President of Chile

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President of
the Republic of Chile
Flag of the President of Chile.svg
Portrait Michelle Bachelet.jpg
Incumbent
Michelle Bachelet

since 11 March 2014
Style Her Excellency /
His Excellency
Residence La Moneda Palace (government office)
Term length Four years, not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holder Manuel Blanco Encalada
Formation 9 July 1826
Succession Minister of the Interior (as Vice-President)
Website Government of Chile
Coat of arms of Chile.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Chile
Comptroller General
Foreign relations

The President of the Republic of Chile (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Chile) is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile. The President is responsible for both government and state administration.[1] Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures. It is also considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", and is essential to the country's political stability.[2]

Under the current Constitution (adopted in 1980), the President is elected to serve for a period of four years, with immediate re-election being prohibited. The shorter period (previously the term was six years) allows for parliamentary and presidential elections to be synchronized. The official seat of the President of Chile is the La Moneda Palace in the capital Santiago.

Features of the office[edit]

Requirements[edit]

The Constitution of 1980 and its consecutives amendments (2005), establishes the requirements for becoming President. Originally the President must be a natural-born citizen of the country. The President must also be at least 40 years old. In addition, must all the requirements for becoming a Senator apply. Also the president must meet all the requirements to qualify as a fully chilean citizen with the right to vote. Those are who have reached the age of eighteen years and who have never never been sentenced to afflictive punishment. The loss of the right to vote (in case of interdiction on grounds of insanity, being tried for a crime deserving afflict punishment or for a crime that the law should define as a terrorist conduct, or in case of punishment by the Constitutional Court in conformity with Article 8 of this Constitution) is the main disqualification for the applicant.

In the 2005 constitutional reform, some of these requirements were changed:

The President now must have the chilean nationality (being a natural-born citizen of the national territory or being born overseas and accredit that one of the parents or one of the grandparents is a Chilean national).[3] The President must also be at least 35 years old.

Election[edit]

Article 26 detail the electoral requirements. The President shall be elected by direct ballot, with an absolute majority of the votes validly cast. A two-round system is used. In order to win the election in the first round, the winning candidate's party must receive more than 50 percent of the valid votes leaving out of the count blank and spoilt votes. The election shall be held the third sunday of November of the year immediately before the end of the administration of the President then holding office. Should there be more than two candidates in the presidential election, none of them obtaining more than half of the votes validly cast, a new election shall be held. The second election ("ballotage"), in the manner determined by law, shall be held the fourth sunday after the first election, limited to the two candidates with the highest relative majorities. Then, the candidate with the majority of valid votes in that round is elected president.

Term duration[edit]

Under the 1828 constitution, the President served for four years, without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. In the 1833, the presidential period was limited to five years, with a possibility of immediate reelection for one more term, after serving for two consecutive periods, the president is not allowed to run for a third consecutive period. Then, in 1878, by a constitutional reform, the reelection was not permitted. Under the 1925 constitution, the President served for a six-year term, without the possibility of immediate reelection. In the original text of the 1980 constitution, the President served for a eight-year term without the possibility of immediate reelection. Some transitory disposals, fixed during the government of the general Augusto Pinochet, allowed the exceptional posibility of his reelection in the 1988 plebiscite. Then, in the transition to democracy the 1989 referendum established a first transitional four-year presidential term (1990-1994), followed by common eight-year terms, without the possibility of immediate reelection. However, in March 4, 1994 the presidential period was reduced to a six-year term, without an immediate reelection. Under the 2005 constitutional reform, the President serves for four years, without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. However, in Chile a person may be reelected again after serving his term. So after serving the corrsponding presidential period, the president is not allowed to run for a second consecutive one, but could staying out of office for the following term and may return for the following election and so on. There is no limit for a person to be a candidate if he or she does not win the elections. The incumbent president, according with the constitution, complete its corresponding term on March 11 of the year immediately after the election. The President-elect, take office the same day.

List[edit]

Political parties
  • 1826–1841:

      Independent       Pipiolos       Pelucones

  • 1841–1973:

      Conservative Party       National Party       Liberal Party       Liberal Democratic Party       Radical Party       Christian Democratic Party       Socialist Party

  • 1973–1990:

      Military

  • 1990–present:

      Christian Democratic Party       Party for Democracy       Socialist Party       National Renewal

