Presidency of Jair Bolsonaro

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Presidente Jair Messias Bolsonaro.jpg
Presidency of Jair Bolsonaro
Starting 1 January 2019 – (Incumbent)
PartySocial Liberal Party
Temer presidency •
Brazilian Government's logo (Jair Messias Bolsonaro).svg
Logo of Bolsonaro's administration. Slogan: Our beloved homeland, Brasil

The presidency of Jair Bolsonaro started on 1 January 2019.[1] Jair Bolsonaro was elected the 38th president of Brazil on 28 October 2018 by obtaining 55.1% of the valid votes in the 2018 Brazilian general election, defeating Fernando Haddad.[2]

Background[edit]

President-elect Bolsonaro meets then-current President Michel Temer
President-elect Bolsonaro attending the congressional celebration of the 30th anniversary of the Constitution in 2018

Bolsonaro, at the time of his election, was a 27-year member of Congress and his victory is supposedly reflective of the country's widespread anger at the political class, and years of corruption in politics, economic recession and a surge in violence.[3] According to sociologist Clara Araújo, “the dissatisfaction over the economic crisis, it seems to me, was channeled along with a discourse about conservative morals”.[4] The economy of Brazil is recovering from a deep crisis, with a unemployment rate of 12% at the time of the election, double of that of five years ago. The crisis was caused, among other factors, by weak commodity prices. However, external shocks helped reveal underlying weaknesses in economy, which include poor infrastructure, excessive bureaucracy, an inefficient tax system and corruption.[5]

Cabinet and appointments[edit]

On 11 October 2018, days before his election victory, Bolsonaro had already announced DEM congressman Onyx Lorenzoni as the future Chief of Staff in his cabinet.[6] On 31 October, President-elect Bolsonaro announced astronaut Marcos Pontes as the future Minister of Science and Technology; as of that date, he had already confirmed two other ministerial nominations: Paulo Guedes as Economy minister, and Augusto Heleno as Defense minister.[7] However, on 7 November, Augusto Heleno was appointed to the Institutional Security Office of Brazil.[8] On the first day of November, Bolsonaro confirmed that anti-graft judge Sérgio Moro had accepted his invitation to serve as Justice minister. The decision drew backlash from the international press because Moro had convicted Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Bolsonaro's chief political rival in the election, for money laundering and corruption.[9][10]

On 11 November 2018, O Estado de S. Paulo released a story stating that Bolsonaro's team has chosen World Bank director and former Finance minister Joaquim Levy to head the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES).[11] A report was later issued by Folha de S. Paulo that Bolsonaro has yet to confirm the nomination of Levy to the post.[12] A press release from Paulo Guedes's team, released the next day, confirmed Levy's appointment.[13] On 15 November 2018, economist Roberto Campos Neto was named as the future Central Bank governor.[14]

In December 2018 the final composition has emerged after weeks of announcements and appointments. The cabinet will include 22 personnel, of which 16 are ministers, two are cabinet-level positions and four are secretaries directly linked to the presidency.[15] The 22 figure is down from 29 in the outgoing administration. Seven of the ministers will be military men; eight have technocrat profiles; and seven are politicians. Hindustan Times commented that "there are just two women in Bolsonaro’s government, which is double the number in the outgoing lineup under President Michel Temer", and that "there are no blacks, despite half of Brazil’s population being at least partly descended from Africans.[16]

