Page protected with pending changes

Presidency of Joe Biden

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Joe Biden
Presidency of Joe Biden
January 20, 2021 – present
CabinetSee list
SeatWhite House

Official website

Joe Biden's tenure as the 46th president of the United States began with his inauguration on January 20, 2021.[1][2] Biden, a Democrat from Delaware who previously served as Vice President under Barack Obama, took office following his victory in the 2020 presidential election over Donald Trump. He was inaugurated alongside Kamala Harris, the first woman, first African American, and first Asian American vice president.[3] Biden entered office amid the COVID-19 pandemic, an economic crisis, and increased political polarization.[4]

On the first day of his presidency, Biden made an effort to revert President Trump's energy policy by restoring U.S. participation in the Paris Agreement and revoking the permit for the Keystone XL pipeline. He also halted funding for Trump's border wall, an expansion of the Mexican border wall.[5] On his second day, he issued a series of executive orders to reduce the impact of COVID-19, including invoking the Defense Production Act of 1950, and set an early goal of achieving one hundred million COVID-19 vaccinations in the United States in his first 100 days.[6]

Biden oversaw the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Afghanistan, ending the 20-year war.[7] He declared an end to nation-building efforts[7] and shifted U.S. foreign policy toward strategic competition with China and, to a lesser extent, Russia.[7][8][9] On March 11, 2021, he signed his first major bill into law—the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021—a $1.9 trillion stimulus bill, establishing expanded unemployment insurance and sending $1200 stimulus checks to most Americans in response to continued economic pressure from COVID-19.[10] On November 15, 2021, he signed the $1.2 trillion Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act; a ten-year plan to invest in American roads, bridges, public transit, ports, replacing lead pipes, expanding access to broadband internet, and a national network of electric vehicle chargers.[11] The bill was brokered by Biden alongside Democrats and Republicans in the Senate, and has bipartisan support among mayors, governors, and Congress.[12] Biden and Democrats in Congress are currently negotiating the Build Back Better Act. The bill seeks to establish social programs such as universal pre-school access, expand Medicare & Medicaid, lower health insurance premiums, form a Civilian Climate Corps, and produce significant investments in renewable energy.[13]

2020 election[edit]

2020 electoral vote results

Biden announced his candidacy in April 2019, having previously sought the Democratic nomination in 1988 and 2008, being unsuccessful both times.[14]

On November 7, four days after Election Day, Biden was projected to have defeated the incumbent president Donald Trump, becoming president-elect of the United States[15][16][17][18][19] with 306 of the total 538 electoral votes, and 81,268,924 popular votes versus 74,216,154 votes for Trump. Shortly afterwards, the Trump campaign launched several lawsuits against the results in the battleground states of Pennsylvania, Arizona, Georgia, Wisconsin, Nevada and Michigan, raising unevidenced claims of widespread voter fraud that were subsequently dismissed by several courts.[20][21]

Transition period and inauguration[edit]

U.S. National Guard soldiers at the Capitol, January 20, 2021

Though Biden was generally acknowledged as the winner,[16][17][18][19] General Services Administration head Emily W. Murphy initially refused to begin the transition to the president-elect, thereby denying funds and office space to his team.[22][23] On November 23, after Michigan certified its results, Murphy issued the letter of ascertainment, granting the Biden transition team access to federal funds and resources for an orderly transition.[24]

Two days after becoming the projected winner of the 2020 election, Biden announced the formation of a task force to advise him on the COVID-19 pandemic during the transition, co-chaired by former Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, former FDA commissioner David A. Kessler, and Yale University's Marcella Nunez-Smith.[25]

On January 5, 2021, the Democratic Party won control of the United States Senate, effective January 20, as a result of electoral victories in Georgia by Jon Ossoff in a runoff election for a six-year term and Raphael Warnock in a special runoff election for a two-year term.[26][27] President-elect Biden had supported and campaigned for both candidates prior to the runoff elections on January 5.[28][29]

On January 6, a mob of thousands of Trump supporters violently broke into the Capitol in the hope of overturning Biden's election, forcing Congress to evacuate during the counting of the Electoral College votes.[30] More than 26,000 National Guard members were deployed to the capital for the inauguration, with thousands remaining into the spring.[31]

Chief Justice John Roberts administers the presidential oath of office to Biden at the Capitol, January 20, 2021.

On January 20, 2021, Biden was sworn in by U.S. Chief Justice John Roberts as the 46th president of the United States, completing the oath of office at 11:49 AM EST, eleven minutes before the legal start of his term.[32][33]

Inaugural address[edit]

Biden's inaugural speech laid out his vision to unite the nation, prefaced by the various impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, economic strife, climate change, political polarization, and racial injustice.[34] Biden called for an end to the "uncivil war" of political, demographic, and ideological American cultures through a greater embrace of diversity.[35] He cited the American Civil War, Great Depression, world wars, and September 11 attacks as moments in American history where citizens' "better angels" prevailed, saying that the unity, the solution, must again be invoked to rise from the "cascading" crises of the present; this unity, he proclaimed, exists in the "common objects" that define America: "opportunity, liberty, dignity, respect, honor, and ... truth."[36][37] He explicitly decried white supremacy and nativism, calling them an "ugly reality" of American life he vows to defeat that clouds the "American ideal" set out in the U.S. Declaration of Independence — that all Americans are equal.[35][37][38] Biden pledged that the U.S. would "engage with the world once again", "repair our alliances", and act as a "trusted partner for peace and security."[39] Near the conclusion of his speech, Biden held a moment of silence for those who died in the COVID-19 pandemic.[36] Quoting the Gene Scheer composition "American Anthem",[40] he implored Americans to consider their legacy in answering the "call of history" to protect "democracy, hope, truth, and justice", "secure liberty", and make America a "beacon to the world", insisting that generations of their descendants would judge them on their actions.[36]

The full text of Joe Biden's Inaugural Address at Wikisource.


P20210720AS-3425-2 (51417135942).jpg
The Biden Cabinet
PresidentJoe Biden2021–present
Vice PresidentKamala Harris2021–present
Secretary of StateAntony Blinken2021–present
Secretary of the TreasuryJanet Yellen2021–present
Secretary of DefenseLloyd Austin2021–present
Attorney GeneralMerrick Garland2021–present
Secretary of the InteriorDeb Haaland2021–present
Secretary of AgricultureTom Vilsack2021–present
Secretary of CommerceGina Raimondo2021–present
Secretary of LaborMarty Walsh2021–present
Secretary of Health and
Human Services
Xavier Becerra2021–present
Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development
Marcia Fudge2021–present
Secretary of TransportationPete Buttigieg2021–present
Secretary of EnergyJennifer Granholm2021–present
Secretary of EducationMiguel Cardona2021–present
Secretary of Veterans AffairsDenis McDonough2021–present
Secretary of Homeland SecurityAlejandro Mayorkas2021–present
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency
Michael S. Regan2021–present
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
Shalanda Young (acting)2021–present
Director of National IntelligenceAvril Haines2021–present
United States Trade RepresentativeKatherine Tai2021–present
Ambassador to the United NationsLinda Thomas-Greenfield2021–present
Chair of the
Council of Economic Advisers
Cecilia Rouse2021–present
Administrator of the
Small Business Administration
Isabel Guzman2021–present
Director of the Office of
Science and Technology Policy
Eric Lander2021–present
Chief of StaffRon Klain2021–present

On November 11, 2020, Biden selected Ron Klain, who served as his vice presidential chief of staff, to serve as his White House Chief of Staff.[41] Biden chose Jen Psaki, deputy White House press secretary and U.S. Department of State spokesperson during the presidency of Barack Obama, as his White House press secretary. Psaki announced, and has held, daily press briefings for White House reporters. On March 25, 2021, Biden held his first solo press conference after 64 days in office,[42] unlike his most recent predecessors (back to Herbert Hoover in 1929), who all held their first solo press conferences within 33 days of taking office.[43][44]

On November 17, 2020, Biden announced that he had selected Mike Donilon as senior advisor and Steve Ricchetti as counselor.[45] Jen O'Malley Dillon, who had served as campaign manager for Biden's successful presidential campaign, was named as deputy chief of staff.[46]


President-elect Biden planned to announce his first nominees to the Cabinet before Thanksgiving 2020.[47] On November 22, 2020, several news outlets reported that Biden had selected Antony Blinken to be secretary of state, Linda Thomas-Greenfield as ambassador to the United Nations, and Jake Sullivan as national security advisor.[48][49]

On November 23, 2020, Biden announced Alejandro Mayorkas to be his choice for Secretary of Homeland Security and Avril Haines as Director of National Intelligence.[50] Throughout December and January, Biden continued to select cabinet members, including Marty Walsh, the then current mayor of Boston, as his Secretary of Labor.[51][52]

Biden altered his cabinet structure, elevating the chair of the Council of Economic Advisers, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and ambassador to the United Nations as cabinet-level positions.[53][54][55] Biden removed the director of the Central Intelligence Agency from his official cabinet.[56]

While administering the oath of office to hundreds of White House officials through video conferencing, Biden called for more civility in politics, saying: "If you ever work with me and I hear you treat another colleague with disrespect, talk down to someone, I promise you I will fire you on the spot. ... No ifs, ands, or buts."[57]

Domestic affairs[edit]

President Biden addresses a joint session of Congress, with Vice President Kamala Harris and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, April 28, 2021

Health care[edit]

Biden strongly campaigned for the presidency on the public option, a policy that, if enacted into law, would have offered Americans a choice between maintaining their private healthcare insurance or buying into Medicare. The idea was viewed as a compromise between the progressive and moderate flanks of the Democratic party. The Biden campaign described the public option as a "plan to protect and build on ObamaCare."[58]

However, shortly before taking office in January 2021, Biden's team abruptly dropped the proposal, frustrating many online progressives who already viewed the public option healthcare proposal as a failure to fight the status quo.[59]

The Biden administration rescinded work requirements for Medicaid recipients.[60] The administration opened a special enrollment period for the Affordable Care Act as well as extending the normal enrollment period, citing the COVID-19 pandemic.[61][62] The administration provided larger premium subsidies.[63]


President Biden touring a vaccine manufacturing plant

On January 20, 2021, his first day as president, Biden implemented a federal mask mandate, requiring the use of masks and social distancing in all federal buildings, on federal lands, and by federal employees and contractors.[64][65][5] Biden also signed an executive order that reversed the withdrawal of the U.S. from the World Health Organization (WHO), making Dr. Anthony Fauci the head of the delegation to the WHO.[65] On January 21, the administration released a 200-page document titled "National Strategy for the COVID-19 Response and Pandemic Preparedness".[66][67] On his second day in office, Biden invoked the Defense Production Act to speed up the vaccination process and ensure the availability of glass vials, syringes, and other vaccine supplies at the federal level.[68][69] In justifying his use of the act, Biden said: "And when I say wartime, people kind of look at me like 'wartime?' Well, as I said last night, 400,000 Americans have died. That's more than have died in all of World War II. 400,000. This is a wartime undertaking."[70] Biden established the White House COVID-19 Response Team, a White House Office dedicated to coordinating a unified federal government response.[71]

On January 21, 2021, Biden signed ten executive orders pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic.[72] In order to meet his vaccination goal of a hundred million shots in his first 100 days in office, Biden signed an executive order increasing needed supplies.[6][73] Biden signed an order on January 21 that directed FEMA to offer full reimbursements to states for the cost of using their own National Guard personnel and emergency supplies such as Personal Protective Equipment in schools.[6][74] On January 24, 2021, Biden reinstated a travel ban imposed by President Trump on Brazil, United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa, and 26 other European countries.[75][76][77] The travel ban prevents non-U.S. citizens living in the prospective countries from entering the U.S.[78] Biden implemented a face mask requirement on nearly all forms of public transportation and inside of transportation hubs; previously, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had recommended that such a policy be enacted but it was blocked by the Trump administration, under which the CDC issued strong, albeit non-binding recommendations for mask use in these settings.[79]

