Presidency of Rodrigo Duterte

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Rodrigo Duterte June 2016.jpg
Since June 30, 2016 – (Incumbent)
PartyPDP–Laban

The presidency of Rodrigo Duterte began at noontime of June 30, 2016 following his inauguration as the 16th President of the Philippines, succeeding Benigno Aquino III. His term is expected to end at noontime of June 30, 2022. Congresswoman Leni Robredo from the 3rd district of Camarines Sur also took office as the 14th Vice President of the Philippines on the same day, succeeding Jejomar Binay.

Duterte is the first president from Mindanao[1] and the oldest person to be elected president of the Philippines.[1] He is also the first Philippine president who have experience in the three branches of the government. He is also the first graduate of Lyceum of the Philippines University and San Beda College of Law to become president,[1] the first president who had his marriage annulled,[1] the second Cebuano to become president (the first being Sergio Osmeña), the third Cebuano-speaking to become president (the first being Osmeña and second was Carlos P. Garcia), the fourth Visayan to become president (the first was Osmeña, second was Manuel Roxas, and the third was Garcia)[1] and the third mayor (of Davao City in his case) to be elected president (the first former-mayor president was Emilio Aguinaldo of Cavite El Viejo, and the second was Joseph Estrada of San Juan, Metro Manila).[1]

Duterte is known for his rhetoric such as his comments over adultery[2] and rape[3][4] He has insulted international dignitaries from the United Nations[5] He had poor relations with the Roman Catholic Church, due to his alleged history of being sexually abused by members of the clergy and has repeatedly criticized and insulted aspects of Christianity and its God. The Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines has been a critic of his human rights record since he was still a Mayor of Davao City.[6][7]

Building on the progress of the preceding Aquino administration, the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL) has been signed into law which will establish the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region which has greater autonomy than the existing Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). The new autonomous region will replace the ARMM upon the ratification of the BOL in a plebiscite to be held in 2019. Armed conflict continued in Mindanao. Following the Maute Group-led occupation of Marawi, Duterte has declared martial law throughout Mindanao[8] which was later extended for two years despite the resolution of the Marawi skirmish in a bid to ensure order in the island.

In terms of foreign relations, Duterte has pursued a foreign policy described by his administration as an "independent foreign policy" and pursued greater foreign relations with China and Russia and has distanced his country from its traditional ally the United States. He has adopted a more friendly stance towards China compared to his predecessor and has set aside the previous government policy of using the Philippines v. China international arbitration ruling to assert the Philippines' claims over the South China Sea and its islands.

Transition[edit]

President-elect Rodrigo Duterte (left) and outgoing President Noynoy Aquino (right).

Duterte's presidential transition began on May 30, 2016 when the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed his candidacy the winner of the 2016 Philippine presidential election held on May 9, 2016.[9][10][11] Duterte's transition team was in charge of preparing the new presidential residence, cabinet appointments and cordial meetings between them and the outgoing administration. At the time the transition team was organized, Duterte was leading by a significant margin at the unofficial count by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) and the Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting (PPCRV).[12] Duterte met with various personalities during his transition period, notably, Eduardo V. Manalo, the executive minister of Iglesia ni Cristo religious group.[13] In May 10, Duterte 'promised' that he will 'behave' once he assumes full presidential control.[14]

The transition lasted until the day of Duterte's inauguration on June 30, 2016.

Inauguration[edit]

The inauguration of Rodrigo Duterte as the sixteenth President of the Philippines took place on June 30, 2016 at the Rizal Ceremonial Hall of the Malacañang Palace in Manila. The oath of office was administered by Bienvenido L. Reyes, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. It was the fourth Philippine presidential inauguration to be held in Malacañang, and the first since the Fifth Philippine Republic was started.

The inauguration of Leni Robredo as Vice President commenced at 9:00 a.m. PHT at the Quezon City Reception House, Robredo's official office. By her request, Robredo's oath was administered by two village chiefs, Ronaldo D. Coner, the chief of Barangay Punta Tarawal in Calabanga, Camarines Sur, described as the "smallest, farthest and poorest barangay" in Robredo's home province, Camarines Sur,[15][16] and Regina Celeste San Miguel, the chief of Barangay Mariana, Quezon City where Robredo's office is located.[17]

Personnel[edit]

Judicial appointments[edit]

Duterte appointed the following to the Supreme Court of the Philippines:

Chief Justice[edit]

  1. Teresita Leonardo-de Castro - August 28, 2018 as Chief Justice.
  2. Lucas Bersamin - November 28, 2018 as Chief Justice.

Associate Justices[edit]

  1. Samuel Martires - March 6, 2017 (as Associate Justice), July 26, 2018 (as Ombudsman).
  2. Noel G. Tijam - March 8, 2017
  3. Andres Reyes Jr. - July 12, 2017
  4. Alexander Gesmundo - August 14, 2017
  5. Jose C. Reyes - August 10, 2018
  6. Ramon Paul Hernando - October 10, 2018
  7. Rosmari D. Carandang - November 28, 2018

Changes[edit]

Duterte has fired, removed, resigned, replaced, relieved, rejected and designated several appointed members of his cabinet, some of which were reappointed to other agencies a few weeks after being fired or removed.

2016[edit]

No. Name Position Agency/Department Date Replaced by
1 Leni Robredo Chairperson Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council December 5, 2016 Leoncio Evasco Jr.
Eduardo Del Rosario
2 Al Argosino Deputy Commissioner Bureau of Immigration December 16, 2016 Estanislao Canta (OIC)
Tobias Javier
3 Michael Robles Jose Carlitos Licas (OIC)
Aimee Torrefranca-Neri

2017[edit]

No. Name Position Agency/Department Date Replaced by
1 Rolando Asuncion Director Bureau of Corrections January 6, 2017 Benjamin Delos Santos
2 Peter T. Laviña Administrator National Irrigation Administration March 1, 2017 Ret. Gen. Ricardo Visaya
3 Perfecto Yasay Jr. Secretary Department of Foreign Affairs March 8, 2017 Enrique Manalo (Acting)
Alan Peter Cayetano
4 Avelino Andal 1 Administrator Philippine Coconut Authority March 15, 2017 Romulo Dela Rosa
5 Ismael Sueno Secretary Department of Interior and Local Government April 4, 2017 Catalino Cuy
Ret. Gen. Eduardo Año
6 Gina Lopez Secretary Department of Environment and Natural Resources May 3, 2017 Ret. Gen. Roy Cimatu
7 Cherie Mercado Spokesperson Department of Transportation May 19, 2017 Atty. Leah Quimabao
8 Benjamin P. Reyes Chairman Dangerous Drugs Board May 24, 2017 Ret. Gen. Dionisio Santiago
9 Benjamin Delos Santos Director Bureau of Corrections July 13, 2017 Rey Raagas (OIC)
Ret. Dir. Gen. Ronald dela Rosa
10 Judy Taguiwalo Secretary Department of Social Welfare and Development August 16, 2017 Emmanuel A. Leyco (OIC)
Virginia Orogo (Acting)
Lt. Gen. Rolando Bautista
11 Ret. Capt. Nicanor Faeldon2 Commissioner Bureau of Customs August 21, 2017 Ret. Supt. Isidro Lapeña12
12 Rafael V. Mariano Secretary Department of Agrarian Reform September 6, 2017 Rosalina Bistoyong (OIC)
John Castriciones
13 Rodolfo Salalima Secretary Department of Information and Communications Technology September 22, 2017 Ret. BGen. Eliseo M. Rio, Jr.
14 Martin Diño3 Chairperson Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority September 27, 2017 Wilma Esima
15 Jose Vicente Salazar Chairperson Energy Regulatory Commission October 9, 2017 Agnes Devanadera
16 Paulyn Jean Rosell-Ubial Secretary Department of Health October 10, 2017 Herminigildo V. Valle (OIC)
Francisco Duque
17 Gertrudo de Leon Undersecretary Department of Budget and Management October 20, 2017
18 Ernesto Abella4 Presidential Spokesman Presidential Communications Group October 27, 2017 Harry Roque
19 Isko Moreno5 Chairman North Luzon Railways Corporation
20 Ret. Gen. Dionisio Santiago Chairman Dangerous Drugs Board November 6, 2017 Catalino Cuy
21 Cesar Chavez Undersecretary Department of Transportation November 23, 2017 Timothy James Batan
22 Terry Ridon Chairman Presidential Commission for the Urban Poor December 11, 2017 Noel Felongco14
23 Melissa A. Aradanas6 Commissioners Romeo Halasan Janduga
24 Manuel Serra Jr.7 Randy Halasan
25 Joan Lagunda8 Norman Brillantes Baloro
26 Noel Indonto Melvin Mitra
27 Atty. Elba Cruz President Development Academy of the Philippines December 21, 2017 Magdalena Mendoza (OIC)
Engelbert Caronan Jr.

2018[edit]

No. Name Position Agency/Department Date Replaced by
1 Marcial Amaro III Administrator Maritime Industry Authority January 4, 2018 Ret. Gen. Rey Leonardo Guerrero13
2 Jose Jorge E. Corpuz Chairman Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office January 12, 2018 Ret. Gen. Anselmo Pinili
3 Patricia Licuanan Chairperson Commission on Higher Education January 15, 2018 Prospero de Vera III
4 Amado Valdez Chairman Social Security System February 12, 2018 Aurora Cruz-Ignacio
5 Jose Gabriel La Viña9 Commissioner Ricardo Moldez
6 Vitaliano Aguirre II Secretary Department of Justice April 5, 2018 Menardo I. Guevara
7 Aiza Seguerra Chairperson National Youth Commission Ronald Gian Cardema
8 Dominador Say Undersecretary Department of Labor and Employment April 17, 2018
9 Atty. Karen Jimeno10 Undersecretary for Legal Affairs and Priority Projects Department of Public Works and Highways April 22, 2018
10 Atty. Aimee Torrecampo-Neri Deputy Commissioner Bureau of Immigration May 2, 2018 Marc Red Mariñas (OIC)
11 Roberto Teo Board Member Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority May 7, 2018
12 Wanda Corazon Teo Secretary Department of Tourism May 8, 2018 Bernadette Romulo-Puyat
13 Tingagun Umpa Assistant Secretary Department of Public Works and Highways May 15, 2018
14 Moslemen Macarambon Sr. Assistant Secretary Department of Justice
15 Frederick Alegre Assistant Secretary Department of Tourism Myra Abubakar
16 Cesar Montano Head Tourism Promotions Board May 21, 2018 Arnold Gonzales (OIC)
Maria Venus Tan
17 Mark Tolentino Assistant Secretary Department of Transportation May 22, 2018
18 Rudolf Jurado Chief Office of the Government Corporate Counsel May 28, 2018
19 Noel Patrick Prudente Deputy Commissioner Bureau of Customs May 30, 2018
20 Celestina dela Serna Officer-in-Charge Philippine Health Insurance Corporation June 5, 2018 Roy Ferrer
21 Patricia Yvette Ocampo Chairperson Nayong Pilipino Foundation August 7, 2018
22 Petronilo L. Ilagan Undersecretary Department of Energy August 15, 2018
23 Liza Maza Lead Convenor National Anti-Poverty Commission August 20, 2018 Noel Folengco
24 Katherine de Castro11 Undersecretary of Tourism Advocacy and Public Affairs Department of Tourism August 22, 2018 Edwin R. Enrile
25 Ret. Maj. Jason Aquino Administrator National Food Authority September 11, 2018 Judy Carol L. Dansal (OIC)
26 Mocha Uson Assistant Secretary Presidential Communications Operations Office October 1, 2018
27 Joel Maglunsod Undersecretary Department of Labor and Employment October 2, 2018
28 Ret. Dir. Gen. Ronald dela Rosa Director-General Bureau of Corrections October 12, 2018 Ret. Capt. Nicanor Faeldon
29 Alan Peter Cayetano Secretary Department of Foreign Affairs Teodoro Locsin, Jr.
30 Marc Red Mariñas Deputy Commissioner Bureau of Immigration Atty. Jose Ronaldo P. Ledesma (OIC)
31 Harry Roque Presidential Spokesman Presidential Communications Group October 15, 2018 Salvador Panelo
32 Christopher Go Special Assistant to the President Presidential Management Staff Jesus Melchor Quitain (OIC)
33 Leoncio Evasco Jr. Cabinet Secretary Office of the Cabinet Secretary October 16, 2018 Karlo Nograles
34 Francis Tolentino Political Adviser Office of Political Adviser October 17, 2018
35 Thomas Orbos Undersecretary Department of Transportation
36 Guiling A. Mamondiong Director-General Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Ret. Supt. Isidro Lapeña
37 Maria Lourdes Turalde-Jarabe Undersecretary for Promotive Operations and Programs Department of Social Welfare and Development November 18, 2018
38 Mae Ancheta-Templa Undersecretary for Protective Operations and Programs
39 Hope Hervilla Undersecretary for Disaster Response Management
40 Ret. BGen. Eliseo M. Rio, Jr. Secretary Department of Information and Communications Technology November 19, 2018 Gregorio Honasan
41 Falconi Millar Secretary-General Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council Marcelino Escalada Jr.
42 Jesus Dureza Presidential Adviser Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process November 27, 2018 Gen. Carlito Galvez Jr.
43 Ronald Flores Undersecretary
44 Yeshtern Donn Baccay Assistant Secretary

