Nikkō be placed under public protection. In 1929 the National Parks Association was formed. In 1931 the first National Parks Law (国立公園法) was passed. After much study and survey, in March 1934 the first parks were established — Setonaikai, Unzen and Kirishima — with five more in December and a further four two years later. Three further parks were established under the old National Parks Law, in colonial Taiwan in 1937: the Tatun National Park (the smallest in Japan); Tsugitaka-Taroko National Park, (the largest); and Niitaka-Arisan National Park (with the highest mountain in then Japan).[3]

Ise-Shima was the first to be created after the war, and a further seven had been added by 1955.

In 1957 the Natural Parks Law replaced the earlier National Parks Law, allowing for three categories: the National, Quasi-National, and Prefectural Natural Parks. With minor amendments this established the framework that operates today.[4][5]

As of 1 April 2014, there were 31 National Parks and 56 Quasi-National Parks, with the National Parks covering 20,996 km² (5.6% of the land area) and the Quasi-National Parks 13,592 km² (3.6% of the land area). In addition, there were 314 Prefectural Parks covering 19,726 km² (5.2% of the land area).[6] On 27 March 2015, the 32nd National Park was established, Myōkō-Togakushi Renzan National Park,[7] on 15 September 2016, the 33rd, Yanbaru National Park, and on 7 March 2017, the 34th, Amami Guntō National Park, subsuming Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park.[8][9] On 25 March 2016, a further Quasi-National Park was established, Kyoto Tamba Kogen Quasi-National Park.[10]

Protection status[edit]

The area of each National and Quasi-National Park is divided into ordinary, special and marine park zones. Special zones are further subdivided into special protection and class I, II, and III special zones, restricting access and use for preservation purposes. The state owns only approximately half of the land in the parks.[11]

Map of National Parks[edit]

This map shows the locations of the national parks in Japan. Note Ogasawara National Park is not visible on the map.

List of National Parks[edit]

