|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
A prelude (Germ. Präludium or Vorspiel; Lat. praeludium; Fr. prélude; It. preludio"; Pt. "prelúdio) is a short piece of music, the form of which may vary from piece to piece. The prelude may be thought of as a preface. While, during the Baroque era, for example, it may have served as an introduction to succeeding movements of a work that were usually longer and more complex, it may also have been a standalone piece of work during the Romantic era. It generally features a small number of rhythmic and melodic motifs that recur through the piece. Stylistically, the prelude is improvisatory in nature. The prelude also may refer to an overture, particularly to those seen in an opera or an oratorio.
The first preludes to be notated were organ pieces that were played to introduce church music, the earliest surviving examples being five brief praeambula in the Ileborgh Tablature of 1448. These were closely followed by freely composed preludes in an extemporary style for the lute and other Renaissance string instruments, which were originally used for warming up the fingers and checking the instrument's tuning and sound quality, as in a group of pieces by Joan Ambrosio Dalza published in 1508 under the heading tastar de corde (in Italian, literally, "testing of the strings").
Keyboard preludes started appearing in the 17th century in France: unmeasured preludes, in which the duration of each note is left to the performer, were used as introductory movements in harpsichord suites. Louis Couperin (c.1626–1661) was the first composer to embrace the genre, and harpsichord preludes were used until the first half of the 18th century by numerous composers including Jean-Henri d'Anglebert (1629–1691), Élisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre (1665–1729), François Couperin (1668–1733) and Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683–1764), whose very first printed piece (1706) was in this form. The last unmeasured preludes for harpsichord date from the 1720s.
The development of the prelude in 17th century Germany led to a sectional form similar to keyboard toccatas by Johann Jakob Froberger or Girolamo Frescobaldi. Preludes by northern German composers such as Dieterich Buxtehude (c.1637–1707) and Nikolaus Bruhns (c.1665–1697) combined sections of free improvised passages with parts in strict contrapuntal writing (usually brief fugues). Outside Germany, Abraham van den Kerckhoven (c.1618–c.1701), one of the most important Dutch composers of the period, used this model for some of his preludes. Southern and central German composers did not follow the sectional model and their preludes remained improvisational in character with little or no strict counterpoint.
During the second half of the 17th century, German composers started pairing preludes (or sometimes toccatas) with fugues in the same key; Johann Pachelbel (c.1653–1706) was one of the first to do so, although Johann Sebastian Bach's (1685–1750) "prelude and fugue" pieces are much more numerous and well-known today. Bach's organ preludes are quite diverse, drawing on both southern and northern German influences. Most of Bach's preludes were written in the theme and variation form, using the same theme motif with imitation, inversion, modulation, or retrograde the theme as well as other techniques involved in this baroque form.
Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer was one of the first German composers to bring the late 17th-century French style to German harpsichord music, replacing the standard French ouverture with an unmeasured prelude. Fischer's Ariadne musica is a cycle of keyboard music which consists of pairs of preludes and fugues; the preludes are quite varied and do not conform to any particular model. Ariadne musica served as a precursor to Johann Sebastian Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, two books of 24 "prelude and fugue" pairs each. Bach's preludes were also varied, some akin to Baroque dances, others being two- and three-part contrapuntal works not unlike his inventions and sinfonias. Bach also composed preludes to introduce each of his English Suites.
The Well-Tempered Clavier influenced many composers in the coming centuries, some of whom wrote preludes in sets of 12 or 24, sometimes with the intention of utilizing all 24 major and minor keys as Bach had done. Frédéric Chopin (1810–1849) wrote a set of 24 preludes, Op. 28, often composed in a simple ternary form, which liberated the prelude from its original introductory purpose and allowed it to serve as an independent concert piece. While other pianist-composers, including Muzio Clementi, Johann Nepomuk Hummel and Ignaz Moscheles, had previously published collections of preludes for the benefit of pianists unskilled at improvisatory preluding, Chopin's set renewed the genre.
Chopin's set served as a model for other collections of 24 or 25 piano preludes in the major and minor keys, including those by Charles-Valentin Alkan (Op. 31 for piano or organ), Ferrucio Busoni (Op. 37, BV 181), César Cui (Op. 64), Stephen Heller (Op. 81), and Alexander Scriabin (Op. 11). Claude Debussy (1862–1918) wrote two books of impressionistic piano preludes which, unusually in this genre, carry descriptive titles. Chopin's conception of the prelude as an unattached character piece expressing a mood rather than a specific musical programme extended into the 20th century with works by composers such as George Antheil, George Gershwin, Alberto Ginastera, Dmitry Kabalevsky, Bohuslav Martinů, Olivier Messiaen, Sergei Rachmaninoff (who also completed an entire set), Giacinto Scelsi and Karol Szymanowski.
Preludes were also incorporated by some 20th-century composers into Baroque-inspired suites: such "attached" preludes include Maurice Ravel's Le tombeau de Couperin (1914/17) and Arnold Schoenberg's Suite for piano, Op. 25 (1921/23), both of which begin with an introductory prelude (Schoenberg’s choral introduction to the Genesis Suite is a rare case of an attached prelude written in the 20th century without any neo-baroque intent). As well as a series of unattached piano preludes (Op. 2), Dmitri Shostakovich composed a set of 24 Preludes and Fugues in the tradition of Bach's The Well Tempered Clavier.