2019[edit]

No. Name Position Agency/Department Date Replaced by
Notes
^1 As Board Member of Movie and Television Review and Classification Board.
^2 As Deputy Administrator of the Office of the Civil Defense, later as Director-General of the Bureau of Corrections.
^3 As Interior Undersecretary.
^4 As Foreign Affairs Undersecretary.
^5 As Social Welfare Undersecretary, later resigned on October 11, 2018.
^6 As Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council Deputy Director General.
^7 As Member of Philippine Coconut Authority Governing Board
^8 As Assistant Secretary of DENR
^9 As Tourism Undersecretary, later as Agriculture Undersecretary, now resigned on October 17, 2018.
^10 As Undersecretary for Disaster Resiliency of the Presidential Management Staff, later resigned.
^11 As Board Member of IBC-13
^12 As Commissioner of the Bureau of Customs, later he was designated as Director-General of TESDA.
^13 As Commissioner of the Bureau of Customs
^14 As Lead Convenor of the National Anti-Poverty Commission

Major activities[edit]

Speeches[edit]

Laws[edit]

R. A. No. Title / Description Principal Author Date signed
10870 Philippine Credit Card Industry Regulation Law July 17, 2016
10871 Basic Life Support Training in Schools Act
10879 MIMAROPA Act
10881 Amending investment restrictions in specific laws governing adjustment companies
10882 AFP Derivative Retirement Pension for Children/Survivors Act of 2016
10883 New Anti-Carnapping Act of 2016
10884 Balanced Housing Development Program Amendments
10905 An Act requiring all franchise holders or operators of television stations and producers of television programs to broadcast or present their programs with closed captions option, and for other purposes
10906 Anti-Mail Order Spouse Act July 21, 2016
10908 Integrated History Act of 2016
10909 No Shortchanging Act of 2016
10911 Anti-Age Discrimination in Employment Act
10912 Continuing Professional Development Act of 2016
10913 Anti-Distracted Driving Act
10915 Philippine Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Act of 2016
10916 Road Speed Limiter Act of 2016
10918 Philippine Pharmacy Act
10922 Economic and Financial Literacy Act July 22, 2016
10929 Free Internet Access in Public Places Act Bam Aquino August 2, 2017
10931 Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act Bam Aquino August 3, 2017
10932 Anti-Hospital Deposit Law August 5, 2017
10962 Gift Check Act of 2017 December 19, 2017
10963 Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act Koko Pimentel, Tito Sotto
10968 Philippine Qualifications Framework Act January 16, 2018
10969 Free Irrigation Service Act February 2, 2018
11032 Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service Delivery Act Bam Aquino May 28, 2018
11035 Balik Scientist Act
(lit. Returning Scientist Act)
Bam Aquino June 15, 2018
11036 Mental Health Act Risa Hontiveros June 20, 2018
11037 Masustansyang Pagkain para sa Batang Pilipino Act
(lit. Nutritious Food for the Filipino Youth Act)
Risa Hontiveros
11038 Expanded National Integrated Protected Areas System Act Loren Legarda, Sonny Angara June 22, 2018
11039 Electric Cooperatives Emergency and Resiliency Act June 29, 2018
11052 Philippine Food Technology Act
11053 Anti-Hazing Act of 2018
11054 Bangsamoro Organic Law Juan Miguel Zubiri July 26, 2018
11055 Philippine Identification System Act of 2018 Panfilo Lacson August 6, 2018
11057 Personal Property Security Act Bam Aquino August 17, 2018
11058 Occupational Safety and Health Standards Law Joel Villanueva August 20, 2018
11106 Filipino Sign Language Act Nancy Binay November 12, 2018
11148 Kalusugan at Nutrisyon ng Mag-Nanay Act
(lit. Health and Nutrition for Mother and Child Act)
Ralph Recto November 29, 2018
11663 National Bible Day Act Manny Pacquiao December 20, 2018
11665 Telecommuting Act Joel Villanueva
11666 Philippine HIV and AIDS Policy Act of 2018 Risa Hontiveros, JV Ejercito

Amendments/Postponements[edit]

R. A. No. Title / Description Principal Author Date signed
10878 Amending Section 74 of Republic Act No. 3844, as amended by Republic Act No. 10374 known as the "Agricultural Land Reform Code" July 17, 2016
10910 Section 11 of Republic Act No. 3019, as amended, known as the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act July 21, 2016
10917 An Act Amending Certain Provisions of Republic Act No. 9547, known as an Act Strengthening and Expanding the Coverage of the Special Program for Employment of Students, Amending for the Purpose Provisions of Republic Act No. 7323, known as the Special Program for Employment of Students
10923 An Act postponing the October 2016 Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan Elections, Amending for the Purpose Republic Act No. 9164, as amended by Republic Act No. 9340 and Republic Act No. 10656, Prescribing Additional Rules Governing the Conduct of Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan Elections and for Other Purposes October 15, 2016
10927 An Act Designating Casinos as Covered Persons under Republic Act No. 9160, known as the "Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2001" July 14, 2017
10928 Amending Section 10 of Republic Act No. 8239, known as the "Philippine Passport Act of 1996" August 2, 2017
10930 An Act Rationalizing and Strengthening the Policy Regarding Driver’s License by Extending the Validity Period of Drivers’ Licenses, and Penalizing Acts in Violation of its Issuance and Application, Amending for Those Purposes Section 23 of Republic Act No. 4136, as Amended by Batas Pambansa Blg. 398 and Executive Order No. 1011, Otherwise Known as The Land Transportation and Traffic Code
10932 An Act Strengthening the Anti-Hospital Deposit Law by Increasing the Penalties for the Refusal of Hospitals and Medical Clinics to Admintster Appropriate Initial Medical Treatment and Support in Emergency or Serious Cases, Amending for the Purpose Batas Pambansa Bilang 702, Otherwlse Known as “An Act Prohibiting the Demand of Deposits or Advance Payments for the Confinement or Treatment of Patients in Hospitals and Medical Clinics in Certain Cases”, As Amended by Republic Act No. 8344, and for Other Purposes Risa Hontiveros August 3, 2017
10951 An Act Adjusting the Amount or the Value of Property and Damage on Which a Penalty is Based and the Fines Imposed Under the Revised Penal Code, Amending for the Purpose Act No. 3815, Otherwise Known as “The Revised Penal Code”, as Amended August 29, 2017
10952 An Act Postponing the October 2017 Barangay and Sangguniang Katabaan Elections, Amending for the Purpose Republic Act No. 9164, as Amended by Republic Act No. 9340, Republic Act No. 10632, Republic Act No. 10656, and Republic Act No. 10923, and for Other Purposes October 2, 2017

National budget[edit]

R. A. No. Title Principal Sponsor Date signed
10924 General Appropriations Act of 2017 Loren Legarda December 22, 2016
10964 General Appropriations Act of 2018 Loren Legarda December 19, 2017

First year[edit]

July[edit]

Duterte delivers his speech during the turnover rites of the Armed Forces of the Philippines at Camp Aguinaldo

Shortly after his inauguration, Duterte held his first Cabinet meeting to lay out his plans for the Cabinet, which included the establishment of a 24-hour complaint office covering the entire country and advancing the country's disaster risk reduction management, lamenting its current status after recalling his personal encounter with the previous administration's failure to address the lack of basic needs of the victims of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in 2013.[18] He laid out his plan to decongest the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila, the country's main gateway, by transferring the operations of domestic flights to Clark International Airport in Angeles, Pampanga and constructing a road network between Angeles and Manila while his government reviews the possibility of constructing a new airport at the Naval Station Sangley Point in Cavite.[19] He also advised the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines not to provide him and his Cabinet officials with special priority treatment different from ordinary citizens.[20] Duterte pointed out the healthcare in the Philippines, saying that the country could learn from the healthcare in Cuba and ordered his Health Secretary, Paulyn Ubial, to travel to Cuba.[21] Occurring twelve days prior to the announcement of the outcome of the Philippines' arbitration case against China over the territorial disputes in the South China Sea, Duterte said that he and his Foreign Secretary, Perfecto Yasay, Jr., will study the implications of the ruling in order to better plan any further steps taken by the government to address the issue.[22][23][24] Duterte also expressed his willingness to stop the online gambling industry.[25] After the Cabinet meeting, President Duterte met with representatives from militant groups to discuss the "People’s Agenda for Change" plan.[26]

On July 1, 2016, a day after the inauguration, President Duterte attended the change-of-command ceremonies for the new Philippine National Police chief Ronald de la Rosa[27] and the new Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) chief-of-staff Ricardo Visaya.[28] During the AFP's change-of-command rites, Duterte personally and briefly met his Vice President Leni Robredo for the first time.[29]

Vice President Leni Robredo pays a courtesy call on President Duterte at the Malacañang Palace, July 4, 2016

Robredo later paid a courtesy call on Duterte in the Malacañang Palace on July 4, 2016.[30] Three days later, Duterte appointed Robredo to a Cabinet position (as the head of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council).[31] Duterte earlier said that he had no plans to appoint Robredo to a Cabinet position due to his unfamiliarity with her and his friendship with Bongbong Marcos, Robredo's closest rival in the vice presidential election.[32] (In relation to this friendship with Marcos, Duterte had earlier announced on May 23 that he would make good his campaign promise to allow the immediate transfer of late dictator Ferdinand Marcos' remains from the former President's home province to the Libingan ng mga Bayani.[33] The controversial burial with honors has been scheduled for September.

President Duterte issued his first executive order on July 4, entitled "Reengineering the Office of the President Towards Greater Responsiveness to the Attainment of Development Goals". In the executive order, 12 agencies under the Office of the President who focused on anti-poverty programs, including Cooperative Development Authority, Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council, National Anti-Poverty Commission, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, National Commission on Muslim Filipinos, National Food Authority, National Youth Commission, Office of the President-Presidential Action Center, Philippine Coconut Authority, Presidential Commission on the Urban Poor, Philippine Commission on Women, and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, will be placed under the supervision of Cabinet Secretary Leoncio Evasco, Jr.[34] Duterte said he will end insurgency and war conflicts in the Mindanao, before the term ends, through peace negotiations between the government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and other Moro groups.[35] Duterte noted that the intervention of foreign countries, including the United States, caused the worsened war situation in the Middle East countries including Iraq and Libya.[36]

On 12 July 2016 the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) tribunal agreed unanimously with the Philippines in the international case, Philippines v. China, which former president Noynoy Aquino initiated in January 2013. In its award, it concluded that there is no evidence that China had historically exercised exclusive control over the waters or resources, hence there was "no legal basis for China to claim historic rights" over the area within the nine-dash line.[37][38] The tribunal also judged that the PRC had caused "severe harm to the coral reef environment",[39] and that it had violated the Philippines' sovereign rights in its Exclusive Economic Zone by interfering with Philippine fishing and petroleum exploration by, for example, restricting the traditional fishing rights of Filipino fishermen at Scarborough Shoal.[40] The PRC rejected the ruling, calling it "ill-founded"". PRC president Xi Jinping insisted that "China's territorial sovereignty and marine rights in the South China Sea will not be affected by the so-called Philippines South China Sea ruling in any way", nevertheless the PRC would still be "committed to resolving disputes" with its neighbours. China afterwards sent more warships in the Scarborough Shoal.[40][41] On the same day, President Duterte has named Finance Undersecretary Gil Beltran as the "Anti-Red Tape Czar".[42] The following day, Duterte met with House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr., and her daughter, Quezon City Vice Mayor Joy Belmonte, the top officials of the Asian Development Bank and Cebu Archbishop Emeritus Ricardo Cardinal Vidal for a series of courtesy calls and meetings.[43] On July 14, President Duterte attended the thanksgiving dinner organized by his fellow alumni from the San Beda College of Law at the Club Filipino, San Juan.[44] President Duterte has offered former President Fidel V. Ramos to become the Philippines' special envoy to China on the planned bilateral talks between two countries, in connection with the ongoing South China Sea (West Philippine Sea) dispute.[45]