The Bolsonaro cabinet on Inauguration Day, 1 January 2019
Cabinet
Office Incumbent Party Announced on Notes
Chief of Staff Onyx Lorenzoni.JPG Onyx Lorenzoni DEM 11 October 2018 [17]
Minister of the Economy Paulo Guedes no Reporter NBR (cropped).jpg Paulo Guedes 11 October 2018 [17]
Minister of Science and Technology Marcos Pontes2.jpg Tenente-Coronel Aeronautica.gif Lieutenant Colonel (Ret.) Marcos Pontes PSL 30 October 2018 [18]
Minister of Justice and Public Security Juiz-sergio-moro-reforma-código-penal-Foto -Lula-Marques- Agência-PT-3.jpg Sérgio Moro 1 November 2018 [19]
Minister of Agriculture Tereza Cristina Corrêa da Costa Dias (cropped).jpg Tereza Cristina DEM 7 November 2018 [20]
Secretary of Institutional Security Augusto Heleno (2007) (cropped).jpg General do Exército.gif General (Ret.) Augusto Heleno PEN 7 November 2018 [21]
Minister of Defence General fernando azevedo e silva autoridade olimpica (cropped).jpg General do Exército.gif General (Ret.) Fernando Azevedo e Silva 13 November 2018 [22]
Minister of Foreign Affairs link=https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ernesto Araújo Senado.jpg Ernesto Araújo 14 November 2018 [23]
President of the Central Bank Sin foto.svg Roberto Campos Neto 16 November 2018 [24]
Minister of Transparency, Supervision and Control Wagner Rosário ministro.jpg Capitão.png Captain (Ret.) Wagner de Campos Rosário 20 November 2018 [25]
Minister of Health Luiz Henrique Mandetta.jpg Primeiro-Tenente.gif Lieutenant (Ret.) Luiz Henrique Mandetta DEM 20 November 2018 [26]
Attorney General of the Union Sin foto.svg André Luiz de Almeida Mendonça 21 November 2018 [27]
Secretary-General of the Presidency Sin foto.svg Gustavo Bebianno PSL 21 November 2018 [28]
Minister of Education Sin foto.svg Ricardo Vélez Rodríguez - 22 November 2018 [29]
Secretary of Government Press conference with SRSG Roger Meece and Force Commander Alberto Dos Santos Cruz in Goma (9026655792) (cropped).jpg Insígnia de General de Divisão.gif Lieutenant General (Ret.) Santos Cruz - 26 November 2018 [30]
Minister of Infrastructure CI - Comissão de Serviços de Infraestrutura (40381627071) (cropped).jpg Capitão.png Captain (Ret.) Tarcísio Gomes de Freitas - 27 November 2018 [31]
Minister of Regional Development Sin foto.svg Gustavo Henrique Rigodanzo Canuto - 28 November 2018 [32]
Minister of Tourism Deputado Federal Marcelo Álvaro Antônio - PR-MG (cropped).jpg Marcelo Álvaro Antônio PSL 28 November 2018 [33]
Minister of Citizenship Osmar Terra em 12 de maio de 2016 (cropped).jpg Osmar Terra MDB 28 November 2018 [34]
Minister of Mines and Energy BentoCostaJr.jpg AlmirantedeEsquadra MB.png Admiral Bento Costa Lima Leite de Albuquerque - 30 November 2018 [35]
Minister of Human Rights, Family and Women Sin foto.svg Damares Alves - 30 November 2018 [36]
Minister of the Environment Sin foto.svg Ricardo Salles NOVO 9 December 2018 [37]
Non-cabinet positions
Office Name Party Announcement Notes
Security, Legal Affairs and Police
Federal Police of Brazil Director-General Maurício Valeixo 20 November 2018 [38]
Department of Asset Recovery and International Legal Cooperation Erika Mialik Marena 20 November 2018 [39]
Presidency Deputy Officer for Legal Affairs 3 - major.jpg Military Police Major Jorge Antonio de Oliveira Francisco - 23 November 2018 [40]
Secretary of Integrated Police Operations Rosalvo Franco 26 November 2018 [41]
National Prison Department Fabiano Bordignon 26 November 2018 [41]
Council for Financial Activities Control Roberto Leonel 30 November 2018 [42]
National Secretary for Drug Policy Luiz Roberto Beggiora 30 November 2018 [43]
Executive Secretary of the Ministry of Justice Luiz Pontel 4 December 2018 [44]
National Secretary of Public Security General do Exército.gif General (Ret.) Guilherme Theophilo 4 December 2018 [44]
National Secretary of Consumer Protection Luciano Benetti Timm 7 December 2018 [45]
Federal Highway Police Adriano Marcos Furtado 7 December 2018 [46]
Armed Forces
Brazilian Army General do Exército.gif General Edson Leal Pujol - 21 November 2018 [47]
Brazilian Navy AlmirantedeEsquadra MB.png Admiral Ilques Barbosa Júnior - 21 November 2018 [48]
Brazilian Air Force Tenente-brigadeiro FAB.gif Lieutenant-Brigadier Antônio Carlos Moretti Bermudez - 21 November 2018 [49]
Joint Staff of the Armed Forces Tenente-brigadeiro FAB.gif Lieutenant-Brigadier Raul Botelho - 22 November 2018 [50]
Finances
Secretary of the National Treasury Mansueto Almeida - 15 November 2018 [51]
Institute of Applied Economic Research Carlos von Doellinger - 22 November 2018 [52]
Secretary of Privatization and Investments Salim Mattar - 23 November 2018 [53]
Investment and Partnership Program General do Exército.gif General (Ret.) Maynard Marques Santa Rosa - 27 November 2018 [54]
Special Secretary of the Federal Revenue and Social Security Marcos Cintra - 30 November 2018 [55]
Special Secretary for Foreign Trade and International Affairs Marcos Troyjo - 30 November 2018 [55]
Secretary General of Finance Waldery Rodrigues Júnior - 8 December 2018 [56]
Assistant Secretary of Finance Esteves Colnago - 8 December 2018 [56]
General Secretary of Debureaucratization, Management and Digital Government Paulo Uebel - 8 December 2018 [56]
Deputy Secretary of Debureaucratization, Management and Digital Government Gleisson Cardoso Rubin - 8 December 2018 [56]
General Secretary for Productivity and Competitiveness Carlos da Costa - 8 December 2018 [56]
Deputy Secretary of Finance Marcelo Guaranys - 8 December 2018 [56]
State-owned enterprises
Brazilian Development Bank Joaquim Levy - 11 November 2018 [57]
Petrobras Roberto Castello Branco - 19 November 2018 [58]
Caixa Econômica Federal Pedro Guimarães - 22 November 2018 [59]
Banco do Brasil Rubem Novaes - 22 November 2018 [60]
Infraero Tenente-brigadeiro FAB.gif Lieutenant-Brigadier (Ret.) Hélio Paes de Barros Júnior 13 de december 2018 [61]
Other Departments
Special Secretary of Social Communication Insígnia de General de Brigada.gif Brigadier general (Ret.) Floriano Peixoto Vieira Neto - 27 November 2018 [54]
Executive Secretary of Agriculture Marcos Montes PSD 27 November 2018 [62]
Secretary of Sports Insígnia de General de Divisão.gif Lieutenant General (Ret.) Marco Aurélio Costa Vieira 30 November 2018 [63]
Secretary of Work Management and Health Education Mayra Pinheiro PSDB 6 December 2018 [64]
Executive Secretary of the Ministry of Environment Ana Pellini - 19 December 2018
National Secretary of Civil Protection and Defense Alexandre Lucas - 20 December 2018
Secretary of the Social Development Lelo Coimbra MDB 20 December 2018
Secretary of Culture Henrique Medeiros Pires - 20 December 2018
Executive Secretary of the Ministry of Citizenship Tatiana Alvarenga - 20 December 2018

