Premenstrual water retention

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Premenstrual water retention (or premenstrual fluid retention) is felt by some women before the onset menstruation. No evidence supports actual water or sodium retention however.[1] Even though the phenomenon does not appear to be correlated to serum levels of progesterone or estradiol according to actual data,[2] it is thought to be caused by high levels of circulating progesterone, estrogen, and prolactin, which stimulate secretory cells in the body.[3][4][5] In the breasts, increased blood flow may be involved.[6] A sensation of water retention and breast swelling may also be caused by hormonal contraceptives (which contain estrogen and a progestogen).[7]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Shaw, Robert W.; Luesley, David; Monga, Ash K. (2010). Gynaecology E-Book: Expert Consult: Online and Print. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-7020-4838-8.
  2. ^ White, Colin P.; Hitchcock, Christine L.; Vigna, Yvette M.; Prior, Jerilynn C. (2011). "Fluid Retention over the Menstrual Cycle: 1-Year Data from the Prospective Ovulation Cohort". Obstetrics and Gynecology International. 2011: 138451. doi:10.1155/2011/138451. PMC 3154522. PMID 21845193.
  3. ^ Lee-Ellen C. Copstead-Kirkhorn; Jacquelyn L. Banasik (25 June 2014). Pathophysiology. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 660–. ISBN 978-0-323-29317-4.
  4. ^ Farage MA, Neill S, MacLean AB (2009). "Physiological changes associated with the menstrual cycle: a review". Obstet Gynecol Surv. 64 (1): 58–72. doi:10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181932a37. PMID 19099613. S2CID 22293838.
  5. ^ Charlotte Pooler (1 October 2009). Porth Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1075, 1107. ISBN 978-1-60547-781-7.
  6. ^ Valerie Andolina; Shelly Lillé (2011). Mammographic Imaging: A Practical Guide. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-1-60547-031-3.
  7. ^ Phyllis Carolyn Leppert; Jeffrey F. Peipert (2004). Primary Care for Women. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3790-6.