In mid-March 2021, Biden dismissed a request by the European Union to export unused COVID-19 vaccines from AstraZeneca out of the U.S. even though the manufacturer endorsed it and vowed to resupply the doses. The rationale for this decision, which contributed to low European vaccination rates, was that the U.S. had to be "over-supplied and over-prepared", according to White House press secretary Jen Psaki.[80] Whereas the U.S. exported no vaccines, the European Union exported 77 million doses to the world from December 2020 to March 2021.[81] Eventually, the U.S. reversed course and gave vaccine doses from AstraZeneca to Mexico, Canada, and Japan by the end of March.[82]

On May 6, 2021, the Biden administration announced that it supports waiving patent protections on existing COVID-19 vaccines so that other countries can produce generic variants, following weeks of pressure from the international community.[83] On 7 May, French president Emmanuel Macron called on the U.S. "to put an end to export bans not only on vaccines but on vaccine ingredients, which prevent production."[84]

On May 26, 2021, Biden ordered U.S. intelligence agencies to increase their investigations into the origin of the virus, following reports that researchers at the Wuhan Institute of Virology became ill a month before the pandemic began.[85]

In July 2021, amid a slowing of the COVID-19 vaccination rate in the country and the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, Biden said that the U.S. has "a pandemic for those who haven’t gotten the vaccination" and that it was therefore "gigantically important" for Americans to be vaccinated, touting the vaccines' effectiveness against hospitalizations and deaths from COVID-19.[86] He also criticized the prevalence of COVID-19 misinformation on social media, saying it was "killing people".[87]

Despite months of vaccine availability and incentives, by September many Americans continued to resist vaccination amid rising cases in several states, leading Biden to state on September 9, "We’ve been patient. But our patience is wearing thin, and your refusal has cost all of us." That day he issued an executive order directing businesses with more than 100 employees to require vaccination of their workers or weekly testing, affecting about 80 million Americans. The order also required the roughly 17 million employees of health facilities receiving federal Medicare or Medicaid to be vaccinated.[88] Many Republicans asserted Biden's order was an unconstitutional overreach of federal authority, and some Republican governors said they would sue to block it.[89]


On January 22, 2021, Biden signed an executive order that removed schedule F, overturning a number of Trump's policies that limited the collective bargaining power of federal unions.[90][91][92] Biden's executive order also promotes a $15 minimum wage for federal workers and repeals three of Trump's executive orders which made the employee discipline process stricter and restricted union representatives' access to office space. As well as promoting a $15 minimum wage, Biden's executive order increases the amount of money going to the families of children who are missing meals because of school closures due to the pandemic by 15%.[93] The repealing of Trump's three executive orders comes as the orders were used to transfer civil servants and career scientists and replace them with employees friendly to the Trump administration.[94]

Biden has called on Congress to raise the corporate tax rate from 21% to 28%. This rate was lowered by the Republican's 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act from 35% to 21%, so Biden's proposal represents a partial reversal. The 21% tax rate does not expire, in contrast to the individual rates, so legislation would be required to raise it.[95] Some analysts, such as Alexander Nazaryan, noted that Biden's COVID-19 relief package bill is $100 billion bigger than then-Obama's top economic adviser Christina Romer's $1.8 trillion 2009 stimulus package, which was reduced to $800 billion after another top economic adviser, Lawrence Summers, rejected it as too big. On spending, among others, Biden broke with both Obama and Trump, even as many Obama alumni are part of the new administration, and was seen as maintaining the promise Biden made when he said that his presidential term would not be "a third Obama term" because "President Trump has changed the landscape."[96]

The S&P 500 stock market index increased 37.4% during the first year after Biden's election, the best first-year performance after a presidential election on record.[97]

American Rescue Plan Act of 2021[edit]

President Biden signs the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 into law, March 11, 2021

On January 14, 2021, Biden revealed a $1.9 trillion stimulus bill, the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021.[98] The plan includes $1 trillion in direct aid, including $1,400 per-person checks, for working Americans, and would provide for direct housing and nutrition assistance, expanding access to safe and reliable childcare and affordable healthcare, increasing the minimum wage, extending unemployment insurance, and giving families with kids and childless workers an emergency boost this year.[99][100] It would also expand the eligibility of these checks to adult dependents who have been left out of previous rounds of relief.[99][100][98] The plan additionally includes $440 billion in community support, providing $350 billion of community support to first responders while the rest goes to grants for small businesses and transit agencies; $400 billion for a national vaccination plan and school reopenings; and $10 billion for information technology, modernizing federal cybersecurity infrastructure.[98][100] In her first press briefing, press secretary Psaki said the plan was likely to change.[101]

The plan invokes the Defense Production Act of 1950 to ensure the production of personal protective equipment, glass vials, syringes, and other supplies exceeds the demand.[99] It allows partners of states to create vaccine centers in stadiums, convention centers and pharmacies.[68] The federal government would identify communities that have been hit hardest by COVID-19, and ensure the vaccine does not reach them at an unfair pace.[100][99][68] In addition, the plan would launch a national campaign to educate Americans about the vaccine and COVID-19, targeting misinformation related to the pandemic.[68] Vaccines would also be freely available to all citizens regardless of immigration status.[99] In Biden's plan, he would issue a national testing strategy that attempts to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 by increasing laboratory capacity and expanding testing. The plan would also develop new treatments for COVID-19.[99][98][100][68]

No Republican in Congress voted for the American Rescue Plan.[102] While debates and negotiations over the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 were ongoing, many Republicans[who?] focused instead on the decision by the Dr. Seuss estate to stop publishing what many viewed as a racially-offensive Dr. Seuss book and the re-branding of the "Mr. Potato Head" toy.[103] Biden signed the Plan into law on March 11, 2021.[104]

Domestic manufacturing[edit]

Biden signed an executive order intended to support domestic manufacturers by increasing a federal preference for purchasing goods made wholly or partly in the U.S. Using the broad term "Made in America laws", the executive order's stated goal is to strengthen "all statutes, regulations, rules, and Executive Orders relating to Federal financial assistance awards or Federal procurement, including those that refer to 'Buy America' or 'Buy American.'"[105][106]


The Wall Street Journal reported that instead of negotiating access to Chinese markets for large American financial-service firms and pharmaceutical companies, the Biden administration may focus on trade policies that boost exports or domestic jobs. U.S. Trade Representative Katherine Tai said the administration wants a "worker-centered trade policy."[107][108] U.S. Secretary of Commerce Gina Raimondo said she planned to aggressively enforce trade rules to combat unfair practices by China.[109]

In March 2021, in her first interview since taking office, U.S. Trade Representative Katherine Tai told The Wall Street Journal the U.S. would not lift tariffs on Chinese imports in the near future, despite lobbying efforts from "free traders" including former U.S. Secretary of Treasury Hank Paulson and the Business Roundtable, a big-business group in the U.S., that pressed for tariff repeal.[110]

On March 29, 2021, the U.S. suspended its diplomatic trade engagement with Myanmar, which sought to help integrate the country into the global economy, following an escalation in violence perpetrated by the Burmese military against anti-coup protesters, until what Katherine Tai says would be "the return of a democratically elected government."[111]


An analysis from Moody's Analytics found Biden's infrastructure plans would create 18.6 million jobs and increase average American income by $4,800 during his first term, far exceeding Trump's infrastructure proposals, which would create 11.2 million new jobs and "minimal real income gain". The analysis also found an increase in long-term economic growth, attributable to workforce size and productivity from expanded public education, health care for the elderly, and paid family leave, while Trump's restrictive immigration policies would dilute the workforce.[112][113]

Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act[edit]

President Biden signs the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act into law, November 15, 2021

As a part of the American Jobs Plan, the Biden administration aims for massive spending on the nation's infrastructure on the order of $2 trillion.[114] Many of the physical infrastructure provisions featured in the proposal were included in the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Biden signed the Act into law on November 15, 2021.[115]

American Families Plan[edit]

On 28 April, during Biden's speech to Congress he unveiled the American Families Plan, a roughly $1.8 trillion proposal to significantly increase federal spending in areas related to childcare, paid leave, pre-kindergarten, community college, and healthcare.[116][117] It is considered to be the third part of Biden's "Build Back Better" agenda (the first being the American Rescue Plan and the second being the American Jobs Plan) and is intended to address "human infrastructure".[118]

International taxation[edit]

Finance officials from 130 countries agreed on July 1, 2021 to plans for a new international taxation policy. All the major economies agreed to pass national laws that would require corporations to pay at least 15% income tax in the countries they operate. This new policy would end the practice of locating world headquarters in small countries with very low taxation rates. Governments hope to recoup some of the lost revenue, estimated at $100 billion to $240 billion each year. The new system was promoted by the Biden Administration and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Secretary-General Mathias Cormann of the OECD said: "This historic package will ensure that large multinational companies pay their fair share of tax everywhere."[119]

Energy, environment, and climate[edit]

President Biden and Texas governor Greg Abbott visit the Harris County Emergency Operations Center in Houston following the 2021 Texas power crisis, February 2021

During his first week in office, Biden established the position of White House National Climate Advisor, appointing environmental health and air quality expert Gina McCarthy to the role. Biden also created the position of U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, appointing former Secretary of State John Kerry.[120]

On January 20, 2021, Biden signed an executive order rejoining the U.S. to the Paris Agreement.[121][122] With the U.S. rejoining the agreement, countries responsible for two-thirds of the global greenhouse gas emissions would make pledges of becoming carbon neutral, while without United States it is only half.[123] On the same day, Biden also issued an executive order that cancelled the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline, an extension of the Keystone Pipeline. The pipeline was heavily criticized by environmental and Native American activists and groups.[124][125] This order also directed agencies to review and reverse more than 100 actions made by Trump on the environment.[65]

On January 21, 2021, the Biden administration issued a 60-day ban on oil and gas leases and permits on federal land and waters.[126] On January 27, 2021, Biden signed a number of executive orders aimed at combating climate change,[127] one of them setting climate change as a key consideration for U.S. national security and foreign policy.[128] In an attempt to encourage U.S. membership to the Kigali Amendment, an international agreement aimed to reduce the production of hydrofluorocarbons, Biden's executive order directed the U.S. Department of State to submit the Kigali Amendment to the Senate.[129][130]

Biden at the Leaders Summit on Climate in April 2021, held virtually because of the COVID-19 pandemic

In March 2021, 21 Republican state attorneys general of 21 states sued the Biden administration for revoking the Keystone XL pipeline permit. The suit claims Biden's executive order exceeded his authority.[131][132]

On March 27, 2021, Biden invited more than forty world leaders for a climate summit.[133] The Biden administration supported the Line 3 pipeline, which transports oil from Canada's oil sands region.[134]

In May 2021, the EPA rolled back a Trump administration rule that prohibited the EPA from using certain studies.[135][136] The previous rule, which made it more difficult to use major scientific studies to justify pollution reduction policies,[137] had already been invalidated by a federal court.[138]

On June 1, 2021, Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland suspended all oil and gas drilling leases in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, pending further review of their environmental impacts.[139]

In January 2021, Biden had issued a 60-day ban on oil and gas leases and permits on federal land and waters. A group of Republican state attorneys general successfully obtained a decision in federal court to lift the moratorium. The Biden administration appealed the decision but agreed to continue with the sales, and in September 2021 held the largest federal gas and oil lease auction in U.S. history, selling leases to extract 1.7 million acres in the Gulf of Mexico. The areas that were purchased by oil companies can be expected to produce around 4.2 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 1.12 billion barrels of oil over the next 50 years. The administration has also proposed another round of gas and oil lease sales in 2022, in Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, and other western states.[140][141][142] In November 2021, a closely watched Interior Department report on federal oil and gas lease policy, ordered by Biden, was completed. The report recommended increasing the 12.5% federal royalty rate for oil and gas drilling, which had not been raised by a century, and was significantly lower than rates charged for leasing on state and private land. The report also recommended an increase in the bond rates that drilling companies are required to pay for future cleanup efforts before beginning extraction at new sites, and recommended that leases be focused on sites with "moderate to high potential" for production in proximity to existing fossil-fuel infrastructure.[142] The report stopped short of banning the leasing program, which generates billions of dollars for the federal government, but reformed its terms to be less favorable for industry; environmental groups praised the reforms, but also said they were insufficient to address the U.S. contribution to the climate crisis.[142]