On July 18, 2016, President Duterte, together with Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) chairman Butch Ramirez and Philippine Olympic Committee (POC) president Jose Cojuangco Jr., led the send-off ceremonies for the Philippine delegation in the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil at the Rizal Hall of Malacañang.[46] After the send-off, Duterte met with Miss Universe 2015 Pia Wurtzbach for a courtesy call to discuss the possibility of the Philippines hosting next year's Miss Universe.[47] Two days before his first State of the Nation Address, on July 23, President Duterte signed the Freedom of Information Order that covered all offices under the executive branch.[48]

Duterte delivers his first State of the Nation Address, July 25, 2016

On July 25, 2016, President Duterte delivered his first State of the Nation Address.[49]

On July 27, 2016, President Duterte met with United States Secretary of State John Kerry, the first foreign minister Duterte met with as president and the highest ranking diplomat he met with since his inauguration, to discuss cooperation between the Philippines and the United States under the Duterte administration following the Permanent Court of Arbitration's ruling in favor of the Philippines against China's claim over the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[50][51] Later that day, the first National Security Council meeting under the Duterte presidency was held. It was attended by former presidents and NSC members Fidel Ramos, Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, and Benigno Aquino III, together with Vice President Leni Robredo, Senate President Koko Pimentel, House Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez, and other cabinet secretaries.[52] By the end of July, opposition to a charter change (cha-cha) was at 44% of the population, while opposition to a shift to a federal form of government was at 33%.[53]

August[edit]

On August 1, 2016, President Duterte led a mass oath-taking ceremony of 23 newly appointed government officials. Shortly after the oath taking, Duterte made a press conference to the journalists of the privately owned media outfits, ending Duterte's boycott on media.[54] In August 5, Duterte criticized CPP founder Joma Sison for having no capability to control even a single barangay, communist rebels for being 'arrogant', and former US ambassador to the Philippines Philip Goldberg due to an argument which led to Duterte calling Goldberg a 'homosexual'.[55] On the same day, Pamplona, Cagayan vice mayor Aaron Sampaga was shot dead by unidentified gunmen.[56]

On August 7, 2016, President Duterte, who was at the wake of four soldiers killed in an encounter with communist rebels in Camp Panacan, Davao City, delivered a speech wherein he named local government officials, court judges and police officers who are all involved in illegal drug trade.[57][58] In August 17, Duterte accused senator and drug war critic Leila de Lima for being an 'immoral woman' due to an alleged sex video, repeating the backlash again in August 21.[55]

On September 2, an bomb exploded in Duterte’s hometown, Davao City. The bombing was later blamed on members of local terrorists known as Maute Group.[59] The incident prompted Duterte to declare a "state of lawlessness" in the country, which would remain in effect for over a year.[60] In early September, Duterte made his first foreign trip as head of state, attending the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit in Laos.[61] Before leaving for his first international summit, Duterte quickly made international headlines after slamming then-US president Barack Obama and calling him a "son of a whore”[62] in Filipino language, warning the US leader not to criticize him on human rights issues brought about by the Philippines’ controversial drug war.[63] During this time in the House of Representatives, Duterte critic Leila de Lima faced a series of investigations on the alleged drug trade in the NBP, with De Lima refusing to attend, calling it a “sham inquiry” and a mere ploy to discredit her. In the Senate’s probe on extrajudicial killings related to the drug war, De Lima presented Edgar Matobato, a self-confessed hitman and member of the so-called Davao Death Squad. Matobato testifies that Duterte ordered the group to execute people back when he was Davao City mayor.[64] However, this was later refuted and disproven,.[65][65][66] and it was labeled as 'hearsay' and 'lies' by Duterte.[67][68] By the end of September, Duterte again stirred up international reactions when he drawn parallels between his drug war and the annihilation of 3 million Jews during the Holocaust Duterte also proudly said that he was being portrayed as a “cousin” of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler.[69] He later apologized for his remarks, saying "There was never an intention on my part to derogate the memory of 6 million Jews murdered by the Germans".[70] In September 22, Duterte told media that he does not 'know the name of that fool', referring to United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. On the same day, he criticized the European Union for criticizing his speeches and campaign against drugs.[55]

Duterte handshakes with Chinese President Xi Jinping prior to the bilateral meetings at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on October 20, 2016

In October 4, Duterte again hit Barack Obama, this time calling on Obama to 'go to hell'.[55] In October 10, Duterte resumed his word war with the Catholic Church, cursing bishops and priests who criticized his war against drugs.[71] In October 13, the President signed an administrative order creating a presidential task force to probe media killings.[72] This comes several months after he was criticized for remarks he made as president-elect, when he justified the killing of allegedly corrupt members of the media.[73] In October 18, Duterte visited China to strengthen diplomatic ties between the two countries amid tensions in disputed South China Sea territories.[74] During a trade and investment forum in Beijing, Duterte announced the Philippines’ separation from the United States and his decision to move closer to China, although the US embassy reports that no formal request was made to severe Philippine-US ties.[75] Duterte’s Cabinet members later clarified[76] the President’s statements, and Duterte himself said two days later he was not cutting ties with the US.[77] In October 19, police clashed with protesters outside the US embassy in Manila. Several protesters, mostly indigenous peoples protesting alleged military and US presence in their ancestral lands, were injured after a police van repeatedly ran over the them.[78] In October 28, Datu Saudi-Ampatuan, Maguindanao mayor Samsudin Dimaukom was killed in an alleged shootout with state operatives in Makilala, Cotabato.[79]

In November 5, Albuera, Leyte mayor Rolando Espinosa Sr, who has allegedly linked to the drug trade, was killed inside his jail cell in a reported shootout with personnel from the Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG).[80] In November 8, the Supreme Court issued its verdict which paved the way for a Duterte campaign promise to the bury the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng mga Bayani (Heroes’ Cemetery). Thousands rallied in protest against the verdict.[81] In November 14, the Philippine peso dropped to an almost 8-year low against the US dollar.[82] In November 16, Duterte's allies downplayed the President's earlier statements that he was "tempted" to declare martial law to solve the drug problem in the country.[83] In November 18, Ferdinand Marcos was buried with full military honors at the Heroes’ Cemetery, without advance notice to the media.[84] The sudden burial of Marcos, “like a thief in the night,” as critics called it, sparked national outrage, especially among those who suffered human rights abuses under the Marcos regime. Thousands of protesters, organized by the youth and democracy groups, staged protests nationwide to express their strong disappointment and rage against the heroic burial of the dictator who killed thousands of Filipinos under his martial regime. The protests also aimed to be a form of defiance against the intense rise of drug war killings in the country since Duterte took office last June 30. The protest was continuously held from November 18 to November 30, becoming the longest continuous protest in the Philippines in 2016.[85] In November 20, the Judicial and Bar Council also held public interviews for candidates vying for the seats of two retiring Supreme Court justices.[86] In November 26, Datu Saudi-Ampatuan, Maguindanao vice mayor Anwar Sindatok was shot dead at close range.[87]

Protesters opposing the heroes' burial of the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos.

In December 4, five months after the President offered Vice President Leni Robredo a Cabinet post through a phone call, the Vice President resigned from the Cabinet. Robredo announced her resignation from her post as housing chair after she received a text message from Cabinet Secretary Jun Evasco Jr, “to desist from attending all Cabinet meetings starting December 5.”[88] In December 6, the National Bureau of Investigation said that the death of Albuera Mayor Espinosa was a "rubout" and recommended criminal charges against the 24 CIDG operatives involved, which included police superintendent Marvin Marcos.[89] In December 7, a bill for the reimposition of the death penalty hurdled the House committee level.[90] In response, the United Nations warned that the Philippines will violate international law if it reintroduces capital punishment.[91] In December 11, celebrating International Human Rights Day, militant groups march to Mendiola Street in Manila. This was the first protest to feature a mixed effigy of Duterte, along with Ferdinand Marcos, and the United States flag.[92]

Duterte admitting he was taking the opioid drug Fentanyl.[93]

In December 18, Duterte admitted that he was taking the addictive opioid drug Fentanyl, a powerful painkiller often prescribed for cancer pain and other chronic ailments, beyond the recommended dose because of a spinal injury from previous motorcycle accidents., which have the side-effects including confusion, anxiety and hallucinations.[93] In December 17, Duterte endorsed senator Manny Pacquiao as his possible successor when his term ends in 2022.[94] Additionally, Duterte suffers from Buerger's disease and Barrett's esophagus, but has denied insider reports that he has throat cancer.[95] In December 19, a survey showed that most Filipinos are worried about becoming the next victims of the drug war.[96] In December 22, Duterte said that UN High Commission for Human Rights Zeid Raad Al Hussein has 'lack' of knowledge in international law, further saying that he pays the commissioner's salary.[55] On Christmas Eve, an explosion outside a church in Midsayap, Cotabato injured at least 13 people.[97] Duterte linked the bombing, as well as the September blast in Davao City, to the international terror group Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).[98] In December 29, Pantar, Lanao del Norte mayor Mohammad Exchan Limbona was killed in an ambush in Iligan.[99]

Domestic policy[edit]

Burial of Ferdinand Marcos[edit]

In November 8, the Supreme Court issued its verdict which paved the way for a Duterte campaign promise to the bury the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng mga Bayani (Heroes’ Cemetery). Thousands rallied in protest against the verdict.[81] In November 14, the Philippine peso dropped to an almost 8-year low against the US dollar.[82] In November 16, Duterte's allies downplayed the President's earlier statements that he was "tempted" to declare martial law to solve the drug problem in the country.[83] In November 18, Ferdinand Marcos was buried with full military honors at the Heroes’ Cemetery, without advance notice to the media.[84] The sudden burial of Marcos, “like a thief in the night,” as critics called it, sparked national outrage, especially among those who suffered human rights abuses under the Marcos regime. Thousands of protesters, organized by the youth and democracy groups, staged protests nationwide to express their strong disappointment and rage against the heroic burial of the dictator who killed thousands of Filipinos under his martial regime.

Communist insurgency[edit]

In July 2016, Duterte directed his peace process advisor for the CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion, Silvestre Bello III, to lead a government panel in resuming peace talks with the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), the New People's Army (NPA), and the National Democratic Front (NDF) in Oslo, Norway, expressing hope that a peace treaty between the rebellions would be reached within a year.[100] The first talks began on August 22–26, 2016, in which the parties agreed upon "the affirmation of previously signed agreements, the reconstitution of the Joint Agreement on Safety and Immunity Guarantees which 'protects the rights of negotiators, consultants, staffers, security and other personnel involved in peace negotiations',[101] and the accelerated progress for negotiations."[102] In February 2017, due to recent attacks and kidnapping of soldiers by members of the NPA despite the imposed ceasefire by the government and the rebel groups, President Duterte cancelled all negotiations with the CPP–NPA–NDF and labeled them a terrorist group.[103] He also ordered the arrest of all NDF negotiators.[104] Military offensive against the group resumed after Duterte's cancellation of ceasefire.[105]

Death penalty[edit]

Duterte speaking with PNP Police Director General Ronald Dela Rosa in the Malacañang Palace on August 16, 2016

During the 2016 election, Duterte campaigned to restore the death penalty in the Philippines.[106][107][108] Duterte, who won the election in May 2016, supports restoration of the death penalty by hanging.[109] It has been reported that he wants capital punishment for criminals involved in illegal drugs, gun-for-hire syndicates and those who commit "heinous crimes" such as rape, robbery or car theft where the victim is murdered.[109] Duterte has theatrically vowed "to litter Manila Bay with the bodies of criminals".[110] In December 2016, the bill to resume capital punishment for certain "heinous offenses" swiftly passed out of Committee in the House of Representatives; it passed the full House of Representatives in February 2017.[111] In March 7, despite fierce criticism, especially from the Catholic Church, the House of Representatives approved on 3rd and final reading the controversial bill.[112] However, the law reinstating the death penalty stalled in the Senate in April 2017, where it did not appear to have enough votes to pass.[113][114]

Drugs[edit]

Duterte presents a chart which he claims illustrates a drug trade network of drug syndicates, on July 7, 2016.
Duterte delivering his first State of the Nation Address at the Batasang Pambansa with Senate President Aquilino Pimentel III and House Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez on July 25, 2016

After his inauguration, Duterte spoke to journalists in Tondo, Manila, where he urged Filipino citizens to voluntarily kill drug pushers and addicts.[115] A day after his inauguration, Duterte requested for the New People's Army, the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines, to "disarm and arrest" drug lords.[116]

On July 5, 2016, Duterte revealed the names of five police officials who were allegedly involved in illegal drug trade.[117] On July 7, during a press conference, Duterte presented a chart identifying three Chinese nationals who serve as drug lords in the Philippines.[118][119]

The Philippine Daily Inquirer published a "kill list".[120] Ifugao Representative Teddy Baguilat urged the Philippine House of Representatives to investigate the "spate of extrajudicial killings and/or summary executions of suspected violators of laws on illegal drugs and other suspected criminals".[121] Senator and former Justice Secretary Leila de Lima urged Duterte's administration to cease the extrajudicial killings and said that she would file a resolution for the Philippine Senate to conduct an investigation.[122] The militant group Bagong Alyansang Makabayan also asked Duterte to investigate the increasing number of extrajudicial killings.[123] The Duterte administration demanded critics to provide evidence.[124]

Protest against the Philippine Drug War in front of the Philippine Consulate General in New York City.