Domestic policy[edit]

In one of his first actions as president, Bolsonaro increased the minimum wage from R$954 to R$998. Within days of assuming office, Bolsonaro transferred land reform duties from the National Indigenous Foundation (FUNAI) to the Ministry of Agriculture. Most of the remaining duties previously assigned to FUNAI are now part of the Ministry of Women, Family and Human Rights.[65]

Gun policy[edit]

President Bolsonaro issued a decree to facilitate gun ownership in Brazil on 15 January 2019. The decree, signed by Bolsonaro in an event at Planalto Palace, extends valid ownership period from five to ten years, and allows citizens to own up to four firearms. The decree loosens restrictions for gun possession, but does not affect those for gun carry. In order to own a firearm, a citizen will have to provide proof of the "existence of a safe or a secure location for storage" of the weapon at home. Requirements for possession such as passing training courses and background checks remain, as does the minimum age requirement of 25 years.[66]

Foreign policy[edit]

Foreign Affairs minister Ernesto Araújo has outlined five measures for the first 100 days of the Bolsonaro administration. The first two are official state visits of President Bolsonaro to the United States and Israel; the third is revising Mercosur policies; the fourth is restoring the coat of arms to the cover of the Brazilian passport; and the fifth is ending visa requirements for U.S. and Canadian citizens.[67]

Bolsonaro and his Justice minister Sérgio Moro will attend the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos in January 2019.[68]

Immigration[edit]

On January 8, 2019, Minister of Foreign Affairs Ernesto Araújo asked diplomats to inform the UN that Brazil had withdrawn from the Global Compact for Migration.[69]

Venezuela[edit]

The Bolsonaro administration declared on 12 January 2019 that it recognizes Juan Guaidó, the acting president of Venezuela appointed by the National Assembly, as the legitimate president of Venezuela amidst the Venezuelan presidential crisis.[70]

Investigations[edit]

Of the new ministers announced, five are or were the target of investigation: Luiz Henrique Mandetta, Tereza Cristina, Onyx Lorenzoni, Paulo Guedes and Marcos Pontes.[71] Onyx Lorenzoni, the Chief of Staff, is suspected of receiving an undeclared amount of R$ 100,000 in campaign donations in 2012 and 2014, the latter of which he confessed to.[72] Tereza Cristina, the minister of Agriculture, is accused of having benefited JBS in a process of land leasing while she was Secretary of State for Agrarian Development and Production of Mato Grosso do Sul. Cristina has defended her actions as "acting in accordance with government policy".[73] Economy minister Paulo Guedes is under investigation by the Federal Police for allegations that he mismanaged public pension funds.[74] Science and Technology minister Marcos Pontes was investigated by military prosecutors in 2007 for supposedly making commercial use of his public image before entering the military reserve, which is forbidden according to the Military Penal Code. Pontes denied wrongdoing, stating that "there is nothing irregular in my professional activities".[75] Health minister Mandetta is being probed for alleged procurement fraud, influence peddling and undeclared campaign donations.[76]

Surveys[edit]

According to a survey by Ibope, released by the National Confederation of Industry on 13 December 2018, 75% of Brazilian population thought that Bolsonaro was "on the right way", while 14% thought Bolsonaro was "on the wrong way" and the another 11%, did not respond. On 23 December 2018, Folha de São Paulo published a survey of Datafolha in which 65% of respondents said that the Bolsonaro's government would be a high increase in the improvement of the Brazilian economy, while 6% said that it would be a high worsening in the current economic situation of the country and another 29%, did not respond. This was the highest rate of optimism regarding the future of the economy since 1997, when Fernando Henrique Cardoso was re-elected president.[77] Another Datafolha survey, published on 1 January 2019, showed that 65% of respondents believe the Bolsonaro administration will be "great or good"; 17% believe it will be "regular", 12% believe it will be "bad or awful", while 6% did not respond. This rate of optimism regarding the administration is smaller than those for the first terms of presidents Collor, Cardoso, Lula and Dilma but higher than those of Franco and Temer.[78]

References[edit]

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