In 2021, the Biden administration proposed a 20-year ban on oil and gas drilling around Chaco Culture National Historical Park, a site in in northwestern New Mexico that contain important Ancestral Puebloan sites.[143]

The Biden administration set a goal of achieving 30 gigawatts of offshore wind energy generated in the U.S. by 2030 (sufficient to provide electricity to about 10 million homes). In 2021, the Biden administration approved the South Fork Wind project, a major (130 MW, 12-turbine) commercial offshore wind power project located southeast of Rhode Island's Block Island and east of New York's Montauk Point, the wind farm is projected to provide electricity to proved 70,000 Long Island homes. The project is the country's second large-scale offshore wind project (after a similar wind-power development in Massachusetts.[144][145]

In November 2021, Biden promised to end and reverse deforestation and land degradation by 2030,[146] joining more than 100 other global leaders in the COP26 climate summit's first major agreement.[147][148]

Electoral and ethical reform[edit]

In response to what Biden describes as the growing influence of special interests and gerrymandering in elections, he has pledged to seek electoral reforms.[149] The Biden administration pledged to pass government ethics reform.[149]


Presidential Proclamation 10141 – Ending Discriminatory Bans on Entry to the United States

On January 20, 2021, Biden halted the construction of the U.S.–Mexico barrier[65] and ended a related national emergency declared by Trump in February 2018.[5] Biden issued a proclamation that ended the Trump travel ban imposed on predominantly Muslim countries in January 2017.[65][5] Biden also reaffirmed protections to recipients of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.[150] The same day, Biden sent a memorandum to the U.S. Department of State reinstating Deferred Enforced Departure for Liberians.[151][152]

On January 20, 2021, the Biden administration issued a moratorium on deportations from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for the first 100 days of his presidency.[153] On January 22, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton sued the Biden administration for violating Biden's written pledge to cooperatively work with the state of Texas.[154] A federal judge in Texas subsequently issued a temporary restraining order barring the Biden administration from enforcing its moratorium, citing the lack of "any concrete, reasonable justification for a 100-day pause on deportations."[155]

On January 21, 2021, Biden proposed a bill that, if passed, would replace the word alien with noncitizen in U.S. immigration law.[156][157] The following day, Biden had a call with Mexican president Andrés Manuel López Obrador. On the call, Biden and López Obrador spoke about immigration, where Biden spoke of reducing immigration from Mexico to the U.S. by targeting what Biden deemed as root causes.[158] According to an Associated Press report, López Obrador noted that Biden pledged $4 billion to "help development in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala — nations whose hardships have spawned tides of migration through Mexico toward the United States."[159]

On January 23, Biden proposed an immigration bill[160] aiming to give a path to citizenship to eleven million immigrants living in the U.S. without a permanent legal status.[160] The bill would also make it easier for certain foreign workers to stay in the U.S.[161][162] Senate Majority Whip Dick Durbin called the bill "aspirational". It is widely expected not to pass both houses of Congress without significant revision.[160][161][162]

Biden instructed the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to focus on violent offenders of immigration laws rather than all offenders of immigration laws.[163][164]

In February 2021, it was reported that DHS agents who had been empowered by Trump to enact his anti-immigration policies were resisting and defying Biden's immigration policies.[163] The union representing ICE agents signaled that its agents would not accept reversals of Trump policies.[163]

In March 2021, the Biden administration granted temporary protected status to Venezuelans fleeing the country amidst the ongoing political and economic crisis.[165]

On June 1, 2021, the DHS officially terminated the Trump-era "Remain in Mexico" policy, which mandated that all asylum seekers from Central America were to wait in Mexico pending their court cases; however, a health order from March 2020 allowed the border authorities to send migrants back for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic have remained in place.[166][167] However, on August 14, 2021, a federal judge in Texas ordered the Biden administration to reimplement the policy; the Supreme Court placed a pause on the ruling to give the administration time for arguments.[168][169]

Unaccompanied minors[edit]

Vice President Kamala Harris meets with State Department Special Envoy for the Northern Triangle, Ricardo Zúñiga, and other officials on the surge of migrants from Central America, March 2021

Early during Biden's tenure, a surge in unaccompanied minors at the U.S. border stirred controversy. According to a 2021 Politico report, Republicans expected prior to Biden taking office that there would be a border surge at the start of 2021 (due to seasonal patterns and regional crises) and coordinated to make it a central issue in the lead-up to the 2022 mid-term elections.[170] The number of migrants arriving in the U.S. from Central America had been rising since April 2020 due to ongoing violence, natural disasters, food insecurity, and poverty in the region.[171] In February 2021, the U.S. Border Patrol reported a 61% increase in encounters with unaccompanied children from the month before. The reported 5,858 encounters in January to 9,457 in February constituted the largest one-month percentage increase in encounters with unaccompanied children since U.S. Customs and Border Protection began recording data in 2010.[172][173][174] By the end of April 2021, the number of children held in Border Patrol facilities fell by 84%, placing them under HHS care.[175]

On March 24, 2021, Biden tasked Vice President Harris to reduce the number of unaccompanied minors and adult asylum seekers. She is also tasked with leading the negotiations with Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador.[176]

The number of migrant families and unaccompanied children entering the U.S. from across the Southwest border steeply declined in August, September, and October 2021.[177][178]

Social issues[edit]

President Biden signs executive orders expanding the Affordable Care Act and revoking Trump administration health policies, January 2021
President Biden signed the Juneteenth National Independence Day Act into law, June 17, 2021

During his early days in office, Biden focused on "advancing equity, civil rights, racial justice and equal opportunity." According to The New York Times, Biden's early actions in office focused on racial equality more than any president since Lyndon B. Johnson, who passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[179] On January 25, 2021, Biden signed an executive order that lifted the ban on transgender military service members.[180] This reversed a memorandum imposed by Trump.[181]

The Biden administration is seeking to put Harriet Tubman on the twenty-dollar bill.[182][183] This effort follows that of the Obama administration, which was blocked by Steven Mnuchin.[184] Press secretary Psaki said it was important that U.S. money and notes reflect the "history and diversity" of the country and that putting Tubman on the twenty-dollar bill would do so.[185]

On January 20, the Biden administration issued an Executive Order entitled Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities Through the Federal Government[186] increasing the federal government's anti-bias enforcement against government contractors. The intent is heightened investigations by the U.S. Department of Justice, more thorough audits, and more detailed follow-up inquiries with government contractors, with an emphasis on combatting pay discrimination.[187]

On January 26, Biden directed the U.S. Department of Justice to reduce their usage of private prisons and ordered the attorney general to not renew contracts with private prisons, citing the need to "reduce profit-based incentives" for the incarceration of racial minorities.[188][189][190]

On March 19, Biden and Vice President Harris travelled to Atlanta and spoke to Asian American and Pacific Islander advocates and leaders while condemning 2021 Atlanta spa shootings caused by racism, sexism and hate.[191]

On June 17, Biden signed into law a bill creating Juneteenth as a federal holiday; the day celebrates the end of slavery in the U.S.[192]

Criminal justice[edit]

The Biden administration rescinded a Trump administration policy that curtailed the use of consent decrees that had been used by previous administrations in their investigations of misconduct in police departments.[193]

Biden proposed in his fiscal 2022 budget to more than double funding for the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Hiring Program, which helps state and local governments to hire law enforcement officers.[194]

Gun control[edit]

President Biden announces new executive measures on gun control with Vice President Kamala Harris and Attorney General Merrick Garland in the White House Rose Garden, April 8, 2021

In a national address in March 2021, following mass shootings in the Atlanta area and Boulder, Colorado, Biden advocated for further gun regulations, such as a restored ban on assault weapons and high-capacity magazines, as well as reinforcing preexisting background checks.[195][196]

Space policy[edit]

Space was one of the few areas in which the Biden administration maintained most of the previous administration's policies.[197] The Biden administration reversed the Trump administration's method of using the National Space Council to coordinate commercial, civil, and military space policies, instead using the National Security Council to issue national security memoranda instead of the Space Council's space policy directives.[198] The Biden administration renewed the National Space Council, chaired by Vice President Harris,[197] "to assist the president in generating national space policies, strategies, and synchronizing America's space activities."[199] Harris held meetings with the leaders of five countries to discuss international cooperation on space issues.[197]

The Biden administration continued the Artemis program to send people back to the Moon.[197][200] The administration also emphasized the role of NASA in studying climate change.[197][201]

Biden appointed Bill Nelson, an astronaut and former U.S. Senator, to the post of NASA administrator. Nelson was confirmed unanimously by the Senate in April 2021.[202]

In April 2021, as part of his first annual budget request, Biden proposed a $24.8 billion budget for NASA in 2022, a $1.5 billion increase on what Congress allocated to 2021.[201][203] The proposal includes funding for the Artemis program for a new crewed moon landing mission.[203] The proposal also included a 12.5% increase for NASA's Earth Science Division, as well as a 22% increase for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which operates an fleet of weather satellites; both measures aimed to use space tools to study and mitigate climate change.[201]

Foreign affairs[edit]


President Biden signs his first bill, H.R. 335

On January 22, 2021, Biden signed his first bill,[204] H.R. 335 into law, providing a waiver to the law preventing appointment of a Secretary of Defense who had been on active duty in the armed forces within the past seven years;[205] this was the third time such a waiver was granted by Congress. Retired army four-star general Lloyd Austin was confirmed by the Senate in a 93–2 vote that same day, making Austin the first African-American Defense Secretary.[206][204]

President Biden delivers remarks at The Pentagon, February 2021

Austin has said his number one priority is to assist COVID-19 relief efforts, pledging he would "quickly review the Department's contributions to COVID-19 relief efforts, ensuring that we're doing everything that we can to help distribute vaccines across the country and to vaccinate our troops and preserve readiness."[207]

On February 10, 2021, Biden visited the Pentagon for the first time as U.S. president.[208] In remarks to service members alongside Vice President Kamala Harris and Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin, Biden announced a U.S. Department of Defense-led China task force to "to provide a baseline assessment of department policies, programs and processes in regard to the challenge China poses."[209]

On June 18, 2021, the administration removed eight MIM-104 Patriot anti-missile batteries from Saudi ArabiaJordanKuwait, and Iraq, removed the THAAD anti-missile defense system from Saudi Arabia, and announced that most jet squadrons and hundreds of American troops would be withdrawn from the region. The changes come in light of both de-escalating tensions with Iran and the administration changing its focus on countering China.[210]


Biden has said the U.S. needs to "get tough" on China and build "a united front of U.S. allies and partners to confront China's abusive behaviors and human rights violations."[211] He described China as the "most serious competitor" that poses challenges on the "prosperity, security, and democratic values" of the U.S.[212]

Biden nominated Antony Blinken to serve as Secretary of State who took office on January 26, 2021.[213][214] During his nomination hearing, Blinken said that previous optimistic approaches to China were flawed,[215] and that Biden's predecessor, Donald Trump, "was right in taking a tougher approach to China" but he "disagree[s] very much with the way [Trump] went about it in a number of areas."[214] He endorsed former Secretary of State Mike Pompeo's report that China is committing a genocide against Uyghur Muslims.[214]

In March 2021, Secretary of State Antony Blinken, National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan and other administration officials met with the Chinese Communist Party Politburo member Yang Jiechi, Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi, and other Chinese officials in Alaska with heated exchanges on China's human rights abuses, cyberattacks, its threats against Taiwan, its crackdown in Xinjiang and Hong Kong, and other issues of U.S. interest. The Chinese side countered: "The U.S. does not have the qualification to speak to China from a position of strength [and] does not serve as a model to others [and] China's development and strengthening is unstoppable."[216][217]