Duterte has justified the drug war by claiming that the Philippines was becoming a "narco-state". According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the prevalence of drug use in the country is lower than the global average.[125] Duterte has dismissed human rights concerns by dehumanizing drug users, stating in August 2016: "Crime against humanity? In the first place, I'd like to be frank with you. Are they humans? What is your definition of a human being?"[126] In the first three months of Duterte's term in office, according to police figures, over 3,000 killings were attributed to his nationwide anti-drug campaign. More than half were attributed to vigilantes. At the beginning of October, a senior police officer told The Guardian that ten "special ops" official police death squads had been operating, and that he had personally been involved in killing 87 suspects. He described how the corpses were dumped at the roadside ("salvage" victims), or had their heads wrapped in masking tape with a cardboard placard labelling them as a drug offender, so that the killing would not be investigated. The chairman of the Commission on Human Rights, Chito Gascon, was quoted in the report: "I am not surprised, I have heard of this." The Philippine National Police declined to comment. The report stated: "although The Guardian can verify the policeman's rank and his service history, there is no independent, official confirmation for the allegations of state complicity and police coordination in mass murder."[127]

Education[edit]

On April 3, 2017, the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act, authored by senator Bam Aquino, was signed into law, paving the way for free college education in all state universities and colleges nationwide.[128][129] The law came into force in August 3, the date colleges and universities begin their classes.

Environment[edit]

Mining[edit]

On February 2, 2017, the mining sector was shaken up after environment secretary Gina Lopez announced the closure of 23 mining operations.[130] Duterte, who has expressed support for Lopez, said that there was nothing he could do about the closures.[131] In May 3, Lopez's appointment as Environment Secretary was rejected by the Commission on Appointments (CA) in a vote of 8–16 on May 3, 2017, amid issues over her controversial policies and alleged incompetence.[132]

Boracay clean-up[edit]

Algae bloom in Boracay last April 25, 2018, a day prior to the island's closure.

In April 4, Duterte announced that the government shall 'close down' all operations within the island of Boracay, the country's number one tourism destination, due to 'environmental concerns'.[133] In April 10, Duterte admitted that the government has 'no master plan' in how to clean-up Boracay, which he called a 'cesspool'.[134] In April 24, more than 600 military personnel were deployed by Duterte in Boracay, confusing the natives on the government's initial environmental wordings.[135][136] In April 26, Boracay's 6-month closure began, and entire island was officially closed to the public.[137]

Federalism[edit]

Duterte advocates federalism as a better system of governance for the Philippines. He argues that regions outside Metro Manila receive unfairly small budgets from the Internal Revenue Allotment. For example, of the ₱5 billion Davao sends monthly to Metro Manila, only 2 or 3 billion ever returns. He also highlights that money remitted to national government is misused by corrupt politicians in the Philippine Congress.[138] However, Duterte said to Muslim leaders in July 2016 that if the majority of Filipinos are against the proposal of federalism, he will push for the Bangsamoro Basic Law, in which only Bangsamoro would become autonomous. He would also revise the law in such a way that the Moro National Liberation Front would receive the same deal as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.[139]

Islamic insurgency in Mindanao[edit]

Duterte welcomes Norwegian Kjartan Sekkingstad following his release from Abu Sayyaf captivity.

Nur Misuari's wife Tarhata Misuari received help from Duterte when he interceded on their behalf after the events of Zamboanga.[140] Duterte has said that Moro dignity is what the MILF and MNLF are struggling for, and that they are not terrorists. He acknowledged that the Moros were subjected to wrongdoing, historical and in territory.[141]

Duterte was endorsed in the election by Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) leader Nur Misuari[142] due to his background in Mindanao.[143] Jesus Dureza was his second choice.[144] Other Muslims also supported Duterte and denounced Roxas, the Aquino-supported pick.[145]

During the Mindanao Hariraya Eid al-Fitr 2016 convention in Davao City on July 8, 2016, Duterte vowed to address the Moro conflict and bring peace in Mindanao, assuring the Filipino Muslim community that "something will change" before the end of his term. He said that the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) both support his proposal for federalism in the Philippines, which he says is the only solution to the Bangsamoro peace process. Duterte said that if the proposal for the country's shift to federalism fails or is not desired by the Filipino people, he will vow to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law, which would establish the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region. He also added that the Basic Law should benefit both MILF and MNLF, saying he is willing to negotiate with both secessionists to initiate a "reconfiguration" of territory.[146][147]

A crowd of Muslims were attending the speech by Duterte where he accused America of bringing terrorism to themselves, saying that terrorism is not the result of the Middle East.[148] He railed against the actions undertaken in the Middle East by the USA.[149] Duterte blamed the war on Mindanao on colonialist Christianity being brought to the Philippines in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, saying there was peace before that and that they were made to fight their "Malay brothers" by Christians.[150]

Duterte meeting with MNLF chairman, founder and former ARMM Governor Nur Misuari, November 3, 2016

The Bud Dajo Massacre inflicted upon the Moros was mentioned by President Duterte to criticize the United States and its President Barack Obama.[151] The massacre was cited a second time by Duterte in criticizing America while calling for the exit of American troops.[152]

On November 6, 2016, Duterte signed an executive order to expand the Bangsamoro Transition Commission to 21 members from 15, in which 11 will be decided by the MILF and 10 will be nominated by the government. The commission was formed in December 2013 and is tasked to draft the Bangsamoro Basic Law in accordance with the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro[153]

Duterte declared that he might have relatives in the ranks of ISIS aligned militants.[154] The NPA received a ceasefire from Duterte over the December holiday in 2016.[155][156]

Labor[edit]

During his campaign for the 2016 presidential election, one of Rodrigo Duterte’s promises was the phasing out of contractualization and improvement to labor in the Philippines. Upon his election, he appointed Silvestre Bello III as Secretary of the Department of Labor and Employment, who considers making all companies put at least 80% of all employees under contract as per the president’s orders. By the end of 2016, around 36000 workers have been regularized. Going into 2017, Duterte and Bello aimed for a new permanent policy that would end labor-only contractualization by the end of February, but Bello wound up not signing it. Instead he decided first for dialogue between the president and labor groups in order to get feedback. Eventually President Duterte met with the labor groups as Bello drafts a new Department Order that would stop labor contractualization. However, by March 16 Bello signs Department Order 174 which sets stricter guidelines on contractualization but doesn’t immediately illegalize it. Duterte however continued his stand against contractualization, promising to sign an Executive Order against it. However, the Marawi crisis ends up postponing the signing. As of 2018, no Executive Order has been signed by President Duterte regarding the complete abolishment of contractualization. A rally was organized by labor groups on March 15, 2018 in protest against the president’s delay of the EO. Eventually on May 1, Duterte signs an EO that would put an end to contractualization, although labor groups criticized the president for his actions since the one signed was not the draft agreed upon with them.[157]

Land reform[edit]

Law and order[edit]

On June 13, 2018, the Philippine National Police launched "Oplan RODY" or "Rid the Streets of Drunkards and Youths" . The campaign targeted to arrest the youth, notably students and jobless young adults who loiter outside their homes.[158] In June 21, records showed that 7,291 youth were arrested by the police just 9 days after the "Oplan RODY" or "Rid the Streets of Drunkards and Youths" campaign was launched, sparking protests nationwide. The record of arrests released were only from Metro Manila, one of the 18 regions in the country.[159] In June 22, Duterte withdrew his position and denied that he ordered the initiation of "Oplan RODY", however, he did not call for the stopping of the campaign.[158]

The anti-loitering campaign met public backlash from various militant groups, the religious sector and human rights activists. On June 27, militant and religious groups protested against the campaign, also called "Oplan Tambay".[160] On June 30, 25-year-old Genesis Argoncillo was arrested by the police for 'not wearing a shirt' under the Oplan RODY campaign of Duterte. Argoncillo was killed a few days later while in prison.[161] On July 6, members of Anakbayan gathered outside QCPD Station 4 to call for justice for Genesis 'Tisoy' Argoncillo, who was allegedly killed by the detainees following his arrest during the Oplan Tambay,[162] by protest.[163]

Lumads[edit]

Indigenous Lumad people appeal to the government to stop the bombings and militarization of their communities and schools. Community schools in Lumads has been alleged to have ties with communist rebels. Holding his suspicions, Duterte has repeatedly threatened the military to bomb Lumad schools last July 24[164] and Nov 17, 2017.[165]

Duterte ordered the bombing of Lumad community schools because of suspicions that they shelter communist rebels.[164] On May 20, 2017, the Armed Forces of the Philippines burned down an entire community of Lumad people, which included a school and 35 houses in the Soccksargen region of Mindanao.[166] On December 8, the Karapatan group asked the United Nations to probe the killings of the Lumad (indigenous peoples of Mindanao), after eight T'boli and Dulangan Manobo farmers were killed by members of the 27th and 33rd Infantry Battalions of the Philippine Army.[167][168]

On February 5, 2018, it was confirmed that the military-conducted killings of Lumad peoples in Mindanao continued. Duterte ordered the military to bomb Lumad schools last July 2017, and has never withdrawn the threat.[169] On July 16, military presence in Surigao del Sur, a traditional Lumad indigenous territory, prompted an expansive Lumad evacuation due to fear from military bombings, leading to protests against Duterte's anti-Lumad campaigns.[170] On July 23, Barug Katungod, a group that monitors the human rights situation in Mindanao, announced that Duterte's Mindanao martial law has shifted focus from terrorism to tribes fighting for ancestral domain, which has caused the massive military killings and threats against the indigenous Lumad peoples.[171] On July 25, it was reported that Lumad evacuees face harassment, and lack of water and food due to constant military attacks and threats.[172] On July 26, Lumad groups demanding the reopening of schools for their children brought their protest by holding the wake for one of their leaders right at the doorsteps of the Department of Education (DepEd) office.[173] On July 26, Lumad groups demanding the reopening of schools for their children brought their protest by holding the wake for one of their leaders right at the doorsteps of the Department of Education (DepEd) office.[173] On August 9, Lumad evacuees formally returned to their homes after days to months in evacuation camps. However, military presence in some areas have continued as Duterte never officially withdrew his statements to bomb Lumad schools.[174]

Poverty[edit]

Tax reform[edit]

On December 19, Duterte signed into law the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act (TRAIN Law), which slightly increased the take-home pay of workers but also increased the taxes on and prices of goods nationwide. The signing of the law exponentially increased the country's inflation rate and diminished the strength of the Philippine peso.[175][176]

The implementation of the TRAIN Law triggered protests from various left-wing groups. On January 15, protesters gathered at various public market sites, calling for the revocation of Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act, a law that has increased the cost of goods exponentially since December 2017.[177] TRAIN law and other issues are also tackled in student protests called "Pambansang Walkout".[178] On May 21, several groups gathered at numerous gas station sites in the country to protest the continuous increase of oil prices, citing the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act (TRAIN Law) as the main cause.[179]

Terrorism[edit]

The Maute group, an ISIS-inspired terrorist group, had reportedly been able to establish a stronghold in Lanao del Sur since early 2016. The group had been blamed for the 2016 Davao City bombing and two attacks in Butig, Lanao del Sur, a town located south of Marawi, in 2016.[180] Before the Duterte administration, the Philippine government had downplayed the threat of ISIS in the Philippines.[181] Even after the February 2016 Butig clash with the Maute group, then-President Benigno Aquino III discounted the possibility of the Islamic State's presence in the country. He said that those behind the attack were just mercenaries wanting to be recognized by the Middle East-based terror group.[182]

In November 2016, President Duterte confirmed the Maute group's affiliation with the Islamic State.[180] Amidst fierce fighting in Butig on November 30, 2016, Duterte, in a command briefing in Lanao del Sur, warned the Maute group: "Ayaw ko makipag-away sa inyo. Ayaw ko makipag-patayan, (I do not want to fight with you. I don't want us killing each other) but please, do not force my hand. I cannot be forever traveling here every month para lang makipag-usap (just to talk), at pagtalikod ko patayan na naman (and when I turn around, there's killing again). I do not want to mention anything, but please do not force my hand into it."[183][184] On December 2, 2016, as the military regained control of Butig, the retreating Maute fighters reportedly left a note threatening to behead Duterte.[185]

Pump boats used by local terrorist group Abu Sayyaf during the 2017 Bohol clashes.

