Premiers of the Australian states

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The Premiers of the Australian states are the de facto heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia. They perform the same function at the state level as the Prime Minister of Australia performs at the national level. The territory equivalents to the Premiers are the Chief Ministers of the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. The Queen of Australia and the State Governors are the formal repositories of executive power, however, in practice they act only on the advice of State Premiers and Ministers.

Background[edit]

Each of the Australian states is governed under the Westminster system of parliamentary government. Each state has an elected legislature. Following a General Election, the State Governor appoints as Premier the Member of the lower house of the State legislature who can command a simple majority of votes on the floor of the house. The Governor is the head of Government, but in practice acts only on the advice of the Premier. The Premier must resign his or her commission to the Governor if he or she loses the confidence of the Legislative Assembly, either because his or her party is defeated at a General Election or because he or she loses a vote of confidence in the house. (Premiers may also resign for other reasons, such as losing the confidence of their own party).

The Australian states were originally founded as British colonies, and executive power was held by a Governor (or sometimes a Lieutenant-Governor) appointed by the British Government (see Governors of the Australian states). From the 1820s the power of the Governors was gradually transferred to legislative bodies, at first appointed, later partly elected, and finally fully elected. Victoria gained full responsible parliamentary government in 1855, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania in 1856, Queensland in 1859 and Western Australia (owing to its much smaller population) in 1890.

Until the rise of the Australian Labor Party in the 1890s, the Australian colonies did not have formal party systems, although many colonial politicians called themselves Liberals or Conservatives. Ministries were usually formed on the basis of personal or factional loyalties, and rose and fell with great frequency as loyalties changed. Colonial politics were commonly regarded as parochial, corrupt and cynical, and in many cases they were. Victorian Premier James Munro, for example, fled the colony to escape his creditors in 1890, and Queensland Premier Sir Thomas McIlwraith was notoriously corrupt.

The rise of Labor forced the colonies to move towards a two-party system of Labor versus non-Labor, although state politics remained more personalised and less ideological than national politics for many years. The first minority Labor government was formed by Anderson Dawson in Queensland in 1899, and the first majority Labor government was led by James McGowen in New South Wales in 1910. Since about 1910 state politics have followed much the same party pattern as Australian national politics (see Politics of Australia).

Since 1952, every premier of every state has been a member of the Australian Labor Party, the Liberal Party of Australia, or the National Party of Australia (until 1973, the Liberal Party was known as the Liberal and Country League in South Australia; the Country Liberal Party is the Northern Territory branch of the Liberal and National Parties; and the Liberal National Party has been the Queensland branch of the same two parties since 2008).

Political parties of Prime Ministers and Premiers since 1945.
  Labor
  Liberal
  National/Country
  Other Coalition
  Other
  No government

Although the legislative powers of the states are defined in the Constitution, the real power of the Australian Premiers has been declining steadily ever since Federation in 1901, as the power and responsibility of the national government has expanded at the expense of the states. The most important transfer of power came in 1943, when in the interests of national unity during World War II the states gave up their power to levy their own income taxes to the Commonwealth. Since then the states' finances have essentially been controlled by the Commonwealth.

Relations between the premiers and other levels of government[edit]

For many decades, the Premiers met with each other and the Prime Minister at Premiers' Conferences. Since 1992, such meetings occur as the Council of Australian Governments (COAG), which also includes the Chief Ministers of the territories and a representative of local government.

On 21 July 2006, South Australian Premier Mike Rann was appointed Chairman of a new Council for the Australian Federation, a council which aims to improve state-federal ties.[1]

Female premiers[edit]

With the exception of South Australia, every state of Australia has had a female Premier, all of whom have represented the Australian Labor Party. They are:

All but Palaszczuk succeeded male Premiers of their own party who had resigned mid-term; in three cases (Lawrence, Kirner and Keneally), their predecessors' resignations occurred after losing the support of their parliamentary colleagues. The governments led by Lawrence, Kirner, Keneally and Giddings were defeated at subsequent elections.

Anna Bligh and Annastacia Palaszczuk are the only women who have received a popular mandate as Premier of an Australian state (21 March 2009 and 31 January 2015). Palaszczuk is also the first woman to have led a party from Opposition to Government.

Women have also been elected to the almost-equivalent posts of Chief Ministers of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). Rosemary Follett (Labor) was elected as the inaugural Chief Minister of the ACT in 1989, nine months before any woman became premier of a state. Kate Carnell (Liberal) and Clare Martin (Labor) also received popular mandates as Chief Ministers of the ACT and the NT respectively. Clare Martin was the only one of these three women to lead a majority government.

Party dominance[edit]

Between 6 March 2002 (when Mike Rann (Labor) succeeded Rob Kerin (Liberal) as Premier of South Australia) and 23 September 2008, when Colin Barnett succeeded Alan Carpenter as Premier of Western Australia, there were Labor Premiers in all six of the Australian states; this was only the second time a party or coalition has ever achieved this. A comparable feat was achieved by the Coalition between 26 May 1969 (when the Liberals' Angus Bethune succeeded Labor's Eric Reece as Premier of Tasmania) and 2 June 1970 (when the Liberals' Steele Hall was succeeded by Labor's Don Dunstan as Premier of South Australia).



Current state Premiers[edit]

Name Image State Term Party Title
Colin Barnett Colin Barnett (formal) crop.jpg Western Australia 23 September 2008 (2008-09-23)
6 years, 315 days
Liberal Party Premier of Western Australia
Jay Weatherill Jay Weatherill crop.jpg South Australia 21 October 2011 (2011-10-21)
3 years, 287 days
Labor Party Premier of South Australia
Will Hodgman Will Hodgman apples cropped.jpg Tasmania 31 March 2014 (2014-03-31)
1 year, 126 days
Liberal Party Premier of Tasmania
Mike Baird Premier of New South Wales Mike Baird.jpg New South Wales 17 April 2014 (2014-04-17)
1 year, 109 days
Liberal Party Premier of New South Wales
Daniel Andrews Daniel Andrews at Kew Festival (cropped).jpg Victoria 4 December 2014 (2014-12-04)
243 days
Labor Party Premier of Victoria
Annastacia Palaszczuk Queensland 14 February 2015 (2015-02-14)
171 days
Labor Party Premier of Queensland

Current Chief Ministers of the self-governing territories[edit]

Name Image Territory Term Party Title
Andrew Barr Andrew Barr.jpg Australian Capital Territory 11 December 2014 (2014-12-11)
236 days
Australian Labor Party Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory
Adam Giles Adam Giles.jpg Northern Territory 14 March 2013 (2013-03-14)
2 years, 144 days
Country Liberal Party Chief Minister of the Northern Territory
Lisle Snell Norfolk Island 20 March 2013 (2013-03-20)
2 years, 137 days
Chief Minister of Norfolk Island

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About Us". Council for the Australian Federation. Retrieved 14 June 2013.