The Washington Post reported that the Biden administration got "a taste of China's 'wolf warrior' diplomacy" during the first meeting with its Chinese counterpart, which was "remarkably undiplomatic", adding "China's diplomats appeared more forceful than they had been in any public meeting during President Trump's term."[218] The Atlantic published an article saying that the Biden team "flushed Beijing's true intentions out into the open for the world to see", quoting a senior administration official's comment that it is "increasingly difficult to argue that we don't know what China wants."[219]

In April 2021, it was reported that the Biden administration was rallying U.S. allies in consideration of a boycott of the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing. The U.S. Department of State spokesman Ned Price told reporters that a joint boycott "is something that we certainly wish to discuss."[220]

In May 2021, the administration removed Chinese mobile manufacturer Xiaomi from the Chinese military blacklist, reversing the previous administration's decision.[221]

On June 3, 2021, Biden announced an executive order that would come into effect from August 2, and ban Americans from investing into 59 Chinese firms, including Huawei. Before it was announced, China said it would retaliate against it.[222]

In October 2021, Biden said he is concerned about Chinese hypersonic missiles, days after China tested a nuclear-capable hypersonic missile that circled the globe before speeding towards its target.[223]


The Biden administration has kept the sanctions against Cuba that were issued by the previous presidential administration.[224]

In June 2021, U.S. President Joe Biden's administration continued America's tradition of voting against an annual United Nations General Assembly resolution calling for an end to a U.S. economic embargo on Cuba.[225] The resolution was adopted for the 29th time with 184 votes in favor, three abstentions, and two no votes: the United States and Israel.[226]

In July 2021, Protesters gathered in front of the White House and demonstrators called on President Joe Biden to take action in Cuba.[227] The Biden administration sanctioned a key Cuban official and a government special forces unit known as the Boinas Negras for human rights abuses in the wake of historic protests on the island.[228] On July 22, 2021, directly before hosting a meeting with Cuban-American leaders,[229] President Biden stated "I unequivocally condemn the mass detentions and sham trials that are unjustly sentencing to prison those who dared to speak out in an effort to intimidate and threaten the Cuban people into silence."[230] President Biden has also ordered government specialists to develop ideas for the US to unilaterally extend internet access on the island, and he has promised to enhance backing for Cuban dissidents.[231]

In August 2021, Biden sanctioned three additional Cuban officials who were also reportedly involved in the suppression of anti-government protesters in Cuba.[232]


Biden meeting with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani and Chairman Abdullah Abdullah, June 2021
President Biden delivers remarks on Afghanistan (transcript)

Previously in February 2020, the Trump administration had made a deal with the Taliban to completely withdraw U.S. forces by May 1, 2021.[233] In April 2021, President Biden formally announced that American troops would instead withdraw from Afghanistan by September 11, 2021, which would signal an end to the U.S.'s longest war.[234] According to Princeton professor Julian E. Zelizer, Biden "clearly learned a great deal from his time in the Obama presidency", and demonstrated that "he is a politician capable of learning and evolving, contrary to some of the skeptics in the primaries who thought he didn't understand how politics had changed." According to Washington Post journalist Steven Levingston, "Obama listened to military leaders who advised him that withdrawal would be a mistake. Biden, meanwhile, was the top administration official arguing for a much more limited role for American forces in Afghanistan. Later, Biden would go on to say that he could tell by Obama's 'body language' that he agreed with that assessment — even though he ultimately rejected it."[96]

Soon after the withdrawal of U.S. troops started, the Taliban launched an offensive against the Afghan government, quickly advancing in front of a collapsing Afghan Armed Forces.[235][236] President Biden defended the withdrawal, saying "I trust the capacity of the Afghan military, who is better trained, better equipped and ... more competent in terms of conducting war."[237]

By early July 2021, most of the American troops in Afghanistan were withdrawn.[233] Biden addressed the withdrawal, stating that: "The likelihood there’s going to be the Taliban overrunning everything and owning the whole country is highly unlikely."[233] However, on August 15, amid an offensive by the Taliban, the Afghan government collapsed, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani fled the country and Kabul fell to the Taliban.[233][238] Biden reacted by ordering 6,000 American troops to assist in the evacuation of American personnel and Afghan allies.[239] He has been criticized over the manner of the American withdrawal.[238]

On August 16, Biden addressed the "messy" situation, taking responsibility for it ("the buck stops with me"), and admitting that the situation "unfolded more quickly than we had anticipated".[238][240] He defended his decision to withdraw, saying that Americans should not be "dying in a war that Afghan forces are not willing to fight for themselves", since the "Afghan military collapsed [against the Taliban], sometimes without trying to fight".[240][241] Biden partly attributed the lack of early evacuation of Afghan civilians to the Afghan government's opposition of a "mass exodus" which they thought would cause a "crisis of confidence".[241]

On 26 August, a suicide attack was carried out by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant - Khorasan Province at the Hamid Karzai International Airport, killing more than 170 people, including at least 62 Afghan civilians, 13 US service members, two British nationals and the child of a third British national.[242][243] Biden made a public address following the attack, in which he honoured the American service members who were killed, calling them "heroes" and saying they lost their lives "in the service of liberty", and stated that the US had evacuated more than 100,000 Americans, Afghans, and others. He expressed deep sorrow for the Afghan victims as well. Biden said to those who wished harm upon the US that "we will hunt you down and make you pay."[244] Biden received increasingly harsh criticism from both Republicans and Democrats in the US Congress, with Republicans calling for his resignation or for his impeachment.[245][246][247]

After the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan, the Biden administration froze about $9 billion in assets belonging to the Afghan central banks, blocking the Taliban from accessing these billions of dollars in reserves held in U.S. bank accounts.[248][249]

Armenian genocide[edit]

On April 24, 2021, the Biden administration declared that the Turkish killings of Armenians at the start of the 20th century were a genocide. He is the first U.S. president to ever officially recognize the Armenian genocide.[250]

Quad and the Indo-Pacific region[edit]

President Biden hosted the Quad meeting at the White House, September 24, 2021

In March 2021, Biden held a virtual meeting with leaders of Japan, India and Australia, an alliance of countries known as the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, or the Quad, that work together to address China's expansionism in the Indo-Pacific region.[251][252] A few days later, the administration officials, including secretary of state Antony Blinken and secretary of defense Lloyd Austin, met with U.S. allies in Asia and imposed sanctions on senior Chinese officials.[253][216] Austin also visited India to deepen the defense ties between the two countries.[252] In September 2021, Biden hosted the first in-person meeting of Quad at the White House.[254]


Biden and Russian President Vladimir Putin at the summit meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, June 16, 2021

On the day of Biden's inauguration, the Russian government urged the new U.S. administration to take a "more constructive" approach in talks over the extension of the 2010 New START treaty, the sole remaining agreement limiting the number of U.S. and Russian long-range nuclear warheads.[255] In Biden's first telephone call as president with Russian President Vladimir Putin, on January 26, 2021, Biden and Putin agreed to extend the New START treaty (which was set to expire in February 2021) by an additional five years.[256]

Biden and his administration condemned human rights violations by the Russian authorities, calling for the release of detained dissident and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny, his wife, and the thousands of Russians who had demonstrated in his support; the U.S. called for the unconditional release of Navalny and the protestors and a credible investigation into Navalny's poisoning.[257][258][259] On March 2, 2021, the U.S. and European Union imposed coordinated additional sanctions on Russian officials, as well as the FSB and GRU, over Navalny's poisoning and imprisonment. The State Department also expanded existing sanctions from the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act that had been imposed after the poisoning of Skripal.[260] The Biden administration is also planning to impose sanctions against Russia because of the 2020 SolarWinds cyberespionage campaign, which compromised the computer systems of nine federal agencies.[261] Biden's national security adviser Jake Sullivan said the response "will include a mix of tools seen and unseen, and it will not simply be sanctions."[261][260]

The Biden administration's comprehensive review into Russian activities has included an examination of reports that the Russian government offered bounties to kill U.S. troops in Afghanistan.[262][263] The Biden administration said intelligence community has only "low to moderate" confidence in reports due to the fact that the bounty reports originated from "detainee reporting and because of the difficult operating environment in Afghanistan."[264][265] Biden called Russian President Vladimir Putin a "killer" in an ABC News interview, and said that Russia would pay a price for election meddling.[266]

On May 19, 2021, the Biden administration lifted CAATSA sanctions on the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project between Russia and Germany. Despite Biden's personal opposition to the project, the U.S. State Department says that it concluded that it was in the "U.S. national interest" to waive the sanctions.[267] Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov welcomed the move as "a chance for a gradual transition toward the normalisation of our bilateral ties."[267]

On June 16, 2021, Biden met with Putin in Geneva, Switzerland. The two presidents discussed a number of topics, including stable policy on climate change, nuclear proliferation, and cybersecurity. Russia's activities regarding Ukraine, Alexei Navalny, Belarus, and nationals jailed in each other's countries. The summit was significantly shorter than expected, only lasting three and a half of the predicted five hours.[268] Putin praised Biden as a knowledgeable and shrewd negotiator the next day.[269][270]


President Biden with European leaders at the G20 summit in Rome, Italy, October 30, 2021

President Biden promised to repair "strained" relationships with European allies in contrast to his predecessor Trump. "An attack on one is an attack on all. That is our unshakeable vow," Biden said, referring to Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty (the mutual defense clause).[271] Biden pledged support for the European project and for Ukraine's sovereignty as well as the need for global cooperation on fighting the pandemic and climate change.[272]

U.S. relations with France deteriorated in September 2021 due to fallout from the AUKUS security pact between the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, which aimed to counter Chinese power in the Indo-Pacific region. As part of the agreement, the U.S. agreed to provide nuclear-powered submarines to Australia. After entering into the agreement, the Australian government canceled an agreement that it had made with France for the provision of French conventionally powered submarines. The deal angered the French government, which recalled its ambassador to the U.S. (Philippe Étienne) as well as the ambassador to Australia. Amid the diplomatic row, the French Foreign Ministry contended that it had been subjected to "duplicity, disdain and lies"[273][274] and French foreign minister Jean-Yves Le Drian called the deal a "stab in the back".[275] In a conciliatory call a few days later, Biden and French President Emmanuel Macron agreed to reduce bilateral tensions, and the White House acknowledged the crisis could have been averted if there had been open consultations between allies.[276] A month later, Biden met Macron, telling him his administration was "clumsy" and that he was "under the impression that France had been informed long before" that France's deal with Australia was "not going through".[277]


The Biden administration has expressed interest in re-engaging with Iran on the Iran nuclear deal. Biden's predecessor, President Trump, withdrew from the deal in 2018, resulting in swift backlash from international community.[278][279] Secretary of State Antony Blinken said the U.S. would be interested in re-entering the agreement so long as Iran shows "strict compliance".[280]

On February 25, 2021, President Biden ordered retaliatory airstrikes on buildings in Syria that the Department of Defense said were used by Iranian-backed militias to carry out rocket attacks on U.S. targets in Iraq. The operation was the first known use of military force by the Biden administration.[281] The attacks prompted condemnation from many Democratic members of Congress. Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia questioned the administration's "legal justification for acting without coming to Congress." Representative Ro Khanna (D-CA) claimed that "the Administration should have sought Congressional authorization."[282]


On February 1, 2021, Biden condemned the Myanmar coup d'état and called for the release of detained officials. Biden also left open the door to re-imposing sanctions on the country, saying in a statement that "[t]he United States removed sanctions on Burma over the past decade based on progress toward democracy. The reversal of that progress will necessitate an immediate review of our sanction laws and authorities, followed by appropriate action."[283]

On March 5, 2021, Biden imposed sanctions on Myanmar's Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Defence and certain junta conglomerates.[284] On March 22, 2021, Secretary of State Antony Blinken announced sanctions on several military generals in response to a violent crackdown on peaceful protests.[285]