On May 23, 2017, clashes between Philippine government security forces and militants affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the Maute and Abu Sayyaf Salafi jihadist groups erupted in the city of Marawi.[186]

A building set ablaze after Duterte ordered the Philippine Air Force to bomb the city of Marawi.

On the same day, Duterte signed Proclamation No. 216 declaring a 60-day martial law in Mindanao following clashes between the AFP and the Maute group in Marawi, Lanao del Sur.[187] He said that the implementation is similar to Proclamation No. 1081 and expressed the possibility of extending the scope of the martial law nationwide if deemed necessary.[188]

The Battle of Marawi became the longest urban battle in the modern history of the Philippines.[189]

According to the Philippine government, the clashes began during an offensive in Marawi to capture Isnilon Hapilon, the leader of the ISIL-affiliated Abu Sayyaf group.[190][191] A deadly firefight erupted when Hapilon's forces opened fire on the combined Army and police teams and called for reinforcements from the Maute group.[192]

Maute group militants attacked Camp Ranao and occupied several buildings in the city, including Marawi City Hall, Mindanao State University, a hospital, and the city jail.[192] They also occupied the main street and set fire to Saint Mary's Cathedral, Ninoy Aquino School, and Dansalan College, which is run by the United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP).[190][193] The militants also took a priest and several churchgoers hostage.[194]

The Armed Forces of the Philippines stated that some of the terrorists were foreigners who had been in the country for a long time, offering support to the Maute group in Marawi. Their main objective was to raise an ISIS flag at the Lanao del Sur Provincial Capitol and declare a wilayat or provincial ISIS territory in Lanao del Sur.[195][196]

The fighting lasted for five months until October 17, 2017, the day after the deaths of militant leaders Omar Maute and Isnilon Hapilon. President Duterte declared Marawi as "liberated from terrorist influence".[197] This was followed by another October 23, 2017 pronouncement of Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana that the five-month battle against the terrorists in Marawi had finally ended.[198]

Tourism[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Part of DuterteNomics is the Build! Build! Build! Infrastructure Plan which according to the administration will usher in the "Golden Age of Infrastructure". The goals of the program are to reduce poverty, encourage economic growth and reduce congestion in Metro Manila.[199]

Infrastructure projects include:

Economic policy[edit]

Duterte speaking at the World Economic Forum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, May 11, 2017

Early in his term, Duterte's expletive-laden outbursts triggered the biggest exodus from stocks in a year and made the peso Asia's worst performer in September 2016. The Philippine currency was at a seven-year low and rounding out its worst month since May 2010. In the same month, the Philippine peso completed its biggest monthly decline since October 2000 amid the biggest outflow from the nation's stocks in a year.[204] According to the Philippines' Finance Secretary Carlos Dominguez, the peso's slump this year is "mainly due to a deteriorating trade outlook because of rising imports of capital goods, which is normal for a country that is growing very fast".[205] Currency strategists have, however, "predicted a rebound once investors see beyond Duterte's words".[206]

After 100 days in office, former president Ramos, a political ally-mentor of Duterte said that "Duterte has been a huge disappointment and letdown" and "the government was losing badly by prioritizing a war on drugs at the expense of issues like poverty, living costs, foreign investment, and jobs".[207][208] Based on subsequent surveys conducted by the Social Weather Stations, optimism in the economic prospects under the Duterte administration remains "excellent" with more Filipinos believing that the quality of their lives will improve in the next 12 months.[209] This is supported by polls conducted by Pulse Asia one year after Duterte took office, wherein approval (82%) and trust (81%) ratings for Duterte still remain very high.[210]

Duterte's verbal attacks especially to the US and EU are viewed by many Filipinos as a threat to their jobs especially those working for foreign companies.[211] Mark Williams, chief of Asia economist at Capital Economics, said, "Certainly, investors are worried by some of the things he's saying, he's really unnerved people".[212] The Philippine government, however, expects that employment, especially in BPO industries, will continue to keep on rising.[213] Despite Duterte's bluster and the messy local politics however, the long-term view for the Philippine economy looks good and has even pessimists conceding that gross domestic product should grow close to 7% over the next three to five years. "Twin catalysts of infrastructure spending and tax reform will drive the market over the next two years", Dante Tinga, head of research at BDO Nomura in Manila, tells Barron's. "There's an investment boom under way, which I believe will help in rerating the market over the next 12 months."[214]

In December, government data revealed that the Philippines' output of nickel ore fell 16 percent in the third quarter from a year earlier, after the country, which is the world's top supplier of the metal, suspended some mines in a clampdown on environmental violations. Production dropped to 19.8 million tonnes in the nine months to September from 25.97 million tonnes a year ago, according to the data.[215] According to Finance Secretary Carlos Dominguez, the "Philippine economy is delivering the performance we anticipated, notwithstanding the political noise and a significant terrorist event in Mindanao". Dominguez gave the assessment during the Banyan Tree Leadership Forum of the Center for Strategic and International Studies.[216]

In September 2018, the inflation rate of the country skyrocketed to 6.7%, its highest in a decade, effectively damaging the economy.[217][218]

Foreign policy[edit]

International trips made by Duterte during his presidency

The Duterte administration has vowed to pursue an "independent foreign policy" that would reject any meddling by foreign governments, reiterating Article II, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution which states: "The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination." In September 2016, Duterte said: "We will observe and must insist on the time-honored principle of sovereignty, sovereign equality, non-interference and the commitment of peaceful settlements of dispute that will serve our people and protect the interests of our country."[citation needed]

Duterte made his first international trips as president to Vientiane, Laos and Jakarta, Indonesia on September 5–9, 2016.[219]

ASEAN[edit]

Duterte joins other ASEAN heads of states, holding hands as a symbol of unity in Vientiane, Laos, September 7, 2016.

Duterte has placed great importance on the Philippines' diplomatic relations with its ASEAN neighbors. Following tradition, his first trips outside the country were to Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore.[220]

In 2017 the Philippines was chair and host to the ASEAN summits, a series of diplomatic conferences centering on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The culminating event was held in Manila on 10–14 November (31st summit). It was attended by ten Asean leaders.[221]

China and Russia[edit]

Following his inauguration as president, Duterte mentioned his willingness to "reorient" his foreign policy towards China and Russia, particularly in the areas of trade and commerce.[222] During an interview with Al Jazeera, he expressed his willingness to conduct joint military exercises with China and Russia.[223] In September, Duterte said that he is considering purchasing military equipment, particularly weaponries and armaments, from China and Russia to strengthen the capabilities of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in addressing insurgency and counter-terrorism, saying that deals between the Philippines and the two countries are already in discussion and that the Chinese and Russian governments have offered the Philippines soft loans that would be payable in 2025.[224]

Duterte's handshake with Chinese President Xi Jinping prior to the bilateral meetings at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, October 20, 2016

On October 18–21, 2016, Duterte visited Beijing to meet with Chinese officials, including President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang. While announcing his "separation" from the United States in front of Chinese and Filipino businessmen at the Philippines–China Trade and Investment Forum in Beijing on October 20, Duterte also said that he would realign himself with the Chinese ideological flow and that he might also travel to Russia to meet with President Vladimir Putin to "tell him that there are three of us against the world – China, Philippines, and Russia".[225][226]

Duterte meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin during the APEC summit in Lima, Peru, November 19, 2016.

On November 20, 2016, Duterte met with Putin during the sidelines of the APEC summit in Lima, Peru. Duterte has praised Putin's leadership skills and called him his "idol". Putin also invited Duterte to visit Moscow.[227][228] Duterte said that he would visit Moscow on May 25, 2017, where a defense cooperation agreement between the Philippines and Russia is expected to be finalized.[229]

During an interview with RT in November, Duterte said that the Philippines is "not ready" for military alliances with China and Russia due to the Mutual Defense Treaty signed between the Philippines and the U.S.; however, he clarified that the Philippines could seek stronger diplomatic cooperation with China and Russia, as well as other countries, "to make the world more peaceful".[230] Russian Ambassador to the Philippines Igor Khovaev expounded on Duterte's statement by saying that the Russian government is offering a strategic partnership with the Philippines, not a military alliance, and added that Russia does not believe in establishing military alliances with Asia. However, Khovaev explained that the Russian government is open to assisting the Philippines in purchasing Russian-made weaponry.[231]

On May 1, 2017, following a visit to three Chinese naval ships at the Port of Davao, Duterte expressed interest in conducting joint military exercises between the Philippine Armed Forces and China's People's Liberation Army in Mindanao, particularly in the Sulu Sea.[232]

Territorial dispute[edit]

Duterte meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, September 6, 2016

On July 12, 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration tribunal in the Hague announced its ruling in favor of the Philippines in its case filed under the Benigno Aquino III administration in 2013 against China on issues regarding the South China Sea under the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, including the latter's nine-dash line claim which the tribunal ruled had no legal basis.[37] Three days after, during a testimonial dinner in San Juan, Duterte asked former President Fidel Ramos to lead the Philippine envoy to Beijing for bilateral negotiations with China over the disputes.[233] Ramos accepted the offer on July 23,[234] but resigned on October 31.[235] During his first State of the Nation Address on July 25, Duterte said that his administration "strongly affirms and respects" the ruling and would use it as a guide to negotiate for a resolution on the territorial disputes.[236] Duterte prefers to discuss the issue quietly and directly with China and has vowed not to raise the issue before the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.[237][238] Duterte said "he would not want to antagonize China" and would want to "maintain good relations with China" to "create an environment where we sit down and talk directly".[238]

On October 12, Duterte declared his intention to terminate joint US–Philippine naval patrols in the South China Sea, which he believes could needlessly antagonize China.[239] His reticent approach with China contrasts with his otherwise "belligerent rhetoric and swaggering persona"; he has received support for some political ads from an anonymous Chinese donor.[240]

On October 20 in Beijing, Duterte and Chinese President Xi Jinping agreed to resume direct talks on the dispute.[241]

When then U.S. Secretary of State-designate Rex Tillerson threatened China's positions on the islands, the Philippines said that Tillerson was speaking for the U.S. only in the U.S.'s interest and prerogatives.[242] Delfin Lorenzana, Duterte's Defense Secretary, rejected the possibility of war against China over the islands in the South China Sea.[243]

Duterte and South Korean President Moon Jae-in at the Blue House in Seoul on June 4, 2018.

