Premenstrual water retention

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Premenstrual water retention (or premenstrual fluid retention) is a common phenomenon associated with the menstrual cycle. It consists of the retention of water during the period of time immediately preceding the menstrual cycle (that is, the latter half of the luteal phase, or the week before menstruation).[1] This water retention is most noticeable for its temporary enlargement of the breasts. The excess fluid is lost during menstruation. During this event, the water retention can store enough extra fluid to add an extra 5–6 pounds (2.3–2.7 kg) of weight.[citation needed] The phenomenon is thought to be caused by high levels of circulating progesterone, as well as of estrogen and prolactin, stimulating secretory cells in the body and in the breasts.[2][3][4] In the breasts, increased blood flow is also thought to be involved.[5] Water retention and breast swelling can also be caused by hormonal contraceptives (which contain estrogen and/or a progestogen).[6]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Theresa Hornstein; Jeri Schwerin (1 January 2012). Biology of Women. Cengage Learning. pp. 147–. ISBN 1-4354-0033-X. 
  2. ^ Lee-Ellen C. Copstead-Kirkhorn; Jacquelyn L. Banasik (25 June 2014). Pathophysiology. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 660–. ISBN 978-0-323-29317-4. 
  3. ^ Farage MA, Neill S, MacLean AB (2009). "Physiological changes associated with the menstrual cycle: a review". Obstet Gynecol Surv. 64 (1): 58–72. doi:10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181932a37. PMID 19099613. 
  4. ^ Charlotte Pooler (1 October 2009). Porth Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1075,1107. ISBN 978-1-60547-781-7. 
  5. ^ Valerie Andolina; Shelly Lillé (2011). Mammographic Imaging: A Practical Guide. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-1-60547-031-3. 
  6. ^ Phyllis Carolyn Leppert; Jeffrey F. Peipert (2004). Primary Care for Women. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3790-6.