Northern Ireland[edit]

Biden and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson

Biden has reiterated his commitment to maintaining peace in Northern Ireland by resisting the possibility of a hard border as a result of Brexit. When asked by The Irish Times in March 2021 about comments made by Irish foreign minister Simon Coveney that the UK "cannot be trusted" on the Northern Ireland protocol, White House press secretary Jen Psaki said that "President Biden has been unequivocal about his support for the Good Friday Agreement." As part of his own Irish-American heritage, Psaki said that Biden "has a special place in his heart for the Irish", underpinning his commitment to Northern Ireland's peace.[286]

Saudi Arabia and Yemen[edit]

Biden ordered a halt in the arms sales to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates which the Trump administration had previously agreed to.[287] Two years after Jamal Khashoggi's assassination, Avril Haines, the Director of National Intelligence under Biden's administration, announced that the intelligence report into the case against Saudi Arabia's government would be declassified. It was reported that Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman would be blamed for the murder, as was concluded by the CIA.[288]

On February 4, 2021, the Biden administration announced that the U.S. was ending its support for the Saudi-led bombing campaign in Yemen. President Biden in his first visit to the State Department as president said "this war has to end" and that the conflict has created "a humanitarian and strategic catastrophe."[289] However, the details of the end of American involvement in the war have yet to be released as of April 2021.[290]

In September 2021, Biden's national security adviser Jake Sullivan met in Saudi Arabia with Crown Prince Bin Salman to discuss the high oil prices.[291] The record-high energy prices were driven by a global surge in demand as the world quit the economic recession caused by COVID-19.[292][293]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Under the Biden administration, the former adviser to Donald Trump, Thomas J. Barrack Jr. was arrested by the authorities for his role as a foreign lobbyist for the United Arab Emirates, allowing a foreign nation to meddle in the 2016 United States presidential election campaign. Besides, Barrack was also accused of obstruction of justice by giving false statements to the investigators.[294] [295] The DOJ also prosecuted some men for funneling more than $3.5 million to Hillary Clinton from George Nader, the royal adviser of the UAE.[296] However, while federal prosecutors accused the Emirates of interfering in American politics from both sides, the relations with the Arab nation during Biden’s presidency didn’t witness much of the expected changes. In fact, the UAE was seen escaping its blunder-filled history of relations with the US, despite Biden’s repetitive criticism against the Emirates' human rights violations and its attempts of infiltrating the US politics.[297] Moreover, the Biden administration also permitted the arms sales of $23 billion to the UAE, which was initiated by Donald Trump and involved a transfer of sophisticated weaponry like the F-35 fighter jets.[298] The US Justice Department did not charge any Emirati in the case. However, Barrack’s indictment identified three UAE officials who were hosts at his reception in the Gulf nation after Trump’s 2016 elections, and two others who were involved. Amongst the hosts was Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed, the UAE’s national security adviser Tahnoun bin Zayed and director of the Emirati intelligence service, Ali Mohammed Hammad Al Shamsi. The fourth Emirati official was Abdullah Khalifa Al Ghafli, who “tasked” Barrack to push Emirati interests with America. Another official was Yousef Al Otaiba, who asked to remain anonymous in discussions over private matters.[299]

Worldwide LGBT rights[edit]

On February 4, 2021, Biden issued a presidential memorandum for expanding protection of the LGBTQI rights worldwide, which includes the possibility to impose financial sanctions.[300]

Approval ratings and image[edit]

Very early in Biden's presidency, opinion polls found that Biden's approval ratings were steadier than Trump's, with an average approval rating of 55% and an average disapproval rate of 39%.[301] Biden's early approval ratings have been more polarized than Trump's, with 98% of Democrats, 61% of independents and 11% of Republicans approving of Biden's presidency in February 2021, a party gap of 87%.[302] Around the end of his first hundred days in office, Biden's approval rating was higher than Trump's but was the third worst since the presidency of Harry Truman.[303][304]

Following the fall of Kabul and the surge of COVID-19 cases due to the Delta variant in July and August 2021, Biden's approval rating began to somewhat steadily decline, from a high of 52.7% approval on July 26, 2021 to 45.9% approval by September 3, 2021, according to FiveThirtyEight.[305][306]