On April 6, 2017, Duterte ordered the Armed Forces of the Philippines to occupy and fortify at least nine uninhabited islands in the South China Sea. He announced plans to visit the Philippine-administered Thitu (Pag-asa) Island during Independence Day and raise a Philippine flag there.[244] Duterte also ordered the Philippine Navy to build structures on the Benham Rise in order to reassure the Philippines' sovereignty over the undersea region, following the sighting of Chinese survey vessels.[245] He also announced plans to rename the Benham Rise to the Philippine Ridge.[246] On April 12, Duterte canceled his plan to visit the Thitu (Pag-asa) Island, citing goodwill and friendship with China.[247] On April 21, Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana announced the allocation of ₱1.6 billion to develop the Thitu (Pag-asa) Island, despite rejection from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[248] The development of the island is expected to include the construction of a marine research center, beaching facilities, a radio station, an ice plant, and a power station, as well as the improvement of the Rancudo airstrip runway.[249] On May 16, 2017, Duterte signed an executive order formally renaming the Benham Rise to the Philippine Rise.[250]

In February 2018, the Philippine Daily Inquirer published aerial surveillance photos of Chinese military fortifications in the South China Sea which showed runways, hangars, control towers, helipads, radomes and multi-storey buildings on reefs across the region, described by the newspaper as "island fortresses". The photos, which were mostly taken in late 2017, were authenticated by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, which described them as "the most complete, detailed batch of aerial pics available", and stated that the "photos show China is nearly done with its militarization of South China Sea". Duterte's spokesman told reporters: "[The region has] long been militarized. And the question is, what can we do?" - which led to accusations of dereliction of his "sacred core duty" of defending Philippine territory.[251]

United States[edit]

Duterte with then U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, July 26, 2016

On September 12, 2016, Duterte said that he is "not a fan of the Americans" and that he wants to "reorient" foreign policy with the United States. He requested that U.S. forces in Mindanao should leave the Philippines, specifically those who are part of the Operation Enduring Freedom, saying that it would "inflame the situation with the Abu Sayyaf".[252][253] Duterte said on September 13 that he does not plan to cut ties with the United States, but wants to reiterate the administration's pursuit of an "independent foreign policy" in accordance with the Constitution; the administration will continue to honor mutual agreements like the Visiting Forces Agreement and the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement.[254] On September 20, Duterte said: "I never said get out of the Philippines, for after all, we need them there in the China Sea. We don't have armaments."[255][256]

On September 27, Duterte vowed not to allow the U.S. government to interfere with the policies of his administration. He criticized the U.S. government for "lecturing" his administration on human rights amidst their campaign on illegal drugs and said that he will "cross the Rubicon with the U.S." Duterte added that he plans to forge "new alliances" with China and Russia in trade and commerce.[257] U.S. Department of State deputy spokesperson Mark Toner responded to Duterte's criticisms by saying that the Philippine–U.S. relations could still remain "strong and unabated" despite Duterte's criticisms.[258] The following day, while addressing the Filipino community in Hanoi, Duterte said that the Balikatan military exercises and the joint naval patrols in the South China Sea between the Philippines and the U.S. in October would be "its last" in order to avoid provoking conflict with China.[259][260]

Duterte with then U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, August 7, 2017

On October 5, Duterte accused the U.S. of refusing to sell armaments to the Philippines and said that he would rather purchase armaments from China and Russia.[261] In an attempt to repair relations with the U.S., Duterte's Defense Secretary, Delfin Lorenzana, said Duterte was "misinformed" about the U.S. alliance: "Maybe, the defense ministry and the armed forces were remiss in providing him the correct information."[262]

On October 6, Duterte's then-Foreign Secretary Perfecto Yasay Jr. denounced the idea of the Philippines being regarded as a "little brown brother" by the U.S.[263] Yasay said that the Philippines had been "failed" by the U.S.[264][265]

On October 20, while on a trip to Beijing, Duterte declared a "separation" from the United States which he stated had lost militarily, socially, and economically, and emphasized a realignment of the Philippines to move closer to China.[266] During a press conference after arriving from Beijing, Duterte clarified that what he meant by "separation" was a "separation of a foreign policy" and not a severance of diplomatic ties, saying that it would not be feasible to cut diplomatic ties with the U.S. due to the large number of Filipino Americans.[267] U.S. Department of State spokesperson John Kirby responded by saying: "We are going to be seeking an explanation of exactly what the president meant when he talked about separation from the U.S.; it's not clear what that means and all its ramifications."[268] On October 23, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Daniel R. Russel traveled to Manila to seek clarification and explanation for Duterte's comments with Philippine officials, including Foreign Affairs Secretary Perfecto Yasay Jr. and Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana.[269][270]

Duterte with U.S. President Donald Trump in Manila, November 13, 2017

On November 7, Secretary Lorenzana clarified that the joint Balikatan exercises will continue along with the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, but the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training amphibious landing exercises between the Philippine Marine Corps and the U.S. Navy would be discontinued. He specified that bilateral drills on counter-terrorism, humanitarian response, special operations, engineering projects, and civic action will remain, all of which have been approved by Duterte.[271]

Following the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Presidential Communications Secretary Martin Andanar offered "warm congratulations" to Donald Trump on his election victory. He said that Duterte "look[ed] forward to working with the incoming administration for enhanced Philippines–US relations anchored on mutual respect, mutual benefit and shared commitment to democratic ideals and the rule of law".[272] While in Kuala Lumpur, Duterte personally congratulated Trump by greeting him "Mabuhay!" and expressed hope that the Trump administration would honor obligations and treaties signed between the Philippines and the U.S.[273] On December 2, Duterte called then President-elect Trump to personally congratulate him once more and invited him to visit the Philippines for the Twelfth East Asia Summit in 2017, while Trump invited Duterte to visit him in New York City and Washington, D.C. after the former's inauguration.[274] On April 29, 2017, President Trump called Duterte to inform him of his planned visit to the Philippines in November for the East Asia Summit. Trump also extended an invitation to Duterte to visit him at the White House.[275] During their call, Duterte urged Trump to show restraint in dealing with North Korea over their nuclear weapons program, warning him that the region could suffer "immensely".[276] Trump also praised Duterte's drug war during the call, telling him "I just wanted to congratulate you because I am hearing of the unbelievable job on the drug problem".[277][278]

Trust ratings[edit]