Name Established Prefecture Area [ha] Photo
Akan National Park 1934 Hokkaidō 90.481 hectares (223.58 acres) Onneto and Akan1 DSCN2488 20060805.JPG
Minami Alps National Park 1964 Chūbu 35.752 hectares (88.35 acres) 13 Arakawadake from Shiomidake 2000-7-9.jpg
Amami Guntō National Park 2017 Kyūshū 42.181 hectares (104.23 acres) Mangrove in amami.JPG
Ashizuri-Uwakai National Park 1972 Shikoku 11.345 hectares (28.03 acres) Ashizurimisaki-cape 01.JPG
Aso Kujū National Park 1934 Kyūshū 72.678 hectares (179.59 acres) Aso Nakadake 20150920.jpg
Bandai-Asahi National Park 1950 Tōhoku 186.389 hectares (460.58 acres) Bishamon Pond With Mount Bandai.JPG
Chichibu Tama Kai National Park 1950 Kantō 126.259 hectares (311.99 acres) Mt.Kobushigatake from Mt.Tokusa 03.jpg
Chūbu-Sangaku National Park 1934 Chūbu 174.323 hectares (430.76 acres) Mount Tate and Mount Tsurugi from Mount Nunobiki.jpg
Daisen-Oki National Park 1936 Chūgoku 35.353 hectares (87.36 acres) Daisen in Autumn.jpg
Daisetsuzan National Park 1934 Hokkaidō 226.764 hectares (560.35 acres) Daisetsusan national park 2005-08.JPG
Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park 1936 Kantō 121.695 hectares (300.71 acres) Fujisan from kenashiyama 01 1994 11 27.jpg
Hakusan National Park 1962 Chūbu 11.345 hectares (28.03 acres) Hakusan01.JPG
Iriomote-Ishigaki National Park 1972 Kyūshū 40.653 hectares (100.46 acres) Kabira Bay Ishigaki Island30s3s4592.jpg
Ise-Shima National Park 1946 Kinki 55.544 hectares (137.25 acres) Ago Bay and sunrise s3.JPG
Jōshin'etsu-kōgen National Park 1949 Kantō 148.194 hectares (366.20 acres) Mount Tanigawa 01.jpg
Kerama Shotō National Park 2014 Kyūshū 3,520 hectares (8,700 acres) Furuzamami beach Okinawa Zamami.jpg
Kirishima-Kinkowan National Park 1934 Kyūshū 36.586 hectares (90.41 acres) Summit of Sakurajima.jpg
Kushiro-shitsugen National Park 1987 Hokkaidō 28.788 hectares (71.14 acres) Kushirositsugen Hosooka Tenboudai01.jpg
Myōkō-Togakushi Renzan National Park 2015 Chūbu 39.772 hectares (98.28 acres) Lake Nojiri.JPG
Nikkō National Park 1934 Kantō 114.908 hectares (283.94 acres) Lake chuzenji and kegon waterfall.jpg
Ogasawara National Park 1972 Kantō 6,629 hectares (16,380 acres) Ogasawara Islands, Tokyo, Japan.jpg
Oze National Park 1972 Tōhoku 37.200 hectares (91.92 acres) Mountains in Oze National Park.JPG
Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park 1974 Hokkaidō 24.166 hectares (59.72 acres) Mt Rishiri.jpg
Saikai National Park 1955 Kyūshū 24.646 hectares (60.90 acres) Shiodawara cliff.JPG
Sanin Kaigan National Park 1936 Kinki 8,783 hectares (21,700 acres) Uradome Coast Sengan-Matsushima.JPG
Sanriku Fukkō National Park 1955 Tōhoku 28.537 hectares (70.52 acres) Jyoudogahama.jpg
Setonaikai National Park 1934 Kinki, Chūgoku, Shikoku, Kyushu (Joint management) 67.242 hectares (166.16 acres) Harbor View Park Hinase Bizen Okayama Pref Japan03bs.jpg
Shikotsu-Tōya National Park 1949 Hokkaidō 99.473 hectares (245.80 acres) Lake Shikotsu Mt Monbetsu03n3200.jpg
Shiretoko National Park 1964 Hokkaidō 38.636 hectares (95.47 acres) Waterfall of Kamuiwakka 01.JPG
Towada-Hachimantai National Park 1936 Tōhoku 85.534 hectares (211.36 acres) 玉山からの岩手山と八幡平 Mt. Iwate ^ Hachimantai Plateau from Tamayama - panoramio.jpg
Unzen-Amakusa National Park 1934 Kyūshū 28.279 hectares (69.88 acres) Fugendake 02 Pyroplastic flow area.JPG
Yakushima National Park 2012 Kyūshū 32.553 hectares (80.44 acres) Shiratani Unsui Gorge 18.jpg
Yanbaru National Park 2016 Kyūshū 13.622 hectares (33.66 acres) Hedo Utaki.jpg
Yoshino-Kumano National Park 1936 Kinki 61.406 hectares (151.74 acres) Hashiguiiwa Stones.jpg

List of Quasi-National Parks[edit]

Hokkaidō[edit]

Tōhoku[edit]

Kantō[edit]

Chūbu[edit]

Kansai[edit]

Chūgoku and Shikoku[edit]

Kyūshū[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Natural Parks Act (1957)" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  2. ^ "Natural Park Systems in Japan" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. pp. 4, 12. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  3. ^ Kanda Koji. "Landscapes of National Parks in Taiwan During the Japanese Colonial Period" (PDF). Osaka City University. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  4. ^ Sutherland, Mary; Britton, Dorothy (1995). National Parks of Japan. Kodansha. pp. 6f. ISBN 4-7700-1971-8.
  5. ^ "Natural Park Systems in Japan" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. pp. 1f. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  6. ^ "Summary table of area figures for Natural Parks" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  7. ^ "Birth of Myoko Togakushi Renzan National Park". Ministry of the Environment. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  8. ^ やんばる国立公園について [About Yanbaru National Park - Summary] (in Japanese). Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  9. ^ 奄美群島国立公園(仮称)の指定及び公園計画の決定等に関する意見の募集について [Consultation about the Establishment of Amami Guntō National Park] (in Japanese). Ministry of the Environment. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  10. ^ "京都丹波高原国定公園の指定日について" (in Japanese). Ministry of the Environment. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  11. ^ "Natural Park Systems in Japan" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. pp. 2f. Retrieved 1 February 2012.

External links[edit]