  1. ^ Martin, Jonathan; Burns, Alexander (November 7, 2020). "Biden Wins Presidency, Ending Four Tumultuous Years Under Trump". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  2. ^ "When is inauguration day 2021?: Here's when president-elect Joe Biden will take office". Penn Live. November 7, 2020. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  3. ^ "Kamala Harris becomes first female, first black and first Asian-American VP". BBC News. January 20, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  4. ^ Farley, Robert; Gore, D'Angelo; Jackson, Brooks (January 20, 2021). "Fact Check: What President Biden Inherits". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d "Biden's first act: Orders on pandemic, climate, immigration". Associated Press. January 20, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c Klein, Betsy; Stracqualursi, Veronica; Sullivan, Kate (January 22, 2021). "Biden unveils Covid-19 plan based on 'science not politics' as he signs new initiatives". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Michael D. Shear and Jim Tankersley (October 7, 2021). "Biden Defends Afghan Pullout and Declares an End to Nation-Building". New York Times.
  8. ^ Tyler Pager & Natasha Bertran (January 29, 2021). "White House shifts from Middle East quagmires to a showdown with China". Politico.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ Josh Lederman (November 3, 2021). "At global summits, Biden seeks to leverage China's absence". NBC News.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ Segers, Grace (March 12, 2021). "Biden signs $1.9 trillion American Rescue Plan into law". CBS News. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  11. ^ Shalal, Andrea; Holland, Steve (November 16, 2021). "Biden signs $1 trillion infrastructure bill into law". Reuters. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  12. ^ Naylor, Brian; Walsh, Deirdre (November 15, 2021). "Biden signs the $1 trillion bipartisan infrastructure bill into law". NPR. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  13. ^ Luhby, Tami; Lobosco, Katie; Sullivan, Katie (March 31, 2021). "Here's What's in Biden's infrastructure proposal". CNN. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  14. ^ Cohn, Nate (July 16, 2020). "One Year From Election, Trump Trails Biden but Leads Warren in Battlegrounds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  15. ^ "Biden wins White House, vowing new direction for divided US". Associated Press. November 7, 2020. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  16. ^ a b Epstein, Jennifer (November 10, 2020). "Biden Transition Team Calls on Federal Agency to Declare Winner". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on November 18, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020. Biden was declared the winner by media organizations after securing enough electoral votes.
  17. ^ a b Budryk, Zack (November 9, 2020). "Biden campaign pushes GSA chief to approve transition". The Hill. Archived from the original on November 19, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020. Major media outlets projected Biden as the president-elect Saturday.
  18. ^ a b Levin, Bess (November 16, 2020). "THE TRUMP APPOINTEE BLOCKING BIDEN'S TRANSITION IS REPORTEDLY TRYING TO LINE UP A NEW JOB FOR 2021". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020. But 13 days after the 2020 election and more than a week after all major media outlets called the race for Joe Biden, with Trump having absolutely no chance of getting a second term, Murphy has refused to acknowledge that Biden won, making it that much more difficult for the president-elect and his team to get a head start on crucial matters like a pandemic that has killed more than 245,000 people in the U.S. so far and stands to kill a lot more if no one does anything about it until January 2021.
  19. ^ a b Young, Robin (November 9, 2020). "In Unprecedented Move, Key Federal Agency Hesitates On Declaring Biden Winner". WBUR-FM. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020. The answer is no, and I think you rightly note that this is different than what occurred in 2000 [in the Al Gore vs. George W. Bush race], there is a consensus certainly on the media side and with the states that are at play.
  20. ^ Voreacos, David; Stohr, Greg; Niquette, Mark (November 9, 2020). "Trump's Legal Blitz Isn't Contesting Enough Votes to Win". Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  21. ^ "US election 2020: What legal challenges is Trump planning?". BBC News. November 13, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  22. ^ Rein, Lisa; O'Connell, Jonathan; Dawsey, Josh. "A little-known Trump appointee is in charge of handing transition resources to Biden – and she isn't budging". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  23. ^ Collinson, Stephen. "Alarm grows over Trump administration acting 'more akin to a dictatorship' as he denies election defeat". CNN. CNN. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  24. ^ Daly, Matthew; Jalonick, Mary Clare (November 23, 2020). "GSA ascertains Joe Biden is 'apparent winner' of election, clears way for the transition from Trump administration to formally begin". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on November 23, 2020. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
  25. ^ Sarah Mucha and Eric Bradner. "Biden transition team announces coronavirus advisers, including whistleblower Rick Bright". CNN. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  26. ^ Dennis, Steven T.; House, Billy; Flatley, Daniel (January 6, 2021). "Democrats Win U.S. Senate as Ossoff Tops Perdue in Georgia Sweep". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  27. ^ Walsh, Deirdre; Snell, Kelsey (January 6, 2021). "Democrats Take Control Of Senate With Twin Georgia Victories". NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  28. ^ Wise, Alana (January 4, 2021). "'The Power Is Literally In Your Hands': Biden Urges Georgians To Vote Tuesday". NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  29. ^ Sullivan, Kate. "Biden appears in campaign ad for Georgia's Jon Ossoff and Raphael Warnock". CNN Politics. Cable News Network. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  30. ^ Tan, Rebecca; Jamison, Peter; Leonnig, Carol D.; Flynn, Meagan; Cox, John Woodrow (January 6, 2021). "Trump supporters storm U.S. Capitol, with one woman killed and tear gas fired". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  31. ^ Helsel, Phil; Gains, Mosheh (March 9, 2021). "Defense secretary extends National Guard presence in D.C." NBC News. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  32. ^ "Biden Inaugurated as the 46th President Amid a Cascade of Crises". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  33. ^ "Biden became president at noon despite taking oath early, constitutional experts say". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  34. ^ Ashraf, Khalil (December 15, 2020). "Biden to take oath outside Capitol amid virus restrictions". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  35. ^ a b Baker, Peter; Astor, Maggie; Kaplan, Thomas (January 20, 2021). "Inauguration Live Updates: President Biden Arrives at the White House". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  36. ^ a b c Thrush, Glenn (January 20, 2021). "President Biden's Full Inauguration Speech, Annotated". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  37. ^ a b "'This Is America's Day': Biden's Inaugural Address, Annotated". NPR. January 20, 2021. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  38. ^ Lemire, Jonathan; Miller, Zeke; Jaffe, Alexandria (January 20, 2021). "Biden takes the helm as president: 'Democracy has prevailed'". Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  39. ^ Korecki, Natasha (January 20, 2021). "Biden pledges, once more, to lead America away from dystopia". Politico. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  40. ^ Yoo, Noah (January 20, 2021). "President Biden Quotes From "American Anthem," His "Favorite Song," in Inaugural Address". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  41. ^ Shear, Michael D.; Glueck, Katie; Haberman, Maggie; Kaplan, Thomas (November 12, 2020). "Biden Names Ron Klain as White House Chief of Staff". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  42. ^ Chaggaris, Steve; Roberts, William (March 25, 2021). "What Joe Biden said in his first presidential press conference". Al Jazeera. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  43. ^ Wooley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "The American Presidency Project". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  44. ^ Stelter, Brian (March 3, 2021). "White House reporters clamor for press conference as Biden waits longer than predecessors". CNN Business. CNN. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  45. ^ Sullivan, Sean (November 17, 2020). "Biden builds White House team and tries to show dangers of Trump's intransigence". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  46. ^ Lerer, Lisa (November 17, 2020). "Jennifer O'Malley Dillon, Biden's Campaign Manager, Will Tackle Another Difficult Job". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  47. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra (November 20, 2020). "Biden Could Announce Cabinet Picks as Soon as Next Week". US News & World Report. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  48. ^ Jakes, Lara (November 22, 2020). "Biden Chooses Antony Blinken, Defender of Global Alliances, as Secretary of State". The New York Times. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  49. ^ Linskey, Annie (November 22, 2020). "Biden to nominate Antony Blinken as secretary of state, Linda Thomas-Greenfield as U.N. ambassador". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  50. ^ Crowley, Michael (November 23, 2020). "Biden Will Nominate First Woman to Lead Intelligence, First Latino to Run Homeland Security". The New York Times. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
  51. ^ "All of President-elect Joe Biden's Cabinet Nominees". New York. January 19, 2021. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  52. ^ Cathey, Libby; Crawford, Shannon K.; Deliso, Meredith (March 22, 2021). "President Joe Biden's top-level appointees and Cabinet picks". ABC News. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  53. ^ Zimmer, Carl (January 16, 2021). "Biden to Elevate Science Adviser to His Cabinet". The New York Times.
  54. ^ Falk, Pamela (November 20, 2020). "Will Biden tap a U.N. ambassador to "reclaim America's leading position"?". CBS News.
  55. ^ Johnson, Martin (December 1, 2020). "Biden elevates Economic Advisers chair to Cabinet". The Hill.
  56. ^ Lee, Matthew (January 11, 2021). "Biden chooses veteran diplomat Burns as CIA director". Associated Press.
  57. ^ Aggarwal, Mayank (January 21, 2021). "Biden tells staff he will 'fire them on the spot' if they show disrespect to colleagues". The Independent. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  58. ^ "Biden's health care plan". Joe Biden's presidential campaign of 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  59. ^ "Joe Biden Lifted His Health Care Plan From Insurance Industry Lobbyists". Jacobin. January 19, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  60. ^ Spangler, Todd. "Biden administration pulls plug on Medicaid work requirements in Michigan". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
  61. ^ Tami Luhby and Jeremy Diamond. "Biden administration announces extension of Affordable Care Act special enrollment by three months". CNN. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
  62. ^ Armour, Stephanie (March 23, 2021). "Biden Administration Extends Enrollment Period for Affordable Care Act". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
  63. ^ Harwood, Analysis by John. "Analysis: Biden strengthens Obama's legacy while seeking his own". CNN. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  64. ^ Biden, Joseph R. (January 21, 2021). "Executive Order on Protecting the Federal Workforce and Requiring Mask-Wearing". White House. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  65. ^ a b c d e Bradner, Eric; Klein, Betsy (January 20, 2021). "Biden targets Trump's legacy with first-day executive actions". CNN. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  66. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (January 21, 2021). "Live Updates: Biden Set to Unveil Covid Response Plan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  67. ^ Biden, Joseph R. (January 21, 2021). "National Strategy for the COVID-19 Response and Pandemic Preparedness" (PDF). The White House. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  68. ^ a b c d e "Biden's COVID-19 plan: Masks, testing, more vaccine supplies". Associated Press. January 21, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  69. ^ "Biden signs executive orders on COVID-19 response, authorizes broader use of Defense Production Act to speed vaccine". The Philadelphia Inquirer. January 21, 2021. Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  70. ^ Vogt, Adrienne (January 21, 2021). "Biden on Covid-19 plan: "This is a wartime undertaking"". CNN. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  71. ^ Collins, Kaitlan; Sullivan, Kate (July 1, 2021). "White House to deploy response teams focused on combating Delta variant of Covid-19". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  72. ^ "Biden signs 10 executive orders to tackle Covid-19". BBC News. January 21, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  73. ^ Allegretti, Aubrey (January 21, 2021). "COVID-19: US president Joe Biden signs 10 executive orders to curb spread of coronavirus". Sky News. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  74. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (January 21, 2021). "Biden Unveils a National Pandemic Response That Trump Resisted". The New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  75. ^ O'Donnell, Kelly (January 24, 2021). "Biden to reinstate Covid travel restrictions Trump rescinded, impose new ban on South Africa". NBC News. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  76. ^ Diaz, Jaclyn (January 25, 2021). "Biden To Implement Travel Restrictions To Combat New Coronavirus Variants". NPR. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  77. ^ Saenz, Arlette; LeBlanc, Paul (January 24, 2021). "Biden to reinstate Covid-19-related travel restrictions lifted by Trump". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  78. ^ Shepardson, David (January 24, 2021). "Biden to impose South Africa travel ban to combat new COVID-19 variant". Reuters. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  79. ^ Belkin, Douglas (January 30, 2021). "CDC to Require Masks on All Forms of Public Transportation". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  80. ^ "Biden Rebuffs EU, AstraZeneca and Says U.S. Will Keep Its Doses". Bloomberg L.P. March 13, 2021.
  81. ^ "EU exported 77 million COVID-19 vaccines since December Commission". Reuters. March 25, 2021.
  82. ^ "Blocked by the EU's export ban, Japan got its first AstraZeneca vaccines from the US instead". Yahoo! Sports. April 1, 2021.
  83. ^ "Biden administration supports waiving patent protections for Covid vaccines to raise global production". NBC News. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  84. ^ "Covid: Macron calls on US to drop vaccine export bans". BBC. May 8, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  85. ^ "Biden orders review of US intelligence on origins of coronavirus". Al Jazeera. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  86. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra; Madhani, Aamer (July 22, 2021). "Biden says getting COVID-19 vaccine 'gigantically important'". Associated Press. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  87. ^ "Covid misinformation on Facebook is killing people - Biden". BBC News. July 17, 2021. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  88. ^ "Sweeping new vaccine mandates for 100 million Americans". AP NEWS. September 9, 2021.
  89. ^ "Biden tells legal challengers to 'have at it' after announcing vaccine mandate". The Week.
  90. ^ Wagner, Erich (January 22, 2021). "Biden to Sign Executive Order Killing Schedule F, Restoring Collective Bargaining Rights". Government Executive. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  91. ^ Ogrysko, Nicole (January 22, 2021). "Biden to repeal Schedule F, overturn Trump workforce policies with new executive order". Federal News Network. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  92. ^ Wagner, Erich (December 14, 2020). "As White House Steps Up Schedule F Implementation, 'Lawmakers Don't Get It'". Government Executive. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  93. ^ Boak, Josh (January 22, 2021). "Biden's executive actions for economic relief at a glance". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 30, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  94. ^ Lienhard, Kelly (January 22, 2021). "Biden Axes Trump's EO That Made It Easier To Fire Career Scientists". Inside Health Policy. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  95. ^ McBride, William; Watson, Garrett (February 2021). "Evaluating Proposals to Increase the Corporate Tax Rate and Levy a Minimum Tax on Corporate Book Income" (PDF). Fiscal Fact. Tax Foundation (751). Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  96. ^ a b Nazaryan, Alexander (April 14, 2021). "Biden breaks with Obama, as well as Trump, on everything from Afghanistan to spending". Yahoo. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  97. ^ Emily Graffeo; Lu Wang (November 3, 2021). "S&P 500 Is Up 37% Since Biden's Election One Year Ago, Setting Presidential Record". Bloomberg News.