Two weeks into Duterte's presidency, on July 13, 2016, the Social Weather Stations (SWS) conducted the first survey on his presidency since his inauguration on June 30, where Duterte received an "excellent" trust rating of 79% among 1,200 adults nationwide.[279][280] A week later, on July 20, Pulse Asia released a poll conducted on July 2–8 which showed that 91% of Filipinos trust Duterte, making him the most trusted official in the Philippines since 1999, according to Pulse Asia.[281][282] On January 8, 2018, Duterte's trust ratings fell to 82% according to an SWS poll.[283] On April 26, 2018, Duterte's trust ratings further fell to 65%.[284] A SWS survey released in September 2018 found that Duterte's trust ratings fell again to 57%.[285] On the third quarter of 2018, Duterte's trust rating increased to 62%.[286][287]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Presidency and Vice Presidency by the Numbers: Rodrigo Roa Duterte and Leni Robredo". Presidential Museum and Library.
  2. ^ "Duterte draws ire for defending adultery".
  3. ^ "Rodrigo Duterte jokes to soldiers that they can rape women with impunity". The Guardian. 2017-05-27.
  4. ^ "Duterte draws criticism for 'Miss Universe' rape joke | Philippines News | al Jazeera".
  5. ^ https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2016/09/10/1622321/un-chief-fool-says-duterte
  6. ^ "Duterte's 'stupid God' quip is his 'personal opinion' - spokesman | Philippines News | al Jazeera".
  7. ^ "More Christian groups rebuke Duterte for mocking God".
  8. ^ "Duterte declares Martial Law in Mindanao".
  9. ^ "Official count: Duterte is new president, Robredo is vice president". CNN Philippines. May 27, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  10. ^ "Lawmakers set Monday proclamation for Duterte, Robredo". CNN Philippines. May 28, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  11. ^ "Duterte, Robredo proclaimed new President, VP; Rody a no-show". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 30, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  12. ^ "Duterte transition team formed, holds first meeting". Rappler. May 11, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  13. ^ "When Rody Duterte met INC's Eduardo Manalo". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  14. ^ "Two years of Duterte: Broken and fulfilled promises". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  15. ^ "Duterte, Robredo to hold separate inauguration rites". ABS-CBN News. June 15, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  16. ^ de Jesus, Julliane Love (June 15, 2016). "Duterte does not want joint inauguration with Robredo–VP's camp". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  17. ^ "Simple inauguration for Robredo at QC Reception House". GMA News. June 23, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  18. ^ Gita, Ruth Abbey (June 30, 2016). "Duterte holds first Cabinet meeting". Sun.Star Manila. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  19. ^ Musico, Jelly F. (June 30, 2016). "Duterte eyes Clark airport as hub for domestic flights". Philippines News Agency. Archived from the original on 2016-07-01. Retrieved July 1, 2016 – via News5.
  20. ^ Ranada, Pia (June 30, 2016). "Duterte's order to Cabinet: Line up like everyone else". Rappler. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  21. ^ Capistrano, Zea Io Ming C. (June 30, 2016). "Duterte to send DOH sec to Cuba to learn better health system". Davao Today. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  22. ^ "Duterte to seek 'soft landing' with China after dispute ruling". ABS-CBN News. June 30, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  23. ^ Ho, Alex (July 1, 2016). "After drugs: Duterte now goes after online gambling, fixers". CNN Philippines. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  24. ^ "The 1st Duterte Cabinet meeting". Rappler. June 30, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  25. ^ "Duterte says online gambling must stop". ABS-CBN News. June 30, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  26. ^ Condeza, Earl (June 30, 2016). "Duterte welcomes militants in Malacañang". Davao Today. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  27. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes (July 1, 2016). "Bato dela Rosa takes command of PNP: I am your father". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  28. ^ Mangosing, Frances (July 1, 2016). "Ricardo Visaya formally takes over AFP". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  29. ^ Alberto-Masakayan, Thea (July 1, 2016). "Cordial at first sight: Duterte, Robredo meet". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  30. ^ "Robredo pays courtesy call on Duterte in Malacañang". GMA News. July 4, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  31. ^ "Duterte appoints Robredo as HUDCC chief". Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 7, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  32. ^ Ranada, Pia (July 7, 2016). "VP Robredo is Duterte's housing czar". Rappler. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  33. ^ Ranada, Pia (May 23, 2016). "Duterte: Marcos burial 'can be arranged immediately'". Rappler. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  34. ^ Ranada, Pia (July 4, 2016). "Duterte's 1st EO: Simpler, faster anti-poverty services". Rappler. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  35. ^ de Jesus, Julliane Love (July 8, 2016). "Duterte promises to fix insurgency, war in Mindanao before his term ends". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  36. ^ Nawal, Allan (July 8, 2016). "Duterte: Foreign intervention worsened Middle East situation". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  37. ^ a b "Press Release: The South China Sea Arbitration (The Republic of the Philippines v. The People's Republic of China)" (PDF). PCA. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  38. ^ "A UN-appointed tribunal dismisses China's claims in the South China Sea". The Economist. 12 July 2016.
  39. ^ Perez, Jane (12 July 2016). "Beijing's South China Sea Claims Rejected by Hague Tribunal". The New York Times.
  40. ^ a b Tom Phillips, Oliver Holmes, Owen Bowcott (12 July 2016). "Beijing rejects tribunal's ruling in South China Sea case". The Guardian.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  41. ^ "South China Sea: Tribunal backs case against China brought by Philippines". BBC. 12 July 2016.
  42. ^ "'Czar' named in Duterte fight vs Red Tape". ABS-CBN News. July 12, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  43. ^ "President Duterte meets with Rep.Belmonte, Cardinal Vidal, ADB officials in Malacanan". Presidential Communications Office. Retrieved July 14, 2016.[permanent dead link]
  44. ^ "San Beda alumni reception fetes President Duterte". Philippine Information Agency. July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  45. ^ "Duterte wants to send Ramos to China for talks". Agence France-Presse. Rappler. July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  46. ^ "Duterte to Rio-bound athletes: 'Not everybody is given the honor to serve this country'". Sports Interactive Network Philippines. July 18, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  47. ^ "The Beauty and the Punisher: Pia Wurtzbach meets Duterte in Malacañang". Politiko. July 18, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  48. ^ "President Duterte signs EO on FOI". GMA News. July 24, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  49. ^ Kabiling, Genalyn; Quismorio, Elison (July 19, 2016). "Duterte's first SONA eagerly awaited". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  50. ^ Parameswaran, Prashanth (July 21, 2016). "John Kerry to Visit the Philippines to Meet Duterte". The Diplomat. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  51. ^ Lim, Arlene (July 20, 2016). "John Kerry to visit Duterte in Manila". The Standard. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  52. ^ "Duterte meets with ex-presidents at national security meeting". Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 27, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  53. ^ Collas-Monsod, Solita. "Draft constitution: Be very afraid". Opinion.inquirer.net. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  54. ^ "Duterte ends media boycott, holds press conference". Rappler. August 1, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  55. ^ a b c d e "The Duterte Insult List". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  56. ^ "Cagayan town vice mayor killed". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  57. ^ "Duterte names politicians, cops, judges in drug trade". ABS-CBN News. August 7, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
  58. ^ "Duterte reads out list of alleged narco-politicians, narco-cops". GMA News. August 7, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
  59. ^ "Explosion hits Davao night market". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  60. ^ "Duterte declares state of lawlessness in PH". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  61. ^ "Duterte arrives in Laos for ASEAN Summit". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  62. ^ "How media groups wrote about Duterte's rant vs Obama". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  63. ^ "Duterte: Who is Obama to ask me about human rights?". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  64. ^ "De Lima witness: Duterte 'ordered' killings in Davao". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  65. ^ a b "You are being redirected..." www.sunstar.com.ph. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  66. ^ "Press Release - Cayetano refutes Trillanes on Matobato testimony: "It's full of half-truths and hearsay"". www.senate.gov.ph. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  67. ^ "All lies, Duterte says of Matobato testimony | Philstar.com". philstar.com. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  68. ^ Torres, Estrella. "Matobato 'is telling 100 per cent lies,' says Cayetano". Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  69. ^ "Duterte: I'm being portrayed as a 'cousin of Hitler'". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  70. ^ "Duterte apologizes for Hitler remarks". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  71. ^ "Duterte curses bishops, priests who criticize drug war". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  72. ^ "Duterte creates presidential task force to probe media killings". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  73. ^ "Duterte on killings: Corrupt journalists asked for it". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  74. ^ "At a glance: Duterte's state visit to China". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  75. ^ "Duterte announces military, economic split from US". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  76. ^ "By 'separation' from US, Duterte meant 'rebalance' to Asia – Pernia". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  77. ^ "Duterte says he will not sever U.S. ties". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  78. ^ "Police van overruns protesters in US embassy dispersal". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  79. ^ "Mayors, vice mayors killed under Duterte gov't". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  80. ^ "Albuera Mayor Espinosa killed in jail operation". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  81. ^ a b "Supreme Court allows hero's burial for Marcos". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  82. ^ a b "PH peso sinks to near 8-year low of P49.20 to $1". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  83. ^ a b "Martial law a 'back-up plan' but 'far from reality'". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  84. ^ a b "Marcos buried at Libingan ng mga Bayani". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  85. ^ "Post-Marcos burial rage: Rallies to go on until Nov 30". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  86. ^ "JBC interviews: Highs and lows in the search for the next SC justice". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  87. ^ "Maguindanao vice mayor killed inside home". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  88. ^ "Robredo to resign from Duterte Cabinet". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  89. ^ "NBI: Mayor Espinosa's death a 'rubout'". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  90. ^ "Death penalty bill hurdles House committee". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  91. ^ "UN on death penalty: PH will break int'l law". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  92. ^ "MGA RALIYISTA, WALA NA RAW TIWALA KAY DUTERTE". (in Tagalog). News5 — via YouTube.
  93. ^ a b https://edition.cnn.com/2016/12/14/asia/duterte-philippines-davao-killings/
  94. ^ News, ABS-CBN. "WATCH: In GenSan, Duterte endorses Pacquiao, berates critics". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  95. ^ "Lawmakers to Duterte: Reveal your medical status". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  96. ^ "Most Filipinos 'worried' about summary killings – SWS poll". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  97. ^ "13 hurt in Christmas Eve blast in Midsayap, Cotabato". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  98. ^ "Duterte links Midsayap, Davao bombings to ISIS". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  99. ^ "Lanao del Norte mayor killed in ambush". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  100. ^ Macas, Trisha (August 22, 2016). "PHL hopes for peace deal with CPP-NPA-NDF within a year". GMA News Online. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
  101. ^ "Joint Agreement on Safety and Immunity Guarantees (JASIG)". National Democratic Front – Philippines. February 23, 1995. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
  102. ^ Sabillo, Kristine Angeli (August 24, 2016). "PH-NDF panels fast-track peace talks". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
  103. ^ Tordecilla, Karmela (February 6, 2017). "Duterte: CPP-NPA-NDF a terrorist group". CNN Philippines. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  104. ^ Jerusalem, Jigger (February 6, 2017). "Duterte orders arrest of NDFP negotiators". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  105. ^ "Rebel killed in clash after Duterte lifts truce: military". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. February 6, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  106. ^ Lacorte, Germelina (December 28, 2015). "Duterte wants death penalty back". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  107. ^ Nawal, Allan; Manlupig, Karlos (June 16, 2015). "Duterte says he would revive death penalty". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  108. ^ Nawal, Allan (August 16, 2015). "Duterte wants to restore death penalty for plunder". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  109. ^ a b Andolong, Ina (May 16, 2016). "Duterte wants to restore dh penalty by hanging". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  110. ^ Yap, DJ. "House Justice committee approves death penalty bill".
  111. ^ Villamor, Felipe (March 2017). "Philippines Moves Closer to Reinstating Death Penalty". The New York Times.
  112. ^ "Death for drug convicts: House passes bill on final reading". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  113. ^ "Death penalty dead in Senate — Drilon". Archived from the original on 2018-01-25. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
  114. ^ "Collapse of death penalty bill in the Senate hailed - The Manila Times Online". www.manilatimes.net.
  115. ^ "'Go ahead and kill drug addicts': Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte issues fresh call for vigilante violence". Agence France-Presse. July 2, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2016 – via South China Morning Post.
  116. ^ Legaspi, Amita (July 4, 2016). "Communists answer Duterte's call to join fight vs. drugs". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  117. ^ "Duterte links 5 top cops to drug trade". ABS-CBN News. July 5, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  118. ^ Corrales, Nestor (July 7, 2016). "Duterte accuses Garbo of coddling 3 big-time drug lords". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  119. ^ "Duterte names country's topmost drug lords". CNN Philippines. July 8, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  120. ^ "THE KILL LIST". Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 7, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  121. ^ Cayabyab, Marc Jayson (July 7, 2016). "Look into extrajudicial killings under Duterte, Congress pressed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  122. ^ Torregoza, Hannah (July 7, 2016). "De Lima urges Duterte admin to stop tolerating extra-judicial killings". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  123. ^ Legaspi, Amita (July 8, 2016). "Militant group Bayan asks Duterte to probe killing of drug suspects". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  124. ^ Salaverria, Leila (July 10, 2016). "Palace: Probe of killings welcome". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  125. ^ "Philippines: Duterte's 100 days of carnage". Amnesty International. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  126. ^ "Drug users not human, killing them justified: Duterte". Straits Times. August 29, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  127. ^ "Philippines secret death squads: officer claims police teams behind wave of killings". The Guardian. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  128. ^ News, Dharel Placido, ABS-CBN. "Who can avail of free college tuition under new law?". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  129. ^ "Duterte signs law for free tuition in state colleges". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  130. ^ "DENR announces closure of 23 mining operations". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  131. ^ "Duterte: 'Nothing I can do' about mining closures". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  132. ^ "CA rejects Gina Lopez appointment as DENR chief".
  133. ^ "Duterte orders 6-month closure of Boracay". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  134. ^ "TRANSCRIPT: Duterte admits he has no master plan for Boracay". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  135. ^ News, Katrina Domingo, ABS-CBN. "Nearly 600 gov't troops to patrol Boracay during 6-month shut down". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  136. ^ "Why is the military deployed in Boracay ahead of closure?". News5. Archived from the original on 2018-07-06. Retrieved 2018-07-05.
  137. ^ News, Katrina Domingo and Fernando G. Sepe Jr.. ABS-CBN. "'Closing Time' in Boracay as 6-month shutdown begins". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  138. ^ Ranada, Pia (March 2, 2016). "Duterte's pitch for federalism: Centralized system holds back PH". Rappler. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  139. ^ Ranada, Pia (July 8, 2016). "Duterte: If Filipinos don't want federalism, I will support BBL". Rappler. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
  140. ^ Regalado, Edith (October 19, 2013). "Duterte: Don't touch Nur's wife". The Philippine Star. DAVAO CITY, Philippines. Event occurs at 12:00am.
  141. ^ Mellejor, Lilian C. "MILF, MNLF not terrorist groups, simply fighting for Moro dignity - Duterte". Philippines News Agency. DAVAO CITY. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017.
  142. ^ Coconuts Manila (May 8, 2016). "Nur Misuari's bet? Duterte and Marcos, he tells Vice News". Coconuts Manila. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  143. ^ "MNLF Founder Nur Misuari Weighs in on the Philippine Presidential Election". Vice News. May 6, 2016.
  144. ^ Sabillo, Kristine Angeli (May 9, 2016). "Nur Misuari bats for Duterte, Marcos — report". Inquirer News. MANILA, Philippines. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  145. ^ Tayao-Juego, Annelle (May 8, 2016). "Muslim groups back Duterte, ask Aquino for clean polls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. MANILA, Philippines. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  146. ^ Bartolome, Jessica (July 8, 2016). "Plan B: Duterte promises BBL for both MNLF, MILF if Filipinos vote against federalism". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  147. ^ de Jesus, Julliane Love (July 8, 2016). "Duterte promises to fix insurgency, war in Mindanao before his term ends". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  148. ^ Ilas, Joyce. "Duterte slams U.S. anew, says it 'imported terrorism' (Updated 15:27 PM PHT Sat, July 9, 2016)". CNN Philippines.