Some avant-garde composers have also produced unattached preludes. John Cage's brief Prelude for Meditation is written for prepared piano, while François-Bernard Mâche's Prélude (1959) and Branimir Sakač's Aleatory Prelude (1961) call on electronic resources and aleatoric techniques.
Notable collections of preludes
- J.C.F. Fischer's Ariadne musica (1702), contained 20 preludes and fugues in 19 different keys.
- Johann Sebastian Bach wrote the two volumes of The Well-Tempered Clavier (1722, 1744). Both volumes contain 24 preludes (and associated fugues) proceeding up the chromatic scale with alternating parallel major and minor keys (C major and C minor; C♯ major and C♯ minor; D major and D minor; etc.).
- Ludwig van Beethoven wrote two sets of preludes, Op. 39, as a teenager; each one cycles through all of the major keys of the piano.
- Frédéric Chopin wrote 24 Preludes, Op. 28, which cycle through all of the major and minor keys. The odd numbered preludes are in major keys, starting with C major, and each is followed by a prelude in the relative minor key. The paired preludes proceed through the circle of fifths (C major and A minor; G major and E minor; D major and B minor; etc.). Most can be played as a stand-alone piece.
- Julian Cochran wrote three volumes of preludes, many with an Impressionistic character, and increasing in complexity and length through each volume.
- Charles-Valentin Alkan wrote a set of 25 Preludes, Op. 31, published in 1847. His key scheme differs from Chopin's in that the major keys ascend chromatically and are followed by their respective minor subdominants, though Alkan also starts on C major. The last piece returns to C major, hence the additional prelude (a device Alkan repeated in the Esquisses, Op. 63, and that César Cui employed in his own 25 Preludes, Op. 64). As a further distinction between his and Chopin's sets, Alkan provides programmatic titles for several of his preludes, including the most famous of the set, La chanson de la folle au bord de la mer (The Song of the Madwoman by the Seashore).
- Felix Blumenfeld composed a set of 24 Preludes, Op. 17 in 1892, following Chopin's key scheme, as well as a set of four, Op. 12.
- Alexander Scriabin wrote 24 Preludes, Op. 11 in 1896, and numerous shorter sets of preludes. He followed the same pattern as the Chopin preludes.
- Sergei Rachmaninoff, wrote a prelude, Op. 3, No. 2, in 1892 followed by Ten Preludes, Op. 23 (1903) and Thirteen Preludes, Op. 32 (1910) for a total of twenty-four preludes in all the major and minor keys; he also composed a Prelude in D minor, without opus number, in 1917 (there is yet another among his early unpublished works). The two most famous of these are the Prelude in C♯ minor and the Prelude in G minor.
- Claude Debussy wrote two books of 12 Préludes, Book 1 (1910) and Book 2 (1913), for a total of 24 preludes. The title of the prelude is given at the end of the piece, while a Roman numeral serves as the heading.
- Marcel Dupré's excursions in the genre include a set of six preludes for piano (1916) and eight short preludes on Gregorian themes for organ (1948), in addition to two sets of three preludes and fugues for organ (1912 and 1938).
- Olivier Messiaen's set of eight piano preludes (1929) developed from the Impressionism of Debussy's piano music.
- Paul Hindemith wrote Ludus Tonalis (1940), a prelude, 11 interludes, and a postlude, all separated by 12 fugues.
- Alberto Ginastera wrote a cycle of 12 American Preludes (Doce Preludios Americanos) (1946).
- Dmitri Shostakovich wrote a cycle of 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 87 in 1951, as well as an earlier set of 24 Preludes, Op. 34 (1933), for piano.
- Nikolai Kapustin has written 24 Preludes in Jazz Style, Op. 53, and later a set of 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 82.
- Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote 5 Preludes for guitar (1940), which have become popular repertory pieces. A sixth prelude is lost.
- Sergio Antonio del Rio wrote a Prelude for his teacher Elsa Berner, Preludio a Elsa Berner, (1982) for piano, published in Fabian Norman Verlag 2009.
- Lera Auerbach wrote three full sets of 24 Preludes, which cycle through all of the major and minor keys, for piano solo, violin and piano, and cello and piano respectively (2003).
- David Garrett has written a Rock Prelude.
- Ledbetter, David; Ferguson, Howard. "Prelude". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Retrieved 22 January 2014. (subscription required)
- Fabris, Dinko. "Tastar de corde". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Retrieved 22 January 2014. (subscription required)
- Taruskin, Richard (24 June 2009). "The Chopinesque Miniature". The Oxford History of Western Music: Music in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 333–338. ISBN 978-0-19-979602-1.
- Stephen Pleskun (2012). A Chronological History of Australian Composers and Their Compositions - Vol. 3. Xlibris Corporation.
- Howat, Roy. The Art of French Piano Music: Debussy, Ravel, Faure, Chabrier. 2009. Print.
- A.B. Wenk : Claude Debussy and Twentieth-Century Music (Boston, 1983)