  98. ^ a b c d Alonso-Zaldivar, Ricardo; Barrow, Bill (January 14, 2021). "Biden unveils $1.9T plan to stem COVID-19 and steady economy". Associated Press. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  99. ^ a b c d e f "President-elect Biden Announces American Rescue Plan" (PDF). The White House. January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  100. ^ a b c d e Dodge, Garen E.; Sholinsky, Susan Gross (January 19, 2021). "What's in President-Elect Biden's COVID-19 American Rescue Plan?". The National Law Review. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  101. ^ The White House (January 21, 2021). "01/20/21: Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jen Psaki". YouTube.
  102. ^ Montanaro, Domenico (March 13, 2021). "The COVID-19 Relief Bill Passed. What's Biden's Next Big Move?". NPR. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  103. ^ "Early in Biden's presidency, GOP shows the places they'll go". The Washington Post. March 6, 2021.
  104. ^ Pramuk, Jacob (March 11, 2021). "Biden signs $1.9 trillion Covid relief bill, clearing way for stimulus checks, vaccine aid". CNBC. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  105. ^ Biden Jr., Joseph R. (January 25, 2021). "Executive Order on Ensuring the Future Is Made in All of America by All of America's Workers". The White House. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  106. ^ Lobosco, Katie (January 25, 2021). "Biden signs executive order aimed at strengthening American manufacturing". CNN. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  107. ^ Davis, Bob (January 24, 2021). "Biden Team Promises New Look in Trade Policy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  108. ^ Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (January 26, 2021). "Biden set his sights on China". Axios. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  109. ^ Swanson, Ana (January 26, 2021). "Biden's Commerce Pick Vows to Combat China and Climate Change". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  110. ^ Davis, Bob; Hayashi, Yuka (March 28, 2021). "New Trade Representative Says U.S. Isn't Ready to Lift China Tariffs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
  111. ^ Klein, Betsy. "US suspends all diplomatic trade engagement with Myanmar after weekend of violence against pro-democracy protesters". CNN. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
  112. ^ Chait, Jonathan (September 25, 2020). "Economic Forecast: Biden Plan Will Create 7 Million More Jobs Than Trump". Intelligencer. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  113. ^ Zeballos-Roig, Joseph (September 27, 2020). "Joe Biden's plan would create 7 million more jobs than Trump, according to one economic forecast". Business Insider. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  114. ^ Schwartz, Brian (January 21, 2021). "Joe Biden's business allies discuss ways to pay for infrastructure plan, including a carbon tax". CNBC. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  115. ^ "Biden signs infrastructure bill, marking victory in hard-fought legislative battle". NBC News. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
  116. ^ Stein, Jeff (April 24, 2021). "White House's new $1.8 trillion 'families plan' reflects ambitions — and limits — of Biden presidency". The Washington Post.
  117. ^ Stein, Jeff; Pager, Tyler (April 19, 2021). "White House closes in on 'families plan' spending proposal centered on child care, pre-K, paid leave". The Washington Post.
  118. ^ Tankersley, Jim (April 22, 2021). "Biden Will Seek Tax Increase on Rich to Fund Child Care and Education". The New York Times.
  119. ^ Davidson, Kate; Hannon, Paul (July 1, 2021). "U.S. Wins International Backing for Global Minimum Tax". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  120. ^ "Executive Order on Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad". The White House. January 27, 2021.
  121. ^ Sommer, Lauren (January 20, 2021). "Biden Moves Quickly On Climate Change, Reversing Trump Rollbacks". NPR. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  122. ^ Volcovici, Valerie; Hunnicutt, Trevor (January 20, 2021). "Biden set to rejoin Paris climate accord, impose curbs on U.S. oil industry Author of the article". Financial Times. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  123. ^ "Secretary-General welcomes US return to Paris Agreement on Climate Change". UN News. United Nations. January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  124. ^ Rice, Doyle. "Biden is taking bold action on climate change and the environment: Here's what we know about the Paris Agreement and the Keystone XL". USA Today. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  125. ^ Ferguson, Danielle. "South Dakota tribes applaud cancellation of Keystone XL Pipeline, Thune decries 'bad decision'". Argus Leader. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  126. ^ Brown, Matthew (January 22, 2021). "Biden halts oil and gas leases, permits on US land and water". Associated Press. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  127. ^ Quinn, Melissa (January 28, 2021). "'It's time to act': Biden rolls out new actions on climate change". CBS News. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  128. ^ Ebbs, Stephanie; Kolinovsky, Sarah (January 27, 2021). "Biden says tackling climate change will create jobs, bring economic recovery". ABC News. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  129. ^ Waldman, Scott. "Five Things in Biden's Climate Day Orders That Flew Under the Radar". Scientific American. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  130. ^ Hillbrand, Alex; Doniger, David (January 27, 2021). "Biden Announces Move to Ratify Kigali Amendment on HFCs". NRDC. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  131. ^ Quinn, Melissa (March 18, 2021). "21 states sue Biden for revoking Keystone XL pipeline permit". CBS News. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
  132. ^ Josh Lederman (March 17, 2021). "21 Republican-led states sue Biden over Keystone XL rejection". NBC News.
  133. ^ "Biden invites Russia, China to first global climate talks". AP News. March 27, 2021. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
  134. ^ "Biden Administration Backs Oil Sands Pipeline Project". The New York Times. July 24, 2021.
  135. ^ Zarrin Ahmed (May 26, 2021). "EPA ends secret science studies rule". UPI.
  136. ^ Frazin, Rachel (May 26, 2021). "EPA officially nixes Trump 'secret science' rule". The Hill. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  137. ^ Warren Cornwall (January 6, 2021). "Trump's new rule restricting EPA's use of certain science could have short life". Science Magazine.
  138. ^ Rachel Frazen (February 1, 2021). "Court tosses Trump EPAs Secret Science Rule". The Hill.
  139. ^ Federman, Adam. "Biden freezes oil leases in Alaska refuge pending new environmental review". Politico. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  140. ^ Dutton, Jack. "Biden Admin Set to Auction Off Over 80 Million Acres to Oil and Gas Drilling Companies". Newsweek. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  141. ^ "Companies bid $192 million in 1st Gulf oil sale under Biden". The Columbian. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  142. ^ a b c Matthew Daly (November 26, 2021). "Biden sets out oil, gas leasing reform, stops short of ban". Associated Press.
  143. ^ Joshua Partlow & Darryl Fears, Biden proposes 20-year drilling ban around Chaco Culture National Historical Park, a sacred tribal site, Washington Post (November 15, 2021).
  144. ^ Dartunorro Clark, Biden administration approves second major offshore wind project, to provide power to N.Y., NBC News (November 24, 2021).
  145. ^ Dino Grandoni, Biden administration approves first offshore wind farm to supply power to New York, Washington Post (November 24, 2021).
  146. ^ "Hoyer introduces $9B bill bolstering Biden's deforestation vow at COP26". The Hill. November 3, 2021.
  147. ^ "COP26: World leaders promise to end deforestation by 2030". BBC News. November 2, 2021.
  148. ^ "Over 100 global leaders pledge to end deforestation by 2030". Reuters. November 3, 2021.
  149. ^ a b "Plan for a Government that Works For the People". Joe Biden for President: Official Campaign Website. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  150. ^ Narea, Nicole (January 20, 2021). "Biden is already rolling back Trump's immigration legacy". Vox. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  151. ^ "Reinstating Deferred Enforced Departure for Liberians". The White House. January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  152. ^ Axelrod, Tal (January 21, 2021). "These are the executive orders Biden has signed so far". The Hill. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  153. ^ Priscilla, Alvarez (January 20, 2021). "DHS pauses some deportations for 100 days". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  154. ^ Priscilla, Alvarez (January 22, 2021). "Texas attorney general sues Biden administration over deportation pause". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  155. ^ Merchant, Nomaan (January 26, 2021). "Judge bars Biden from enforcing 100-day deportation ban". Associated Press. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  156. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. "Biden wants to remove this controversial word from US laws". CNN. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  157. ^ "Aliens and Nationality". Article Immigration and Nationality, act No. 8 USC 1101 of June 30, 1965.
  158. ^ "Readout of President Joe Biden Call with President Andrés Manuel López Obrador of Mexico". The White House. January 23, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  159. ^ Mark, Stevenson; Gillies, Rob; Madhani, Aamer (January 23, 2021). "Mexican leader says Biden offers $4B for Central America". ABC News. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  160. ^ a b c Hackman, Michelle; Siobhan, Hughes (January 23, 2021). "Biden's Immigration Package Faces Steep Odds on Capitol Hill". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  161. ^ a b Fram, Alan (January 23, 2021). "Democrats start reining in expectations for immigration bill". Associated Press. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  162. ^ a b Spagat, Elliot (January 23, 2021). "Biden bets big on immigration changes in opening move". Associated Press. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  163. ^ a b c Kanno-Youngs, Zolan; Shear, Michael D. (February 3, 2021). "Trump Loyalists Across Homeland Security Could Vex Biden's Immigration Policies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  164. ^ Miroff, Nick; Sacchetti, Maria (February 7, 2021). "New Biden rules for ICE point to fewer arrests and deportations, and a more restrained agency". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  165. ^ "US grants Venezuelan migrants temporary protected status". BBC News. March 9, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  166. ^ Gregorian, Dareh (June 1, 2021). "Biden administration officially ends Trump's 'remain in Mexico' asylum policy". NBC News. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
  167. ^ "US formally ends Trump's 'Remain in Mexico' asylum policy". Al Jazeera. June 1, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  168. ^ Montoya-Galvez, Camilo. "Judge orders U.S. to reinstate Trump-era "Remain in Mexico" asylum policy". CBS News. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
  169. ^ "Supreme Court halts reinstating 'Remain in Mexico' policy". AP News. August 20, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
  170. ^ Kumar, Anita (April 23, 2021). "The border turned out to be a better attack on Biden than even Republicans thought". Politico. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  171. ^ Romo, Vanessa (March 11, 2021). "Number Of Unaccompanied Minors Entering U.S. Soared In February". NPR. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  172. ^ Spagat, Elliot (March 17, 2021). "Explainer: Is the US border with Mexico in crisis?". Associated Press. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  173. ^ Mulder, Brandon. "Fact-check: Is the surge of migrant children arriving at border a result of Biden policies?". Austin American-Statesman (March 29, 2021).
  174. ^ Morin, Rebecca (March 15, 2021). "As Biden faces ongoing surge of migrant children, Republicans criticize White House for border crisis". USA Today.
  175. ^ Alvarez, Priscilla (April 29, 2021). "Number of children held in Border Patrol facilities drops 84% since peak last month". CNN. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  176. ^ Lahut, Jake (March 25, 2021). "Biden is giving Kamala Harris the thorniest issue to oversee as VP: immigration". Business Insider. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  177. ^ Julian Resendiz, CBP: Far fewer migrant families, unaccompanied children came across the border in October, Border Report (November 16, 2021).
  178. ^ Austin Landis, Border crossings decline again in October, with drop in families, children, Spectrum News (November 16, 2021).
  179. ^ Tankersley, Jim; Shear, Michael D. (January 23, 2021). "Biden Seeks to Define His Presidency by an Early Emphasis on Equity". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021. In his first days in office, President Biden has devoted more attention to issues of racial equity than any new president since Lyndon B. Johnson, a focus that has cheered civil rights activists and drawn early criticism from conservatives. In his inauguration speech, the president pledged to defeat 'white supremacy', using a burst of executive orders on Day 1 to declare that 'advancing equity, civil rights, racial justice and equal opportunity is the responsibility of the whole of our government.'
  180. ^ Miller, Zeke; Baldor, Lolita C. (January 25, 2021). "Biden to drop Trump's military transgender ban". Associated Press. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  181. ^ Bennet, Geoff; Edelman, Adam (January 25, 2021). "Biden reverses Trump's transgender military ban". NBC News. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  182. ^ Samuels, Brett (January 25, 2021). "Biden administration will look to expedite getting Tubman on $20 bill". The Hill. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  183. ^ Rappeport, Alan (January 25, 2021). "Biden's Treasury will seek to put Harriet Tubman on the $20 bill, an effort the Trump administration halted". The New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  184. ^ Watkins, Eli (May 22, 2019). "Mnuchin punts again on putting Harriet Tubman on the $20 bill". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  185. ^ Judd, Donald (January 25, 2021). "White House recommits to getting Harriet Tubman on $20 bill after Trump delay". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  186. ^ "Executive Order On Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities Through the Federal Government". January 21, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  187. ^ Connelly, Amanda M. (April 6, 2021). "Department of Labor Steps Up Enforcement of Anti-Bias for Government Contractors". The National Law Review (Volume XI, Number 96). Roetzel & Andress. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  188. ^ Beitsch, Rebecca (January 26, 2021). "Biden directs DOJ to phase out use of private prisons". The Hill. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  189. ^ Madhani, Aamer (January 26, 2021). "Biden orders Justice Dept. to end use of private prisons". Associated Press. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  190. ^ Tankersley, Jim; Karni, Annie (January 26, 2021). "Biden Moves to End Justice Contracts with Private Prisons". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  191. ^ Morin, Nicholas Wu and Rebecca. "'Our silence is complicity. We can not be complicit': Biden, Harris meet with Asian American advocates after Atlanta killings". USA Today. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  192. ^ Karni, Annie; Broadwater, Luke (June 17, 2021). "Biden Signs Law Making Juneteenth a Federal Holiday". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
  193. ^ Balsamo, Micahel (April 17, 2021). "Garland rescinds Trump-era memo curtailing consent decrees". Associated Press. Retrieved July 5, 2021 – via ABC News.
  194. ^ "The continuing GOP fiction that President Biden supports defunding police". Washington Post. June 29, 2021. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  195. ^ Liptak, Kevin; Zeleny, Jeff (March 23, 2021). "Biden pushes House-passed gun reforms in the wake of Colorado mass shooting". CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  196. ^ Karni, Annie; Edmondson, Catie (March 23, 2021). "Biden Seeks Assault Weapons Ban and Background Checks". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  197. ^ a b c d e Kristin Fisher (November 5, 2021). "Harris to announce Biden administration's first meeting of the National Space Council". CNN.