  149. ^ Nawal, Allan (July 9, 2016). "Duterte says Abus not criminals, blames US for Mideast violence". Inquirer Mindanao. DAVAO CITY, Philippines. Event occurs at 02:57 AM.
  150. ^ BARTOLOME, JESSICA (July 8, 2016). "Duterte: America, not Middle East, responsible for 'importing terrorism'". GMA News. Event occurs at 20:14:03.
  151. ^ Phil Star (September 5, 2016). "President Duterte reminds us of 1906 Bud Dajo massacre by the US troops". The Daily News. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  152. ^ Placido, Dharel (September 12, 2016). "Duterte: US forces in Mindanao must go". ABS-CBN News.
  153. ^ Aben, Elena (November 7, 2016). "Duterte signs EO on Bangsamoro transition commission". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
  154. ^ Ranada, Pia (December 30, 2016). "Duterte links Midsayap, Davao bombings to ISIS". Rappler. MANILA, Philippines. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  155. ^ Punongbayan, Michael (December 22, 2016). "Holiday ceasefire with rebels declared". The Philippine Star.
  156. ^ Mellejor, Ayan C. (December 23, 2016). "Holiday ceasefire: Duterte". The Mindanao Daily Mirror.
  157. ^ Tomacruz, Sofia. "TIMELINE: Duterte's promise to abolish endo". Rappler. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  158. ^ a b Aurelio, Julie M. "Duterte: I did not order 'tambay' arrests". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  159. ^ "Anti-tambay crackdown nets 7,291 in Metro Manila - Philstar.com". philstar.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  160. ^ "Bandila: Protesta isinagawa laban sa operasyon ng pulis kontra tambay" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  161. ^ "'Guidelines' being crafted for police in crackdown on 'tambay'". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  162. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Photos, death certificate show Genesis 'Tisoy' Argoncillo beaten to death". Rappler.
  163. ^ @ANCALERTS (6 Jul 2018). "CORRECTED: Members of Anakbayan Group call for justice for Tisoy through a protest held outside QCPD Station 4 this afternoon. (Courtesy: QCPD Stn 4)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  164. ^ a b "Duterte threatens to bomb Lumad schools". ABS-CBN News.
  165. ^ "Duterte threatens to bomb Lumad schools". CNN Philippines.
  166. ^ "NGO SPOKESMAN: Military attacking lumad schools prior to Duterte's bombing remark". GMA News. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  167. ^ "Karapatan asks UN to probe Lumad killings in Mindanao". Philstar.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  168. ^ Leonen, Julius N. "Militant group seeks UN probe on Lumad killings". Inquirer.net. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  169. ^ "IPs on Lumad killings: the war isn't ours, but why are we the ones suffering". News5. Archived from the original on 2018-06-30. Retrieved 2018-07-08.
  170. ^ "Troop presence prompts Lumad evacuation in Surigao del Sur town, group says". The Philippine Star.
  171. ^ "'Lumad': From Palace guests to targets". Inquirer.net.
  172. ^ "Lumad evacuees face harassment, lack of water and food". The Philippine Star.
  173. ^ a b "'Lumad' protest takes form of real wake". Inquirer.net.
  174. ^ "Lumad evacuees go back home". The Philippine Star.
  175. ^ "Duterte signs 1st tax reform package into law". Rappler.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  176. ^ "Duterte signs 2018 national budget, tax reform bill - Philstar.com". philstar.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  177. ^ "Bandila: Kilos-protesta kontra TRAIN, isinagawa" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
  178. ^ "Bandila: 'Pambansang Walkout', idinaos sa mga unibersidad" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
  179. ^ "TV Patrol: Pag-akyat ng presyo ng langis, iprinotesta, idinaing" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  180. ^ a b Francisco, K. (May 24, 2017). "FAST FACTS: What you should know about the Maute Group". Rappler. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  181. ^ Esguerra, C.V. (September 21, 2014). "Aquino downplays ISIS threat in PH". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
  182. ^ "No ISIS in Mindanao – Aquino". The Manila Times. March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  183. ^ "TV Patrol: Duterte, may banta sa Maute group". ABS-CBN News. November 30, 2016.
  184. ^ Macas, Trisha (November 30, 2016). "Duterte to Maute group: Do not force my hand into war". GMA News.
  185. ^ Dioquino, R.J. (December 2, 2016). "In parting message, Maute fighters threaten to behead military, Duterte". GMA Network. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  186. ^ "Marawi crisis: What we know so far". The Philippine Star. May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  187. ^ Mendoza, Greanne (May 23, 2017). "Duterte declares Martial Law in Mindanao". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  188. ^ "Martial law in Mindanao could last a year—Duterte". Agence France-Presse. May 24, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017 – via Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  189. ^ "Marawi: City destroyed in Philippines' longest urban war". Inquirer News. October 19, 2017. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  190. ^ a b "TIMELINE: Maute attack in Marawi City". ABS-CBN News. May 23, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  191. ^ Morallo, Audrey (May 23, 2017). "AFP: Marawi clashes part of security operation, not terrorist attack". The Philippine Star. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
  192. ^ a b Nery, J. (May 24, 2017). "Key facts about a tumultuous Tuesday in Marawi City". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  193. ^ "UCCP Statement on the Burning of Dansalan College". Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  194. ^ "Mindanao: Churchgoers 'taken hostage' amid Marawi siege". Al Jazeera. May 24, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  195. ^ Lim, A. (May 26, 2017). "AFP: Foreign terrorists are fighting alongside Maute group in Marawi". The Standard. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  196. ^ "Maute plans to raise ISIS flags at Lanao capitol, Marawi city hall to declare 'wilayat'". GMA Network. May 27, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  197. ^ "Duterte: Marawi 'liberated' from ISIL-linked fighters". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  198. ^ Suson, Divina; Nawal, Allan; Mangosing, Frances (October 23, 2017). "BREAKING: Lorenzana says Marawi City siege is over". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  199. ^ "DuterteNomics unveiled". Presidential Communications Operations Office. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  200. ^ a b c d Mawis, Sara Mae D. "Understanding the 'Build, Build, Build' program". Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  201. ^ Bagaforo, Nelson C. (2017-06-26). "Mindanao railway project gets support". SunStar. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  202. ^ "What is 'Build, Build, Build'?". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  203. ^ Admin. "WATCH: Luzon Spine Expressway Network is Duterte's P107-billion traffic decongestion plan". The Summit Express. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  204. ^ Lopez, Ditas B. (September 30, 2016). "Philippine Peso Completes Worst Month in 16 Years Amid Outflows". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  205. ^ "RP in sweet spot despite peso slump". August 17, 2017.
  206. ^ Liau, Y-Sing; Lopez, Ditas B (September 29, 2016). "Duterte's Peso Rout Runs Counter to the Booming Philippine Economy". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  207. ^ Petty, Martin (October 10, 2016). "Ex-Philippine president Ramos says Duterte government a 'letdown'". Yahoo!. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  208. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes (October 10, 2016). "Ramos: Duterte's first 100 days a letdown". Philstar.com. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  209. ^ "SWS survey shows RP optimism remains excellent". August 15, 2017.
  210. ^ "Approval and Trust survey for RP Officials". June 17, 2017.
  211. ^ Boykoff, Pamela (October 24, 2016). "This industry is freaking out over the Philippine president's anti-U.S. rhetoric". CNN. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  212. ^ Iyengar, Rishi (October 20, 2016). "Rodrigo Duterte: Is the Philippines' outspoken president scaring away investors?". CNN. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  213. ^ Macas, Trisha (October 21, 2016). "BPO industry won't be affected by Duterte's 'split' with US —Pernia". GMA News. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  214. ^ "Why Duterte's Stock Outpaces Trump's". September 9, 2017.
  215. ^ "Philippines third quarter nickel ore output drops 16 percent as Duterte's green clampdown bites". Reuters. December 5, 2016 – via Reuters.
  216. ^ "RP economy weathers political noise". October 16, 2017.
  217. ^ "Inflation in September 2018 strains Filipinos' budget at 6.7%".
  218. ^ "Inflation soars to new 9-year high of 6.7% in September".
  219. ^ Nicolas, Fiona (September 5, 2016). "Duterte heads to Laos for ASEAN summit". CNN Philippines. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  220. ^ "Duterte to complete Asean swing with visit to Myanmar, Thailand". March 16, 2017.
  221. ^ "LIST: World leaders attending ASEAN 2017 in the Philippines".
  222. ^ Petty, Martin (October 2, 2016). "Philippines' Duterte says China, Russia supportive when he complained of U.S". Reuters. Retrieved December 2, 2016. Duterte has said repeatedly during recent, frequent speeches that he planned to open new alliances with Russia and China, particularly for trade and commerce, as part of his pursuit of an independent foreign policy.
  223. ^ "Duterte: Philippines open to China, Russia 'war games'". Al Jazeera. October 18, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  224. ^ Valente, Catherine (September 15, 2016). "PH to buy weapons from China, Russia". The Manila Times. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  225. ^ Martina, Michael; Woo, Ryan (October 20, 2016). "Duterte: It's Russia, China, PH 'against the world'". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  226. ^ Hunt, Katie; Rivers, Matt; Shoichet, Catherine (October 20, 2016). "In China, Duterte announces split with US: 'America has lost'". CNN. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  227. ^ Yap, DJ (November 20, 2016). "Duterte talks to Putin about distrust with US, hypocrisy of the West". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  228. ^ "Duterte meets with Putin, Xi at APEC Economic Leaders' Summit". CNN Philippines. November 20, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  229. ^ Romero, Alexis (April 22, 2017). "Defense cooperation eyed between Philippines, Russia". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on 2017-04-27. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  230. ^ Corrales, Nestor (December 1, 2016). "Duterte: PH not ready for military alliances with Russia, China". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  231. ^ Gotinga, JC; Cabato, Regine (November 30, 2016). "Russian envoy: Moscow offering 'strategic partnership' to PH, not military alliance". CNN Philippines. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  232. ^ Javier, Kristian (May 1, 2017). "Duterte: Philippines, China can have military exercises in Sulu Sea". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on 2017-05-01. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  233. ^ Ramos, Marlon (July 15, 2016). "Duterte asks FVR to head negotiations with China, says 'war not an option'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  234. ^ Nawal, Allan (July 23, 2016). "Ramos accepts Duterte offer to become special envoy to China". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  235. ^ Gonzales, Yuji Vincent (October 31, 2016). "Fidel Ramos quits as special envoy to China". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  236. ^ "Philippines' Duterte insists on using arbitral ruling vs. China". Kyodo News. July 26, 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-08-14. Retrieved August 15, 2016 – via The Nikkei.
  237. ^ "Manila will not raise sea row with China at ASEAN meeting". Associated Press. August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016 – via The Philippine Star.
  238. ^ a b Salaverria, Leila (August 17, 2016). "Duterte won't press ASEAN on sea dispute with China". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  239. ^ "'About time we change rules': Philippines' Duterte vows to chart independent foreign policy". RT. October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
  240. ^ "The Philippines under Rodrigo Duterte". The Economist. September 14, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  241. ^ Perlez, Jane (October 20, 2016). "Rodrigo Duterte and Xi Jinping Agree to Reopen South China Sea Talks". The New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  242. ^ "Philippines says any U.S. move against Beijing in S China Sea would be in its own interest". Reuters. January 13, 2017.
  243. ^ "Philippines downplays war over South China Sea". EJ Insight. February 3, 2017.
  244. ^ Romero, Alexis; Felipe, Cecille; Laude, Jaime; Macairan, Evelyn (April 7, 2017). "Duterte orders AFP to occupy Philippine islands in South China Sea". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  245. ^ Balana, Cynthia; Uy, Jocelyn; Salaverria, Leila (March 15, 2017). "Duterte wants 'structures' built on Benham Rise". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  246. ^ "Duterte wants to change name of Benham Rise to 'Philippine Ridge'". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  247. ^ Romero, Alexis (April 13, 2017). "After talking to China, Duterte says he'll skip South China Sea visit". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  248. ^ Zambrano, Chiara (May 1, 2017). "PH plans to repair Pag-asa Island 'illegal', says Chinese envoy". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  249. ^ Bartolome, Jessica (April 21, 2017). "PHL allocates P1.6-B for Pag-asa Island development". GMA News Online. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  250. ^ Santos, Eimor (May 22, 2017). "Benham Rise is now Philippine Rise". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  251. ^ "Photos show Beijing's militarisation of South China Sea in new detail". The Guardian. February 6, 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  252. ^ Regencia, Ted (September 13, 2016). "Duterte to US forces: Get out of southern Philippines". Al Jazeera. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  253. ^ Placido, Dharel (September 12, 2016). "Duterte: US forces in Mindanao must go". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  254. ^ Romero, Alexis (September 14, 2016). "Philippines not cutting ties with US – Duterte". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  255. ^ Salaverria, Leila (September 21, 2016). "Duterte changes tune: We need US after all". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  256. ^ Mendez, Christina (September 21, 2016). "We need US for South China Sea – Duterte". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  257. ^ "Duterte vows to open up trade, commerce with China, Russia". Xinhua News Agency. September 27, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016 – via Manila Bulletin.
  258. ^ Cabacungan, Gil (September 28, 2016). "Duterte seeks alliances with China and Russia". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  259. ^ "Rodrigo Duterte to end joint US and Philippine military drills". Associated Press. September 29, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016 – via The Guardian.
  260. ^ Aurelio, Julie (September 30, 2016). "Duterte out to end war games with US". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  261. ^ Krishnamoorthy, Nandini (October 5, 2016). "Duterte snubs US again, says he would rather go to Russia and China for purchasing arms". International Business Times. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  262. ^ "Philippine defense chief says Duterte may be 'misinformed' on U.S. alliance". Reuters. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  263. ^ Parameswaran, Prashanth (September 16, 2016). "Philippines No Longer US 'Little Brown Brother': Yasay". The Diplomat.
  264. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes (October 6, 2016). "Yasay: America has failed us". philstar.com. MANILA, Philippines. Event occurs at 11:00am.
  265. ^ Guinto, Joel (October 6, 2016). "America has 'failed' Philippines, Yasay says". ABS-CBN News. MANILA. Event occurs at 10:49 AM.
  266. ^ Blanchard, Ben (October 20, 2016). "Duterte aligns Philippines with China, says U.S. has lost". Reuters. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  267. ^ Salaveria, Leila (October 22, 2016). "Duterte: Separation with US doesn't mean cutting diplomatic ties". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  268. ^ "US reaction to Duterte's 'separation' announcement". CCTV News. China Central Television. October 21, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  269. ^ "U.S. welcomes warmer PH-China ties". CNN Philippines. October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  270. ^ "Daniel Russel: U.S. 'welcomes easing PH–China ties'". Manila Bulletin. October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  271. ^ Romero, Alexis (November 7, 2016). "Fewer drills with US but EDCA, Balikatan to stay". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
  272. ^ "Duterte congratulates Trump, wishes 'enhanced PH-US relations'". Inquirer. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  273. ^ Corrales, Nestor (November 9, 2016). "Duterte softens stance on US, tells Trump: 'Mabuhay ka'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  274. ^ "Trump invites Duterte to White House". ABS-CBN News. December 3, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
  275. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (May 1, 2017). "Trump's invitation to Duterte is a sign of the times". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  276. ^ Panti, Llanesca (May 1, 2017). "Trump invites Duterte to White House". The Manila Times. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  277. ^ "Trump told Duterte "great job" on drug war that's killed 8,000". Vice News. May 24, 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-05-24. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  278. ^ "Donald Trump tells Duterte: 'You're doing a great job', Philippines claims". The Guardian. May 3, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  279. ^ "Duterte rides on 'excellent' trust rating". BusinessWorld. July 13, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  280. ^ "Duterte starts presidency with 'excellent' trust rating – SWS poll". GMA News Online. July 13, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  281. ^ Hegina, Aries Joseph (July 20, 2016). "Duterte becomes PH's most trusted official". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  282. ^ Bencito, John Paulo (July 21, 2016). "Duterte's trust rating hits new high". The Standard. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  283. ^ "Duterte's trust ratings remain at all-time high in Q4 2017 —Pulse Asia". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  284. ^ News, Dharel Placido, ABS-CBN. "Duterte's trust rating slightly down in new SWS survey". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  285. ^ "Public trust in Duterte falls to new low in 2nd quarter – SWS".
  286. ^ Stations, Social Weather. "Social Weather Stations | Third Quarter 2018 Social Weather Survey: Net Trust in Rody Duterte rises to "Very Good" +62". www.sws.org.ph. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  287. ^ News, ABS-CBN. "Duterte trust rating up in 3rd quarter of 2018: SWS". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-10-27.

External links[edit]