The permanent teeth, viewed from the right.
Permanent teeth of right half of lower dental arch, seen from above.
The premolar teeth, or bicuspids, are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. In humans, there are two premolars per quadrant in the permanent set of teeth, making eight premolars total in the mouth. They have at least two cusps. Premolars can be considered as 'transitional teeth' during chewing, or mastication. They have properties of both the anterior canines and posterior molars, and so food can be transferred from the canines to the premolars and finally to the molars for grinding, instead of directly from the canines to the molars.
Molar teeth by definition are permanent teeth distal to the canines, preceded by deciduous premolars. In primitive placental mammals there are four premolars per quadrant. The most mesial two have been lost in catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes, including humans). Paleontologists refer to human premolars as Pm3 and Pm4.
- Roger Warwick & Peter L. Williams, eds. (1973), Gray’s Anatomy (35th ed.), London: Longman, pp. 1218–1220
- Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E (1985), Human Biology and Behaviour: An anthropological perspective (4th ed.), Boston: Little Brown, pp. 132–135, 198–199, ISBN 0-673-39013-6
- Glanze, W.D., Anderson, K.N., & Anderson, L.E, eds. (1990), Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary (3rd ed.), St. Louis, Missouri: The C.V. Mosby Co., p. 957, ISBN 0-8016-3227-7
- Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E. (1985), pp.132-134
- Warwick, R., & Williams, P.L. (1973), p.1219.
- Warwick, R., & Williams, P.L. (1973), pp.1218-1219.
- Christopher Dean (1994). "Jaws and teeth". In Steve Jones, Robert Martin & David Pilbeam (eds.). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 56–59. ISBN 0-521-32370-3. Also ISBN 0-521-46786-1 (paperback)