  198. ^ Erwin, Sandra (February 5, 2021). "White House to realign responsibilities for space policy oversight". SpaceNews. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  199. ^ Bryan Bender (March 29, 2021). "SCOOP: Biden to renew National Space Council". Politico.
  200. ^ Foust, Jeff (February 4, 2021). "White House endorses Artemis program". SpaceNews. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  201. ^ a b c Bryan Bender & Jonathan Custodio (October 31, 2021). "'It is a game changer': Waging war on climate change from space". Politico.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  202. ^ "Senate confirms former Florida Sen. Bill Nelson to lead NASA". Associated Press. April 29, 2021.
  203. ^ a b "Biden proposes $24.7 billion NASA budget in 2022 to support moon exploration and more". April 9, 2021. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
  204. ^ a b Hoffman, Jason (January 22, 2021). "Biden signs first bill into law as President, granting a waiver to his Defense pick". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  205. ^ "Bill Signing: H.R. 335". The White House. January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  206. ^ Foran, Clare (January 22, 2021). "Senate confirms Lloyd Austin to be first Black defense secretary". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  207. ^ "Watch: Gen. Lloyd Austin's full opening statement in Senate confirmation hearing". WPBS. January 19, 2021.
  208. ^ Holland, Steve; Stewart, Phil (February 10, 2021). "In Pentagon debut, Biden promises break from Trump-era politicization of military". Reuters. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  209. ^ "Biden Announces DOD China Task Force". U.S. Department of Defense.
  210. ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Lubold, Gordon; Youssef, Nancy A. (June 18, 2021). "U.S. Military to Withdraw Hundreds of Troops, Aircraft, Antimissile Batteries From Middle East". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  211. ^ Biden, Joseph R. (January 23, 2020). "Why America Must Lead Again". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  212. ^ "Remarks by President Biden on America's Place in the World". The White House. February 4, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  213. ^ Hansler, Jennifer (January 26, 2021). "Antony Blinken sworn in as Biden's secretary of state". CNN. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  214. ^ a b c Bernstein, Brittany (January 20, 2021). "Incoming Secretary of State Backs Pompeo's Uyghur Genocide Designation". National Review.
  215. ^ Mauldin, William; Gordon, Michael R. (January 20, 2021). "Blinken Backs Tough Approach to China, Says Will Work With GOP". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  216. ^ a b Mauldin, William (March 19, 2021). "Bitter Alaska Meeting Complicates Already Shaky U.S.-China Ties". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  217. ^ "US and China trade angry words at high-level Alaska talks". BBC News. March 19, 2021. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  218. ^ Taylor, Adam; Rauhala, Emily (March 19, 2021). "The Biden administration gets a taste of China's 'wolf warrior' diplomacy". Washington Post. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  219. ^ Wright, Thomas (March 21, 2021). "The U.S. and China Finally Get Real With Each Other". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  220. ^ Macias, Amanda (April 6, 2021). "U.S. considering joining boycott of 2022 Beijing Olympics, State Department says". CNBC. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  221. ^ "Xiaomi Removed from US Blacklist by Biden Administration, Reversing Late China Jab by Donald Trump". News 18. May 12, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  222. ^ "Biden expands US investment ban on Chinese firms". BBC News. June 3, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  223. ^ "Biden airs hypersonic missile fears as probable ambassador labels China 'untrustworthy'". Deutsche Welle. October 20, 2021.
  224. ^ O’Grady, Mary Anastasia (September 6, 2021). "Opinion | A Sanction Worth Lifting in Cuba". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
  225. ^ Nichols, Michelle (June 23, 2021). "U.S. again votes against U.N. call to end Cuba embargo". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  226. ^ "UN General Assembly calls for US to end Cuba embargo for 29th consecutive year". UN News. June 23, 2021. Archived from the original on July 14, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  227. ^ Rouh, Alex J.; EDT, eh On 7/26/21 at 4:12 PM (July 26, 2021). "Protesters clash in front of White House over Cuba crisis, demand Biden increase pressure". Newsweek. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  228. ^ CNN, By Kylie Atwood, Patrick Oppmann and Jennifer Hansler (July 22, 2021). "Biden administration sanctions Cuban regime in wake of protests | CNN Politics". CNN. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  229. ^ "U.S. announces Cuba sanctions as Biden meets with Cuban American leaders". NBC News. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
  230. ^ "Statement by President Joseph R. Biden, Jr. on Continuing Crackdown in Cuba". The White House. July 22, 2021. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  231. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Robles, Frances (August 9, 2021). "Biden Ramps Up Pressure on Cuba, Abandoning Obama's Approach". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  232. ^ "U.S. sanctions more Cuban officials; Mayorkas meets with Cuban Americans". NBC News. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
  233. ^ a b c d Sanger, David (August 15, 2021). "For Biden, Images of Defeat He Wanted to Avoid". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  234. ^ Macias, Amanda (April 14, 2021). "'It is time to end America's longest war' — Biden announces U.S. troops to leave Afghanistan by Sept. 11". CNBC. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  235. ^ Robertson, Nic (June 24, 2021). "Afghanistan is disintegrating fast as Biden's troop withdrawal continues". CNN.
  236. ^ "Afghanistan stunned by scale and speed of security forces' collapse". The Guardian. July 13, 2021.
  237. ^ Khan, Wajahat (July 9, 2021). "Biden defends Afghanistan pullout as Taliban gain ground". Nikkei Asia.
  238. ^ a b c "Biden defends 'messy' US pullout from Afghanistan". BBC News. August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  239. ^ Prakash, Nidhi (August 16, 2021). "Joe Biden Blamed Afghan Leaders For Giving Up As The Taliban Took Control". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  240. ^ a b Watson, Kathryn (August 16, 2021). "Biden says "buck stops with me" and defends Afghanistan withdrawal". CBS News. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  241. ^ a b Blake, Aaron (August 16, 2021). "Biden says the 'buck stops with me' — while pinning blame on Trump and many Afghans". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  242. ^ "Explosion outside Kabul airport". BBC. August 25, 2021. Archived from the original on August 26, 2021. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  243. ^ "British victims of Kabul terror attack: Foreign Secretary's statement". Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office. August 27, 2021. Archived from the original on August 27, 2021. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  244. ^ "Israeli PM and Biden postpone meeting because of Afghanistan". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  245. ^ "Pentagon warns of further attacks as Biden condemned over Afghan pullout". The Guardian. August 27, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  246. ^ Allen, Nick (August 27, 2021). "Democrats distance themselves from Joe Biden as anger mounts in wake of Kabul bombings". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  247. ^ Allen, Nick (August 26, 2021). "'Impeach Joe Biden': Republican fury grows over Afghanistan debacle". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  248. ^ "Taliban blames U.S. as 1 million Afghan kids face death by starvation". CBS News. October 20, 2021.
  249. ^ Jeff Stein (August 17, 2021). "Biden administration freezes billions of dollars in Afghan reserves, depriving Taliban of cash". Washington Post.
  250. ^ Rogers, Katie; Gall, Carlotta (April 24, 2021). "Breaking With Predecessors, Biden Declares Mass Killings of Armenians a Genocide". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 24, 2021.
  251. ^ Lubold, Gordon; Leary, Alex (March 12, 2021). "Biden Meets World Leaders in Quest for More Covid-19 Vaccine". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  252. ^ a b Roy, Rajesh (March 20, 2021). "U.S., India Vow to Deepen Defense Ties". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  253. ^ King, Noel (March 17, 2021). "Blinken, Austin Work To Revive Asian Alliance To Counter China, North Korea". NPR. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  254. ^ Team, BS Web. "Highlights: Quad will establish peace and prosperity in the world, says PM". Retrieved September 25, 2021.
  255. ^ "Russia Urges Biden to Be 'More Constructive' Over Arms Treaty". The Moscow Times. January 20, 2021.
  256. ^ "Renewed US-Russia nuke pact won't fix emerging arms threats". Associated Press. January 27, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  257. ^ Larger, Thibault; Leonard, Ben (January 23, 2021). "U.S. condemns Russia's arrests of Navalny protesters". Politico. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  258. ^ Chalfant, Morgan (February 4, 2021). "Biden condemns jailing of Navalny in Russia". The Hill. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  259. ^ "Russian opposition leader Navalny back in court as Biden ups pressure on Moscow". Reuters. February 5, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021 – via NBC News.
  260. ^ a b Jennifer Hansler. "Biden administration unveils raft of sanctions on Russia over Navalny poisoning and imprisonment". CNN. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  261. ^ a b Nakashim, Ellen (February 23, 2021). "Biden administration preparing to sanction Russia for SolarWinds hacks and the poisoning of an opposition leader". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  262. ^ De Luce, Dan; Lee, Carol E.; Mitchell, Andrea; Williams, Abigail (March 2, 2021). "U.S., E.U. impose sanctions on Russia over Navalny's poisoning". NBC News. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  263. ^ Seligman, Lara (March 1, 2021). "Duckworth urges Biden admin to release intel on Russian bounties". Politico. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  264. ^ "Remember those Russian bounties for dead U.S. troops? Biden admin says the CIA intel is not conclusive". NBC News. April 15, 2021.
  265. ^ "Intel officials have "low to moderate" confidence in reports of Russian bounties on U.S. troops". Axios. April 15, 2021.
  266. ^ "Joe Biden brands Putin a 'killer', says he will pay for poll meddling". The Times of India. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  267. ^ a b "Nord Stream 2: Biden waives US sanctions on Russian pipeline". BBC News. May 20, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  268. ^ "Biden and Putin conclude high-stakes diplomacy at Geneva summit". CNBC. June 16, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  269. ^ Isachenkov, Vladimir (June 17, 2021). "Putin praises summit result, calls Biden a tough negotiator". Associated Press.
  270. ^ Nicole Gaouette and Zahra Ullah. "Putin praises Biden, calling him a 'professional' following Geneva summit". CNN.
  271. ^ Macias, Amanda (February 19, 2021). "'An attack on one is an attack on all' – Biden backs NATO military alliance in sharp contrast to Trump". CNBC. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  272. ^ Conradis, Brandon (February 19, 2021). "Biden warns European allies that 'democratic progress is under assault'". The Hill. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  273. ^ "France recalls ambassadors to US, Australia over submarine deal".
  274. ^ "Explainer: Why is a submarine deal sparking a diplomatic crisis?".
  275. ^ "Aukus: UK, US and Australia launch pact to counter China". BBC News. September 16, 2021.
  276. ^ "Macron, Biden agree to soothe tensions after submarine row". France 24. September 22, 2021.
  277. ^ Vazquez, Maegan (October 29, 2021). "Biden tells French President the US was 'clumsy' in handling nuclear submarine deal". CNN. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  278. ^ "UN chief 'deeply concerned' by US decision to exit Iran nuclear deal". UN News. May 8, 2018. Archived from the original on May 8, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
  279. ^ Chohan, Kubra; Arik, Burcu (May 9, 2018). "World reacts to US withdrawal from Iran nuclear deal". The Peninsula. Ankara, Turkey. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  280. ^ Lee, Matthew (February 23, 2021). "Biden attempt to resurrect Iran nuke deal off to bumpy start". Associated Press.
  281. ^ De Luce, Dan; Gains, Mosheh; Gubash, Charlene; Welker, Kristen (February 26, 2021). "Biden orders strikes in Syria, retaliating against Iran-backed groups". NBC News.
  282. ^ Wise, Alana (February 26, 2021). "Syria Airstrikes Resurface Lawmakers' Questions Over Presidential Authority". NPR.
  283. ^ Hansler, Jennifer (February 3, 2021). "Biden administration designates Myanmar military takeover as a coup". CNN. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  284. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra; Alper, Alexandra (March 5, 2021). "U.S. blocks Myanmar ministries, military businesses from certain trade". Reuters. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  285. ^ Gaoutte, Nicole. "US and allies sanction Myanmar's military for violent repression of protesters". CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  286. ^ Lynch, Suzanne; McClements, Freya; Clark, Vivienne (March 4, 2021). "Biden 'unequivocal' about Belfast Agreement support as Dublin and London row over NI protocol". The Irish Times. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  287. ^ "Biden administration halts arms sales to UAE and Saudi Arabia". Deutsche Welle. January 28, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  288. ^ Kirchgaessner, Stephanie (January 19, 2021). "Biden administration 'to declassify report' into Khashoggi murder". The Guardian. Washington, D.C. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  289. ^ Knickmeyer, Ellen (February 5, 2021). "Biden ending US support for Saudi-led offensive in Yemen". Associated Press. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  290. ^ Emmons, Alex (April 7, 2021). "Months After Biden Promised to End Support for Yemen War, Congress Still Has No Details". Intercept. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  291. ^ "Top White House aide discussed oil prices with Saudi Arabia". Reuters. October 1, 2021.
  292. ^ "Energy crunch: How high will oil prices climb?". Al-Jazeera. September 27, 2021.
  293. ^ "OPEC-Plus in Driver's Seat As Global Energy Crisis Intensifies". Natural Gas Intelligence. October 6, 2021.
  294. ^ Lafraniere, Sharon; Rashbaum, William K. (July 20, 2021). "Thomas Barrack, Trump Fund-Raiser, Is Indicted on Lobbying Charge". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  295. ^ "The US District Court Indictment against Rashid Al Malik, Thomas Bahrrak and Matthew Grimes". US Department of Justice. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  296. ^ "California CEO and Seven Others Charged in Multi-Million Dollar Conduit Campaign Contribution Case". The US Department of Justice. December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  297. ^ "'Who Are They Paying Secretly Now?': Signs Of UAE Meddling In U.S. Politics Go Ignored". HuffPost. August 10, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  298. ^ "Joe Biden Is Proceeding With Donald Trump's Biggest Arms Deal". HuffPost. April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  299. ^ "UAE Royals Said to Direct Tom Barrack's Influence Campaign". September 28, 2021. Retrieved September 28, 2021.
  300. ^ Alper, Alexandra; Shalal, Andrea (February 5, 2021). "Biden calls for expanded efforts to protect LGBTQ rights globally". Reuters. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  301. ^ Enten, Harry (February 21, 2021). "Analysis: Biden's polling is steadier than Trump's". CNN. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  302. ^ "Biden Begins Term With 57% Job Approval". February 4, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  303. ^ Politi, Daniel (April 25, 2021). "Biden's 100-Day Approval Rating Is Better Than Trump's, but Third-Worst Since Truman". Slate Magazine. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  304. ^ Bowden, John (April 25, 2021). "Biden approval rating stands at 52 percent after almost 100 days in office". The Hill. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  305. ^ Skelley, Geoffrey (August 27, 2021). "Biden's Declining Approval Rating Is Not Just About Afghanistan". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  306. ^ Silver, Nate (January 28, 2021). "How Popular Is Joe Biden?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved September 6, 2021.

External links[edit]