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Took Office Left Office Political Party
(Political Coalition)
1 Manuel Blanco Encalada (Nataniel Hughes, 1853).jpg Manuel Blanco Encalada
(1790–1876)
1826 9 July 1826 9 September 1826 Independent
2 AgustinEyzaguirre.jpg Agustín Eyzaguirre
(1768–1837)
9 September 1826 25 January 1827 Independent
3 Ramón Freire Presidente.jpg Ramón Freire Serrano
(1787–1851)
1827 25 January 1827 8 May 1827 Pipiolos
4 Francisco A Pinto.jpg Francisco Antonio Pinto
(1785–1858)
8 May 1827 24 December 1829 Pipiolos
José Tomás Ovalle.jpg José Tomás Ovalle
(1787–1831)
24 December 1829 18 September 1831 Pelucones
5 Presidente José Joaquín Prieto.JPG José Joaquín Prieto
(1786–1854)
1831 18 September 1831 18 September 1836 Pelucones
1836 18 September 1836 18 September 1841 Conservative Party
6 ManuelBulnes.JPG Manuel Bulnes
(1799–1866)
1841 18 September 1841 18 September 1846 Conservative Party
1846 18 September 1846 18 September 1851
7 Manuel Montt presidente-2.jpg Manuel Montt
(1809–1890)
1851 18 September 1851 18 September 1856 Conservative Party
1856 18 September 1856 18 September 1861 National Party
8 JJPEREZ.png José Joaquín Pérez
(1801–1889)
1861 18 September 1861 18 September 1866 National Party
(Fusion)
1866 18 September 1866 18 September 1871
9 Federico Errázuriz Zañartu.jpg Federico Errázuriz Zañartu
(1825–1877)
1871 18 September 1871 18 September 1876 Liberal Party
(Fusion)
10 Anibal Pinto 3.jpg Aníbal Pinto
(1825–1884)
1876 18 September 1876 18 September 1881 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
11 DomingoSantaMariaGonzalez.jpg Domingo Santa María
(1825–1889)
1881 18 September 1881 18 September 1886 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
12 JoseManuelBalmaceda.JPG José Manuel Balmaceda
(1840–1891)
1886 18 September 1886 31 August 1891 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
13 Jorge Montt Alvarez(3).jpg Jorge Montt
(1845–1922)
1891 31 August 1891 18 September 1896 Independent
(Coalition)
14 Federico Errázuriz Echaurren.jpg Federico Errázuriz Echaurren
(1850–1901)
1896 31 August 1896 12 July 1901
(death in office)
Liberal Party
(Coalition)
15 German Riesco.jpg Germán Riesco
(1854–1916)
1901 18 September 1901 18 September 1906 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
16 Retrato de Pedro Montt.JPG Pedro Montt
(1849–1910)
1906 18 September 1906 16 August 1910
(death in office)
National Party
(Liberal Alliance)
17 Barros Luco2.jpg Ramón Barros Luco
(1835–1919)
1910 23 December 1910 23 December 1915 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
18 Jlsanfuentes.PNG Juan Luis Sanfuentes
(1858–1930)
1915 23 December 1915 23 December 1920 Liberal Democratic Party
(Coalition)
19 Alessandri Ulk (1932).jpg Arturo Alessandri Palma
(1868–1950)
1920 23 December 1920 11 September 1924
(deposed by a coup)
Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
Government Junta (1924–1925)
19 Alessandri Ulk (1932).jpg Arturo Alessandri Palma
(1868–1950)
1920 20 March 1925
(reinstated in power)
1 October 1925 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
20 Emiliano Figueroa retrato.jpg Emiliano Figueroa Larraín
(1866–1931)
1925 23 December 1925 10 May 1927
(deposed by a coup)
Liberal Democratic Party
(Coalition)
21 Carlos Ibanez.jpg Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
(1877–1960)
1927 10 May 1927 15 November 1931 Independent
22 JEMontero.jpg Juan Esteban Montero
(1879–1948)
1931 15 November 1931 4 June 1932
(deposed by a coup)
Radical Party
Government Junta of Socialist Republic (1932)
23 Alessandri Ulk (1932).jpg Arturo Alessandri Palma
(1868–1950)
1932 24 December 1932 24 December 1938 Liberal Party
24 Pedro Aguirre Cerda.jpg Pedro Aguirre Cerda
(1879–1941)
1938 24 December 1938 25 November 1941
(death in office)
Radical Party
(Popular Front)
25 Retrato del Presidente Juan Antonio Ríos.jpg Juan Antonio Ríos
(1888–1946)
1942 2 April 1942 27 June 1946
(death in office)
Radical Party
(Democratic Alliance)
26 Gabriel Gonzalez Videla.jpg Gabriel González Videla
(1898–1980)
1946 3 November 1946 3 November 1952 Radical Party
27 Carlos Ibanez.jpg Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
(1877–1960)
1952 3 November 1952 3 November 1958 Independent
(FENAFUI)
28 Retrato de Jorge Alessandri con banda presidencial.JPG Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez
(1896–1986)
1958 3 November 1958 3 November 1964 Independent
(Democratic Front of Chile)
29 Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva 2 (cropped).jpg Eduardo Frei Montalva
(1911–1982)
1964 3 November 1964 3 November 1970 Christian Democratic Party
30 Salvador Allende Gossens-.jpg Salvador Allende Gossens
(1908–1973)
1970 3 November 1970 11 September 1973
(deposed by a coup)
Socialist Party
(Popular Unity)
31 Augusto Pinochet foto oficial.jpg Augusto Pinochet Ugarte
(1915–2006)
11 September 1973 11 March 1981 Military
11 March 1981 11 March 1990
32 Aylwin Banda.jpg Patricio Aylwin
(1918–2016)
1989 11 March 1990 11 March 1994 Christian Democratic Party
(Concertación)
33 Eduardo Frei 1998 (recorte).jpg Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
(1942–)
1993 11 March 1994 11 March 2000 Christian Democratic Party
(Concertación)
34 Ricardo Lagos despedida (cropped).jpg Ricardo Lagos
(1938–)
1999 11 March 2000 11 March 2006 Party for Democracy
(Concertación)
35 Michelle Bachelet foto campaña (Recortada).jpg Michelle Bachelet
(1951–)
2005 11 March 2006 11 March 2010 Socialist Party
(Concertación)
36 Fotografía oficial del Presidente Sebastián Piñera - 2.jpg Sebastián Piñera
(1949–)
2009 11 March 2010 11 March 2014 National Renewal
(Coalición)
37 Michelle Bachelet foto campaña (Recortada).jpg Michelle Bachelet
(1951–)
2013 11 March 2014 Incumbent Socialist Party
(Nueva Mayoría)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See Sentencia Rol 78-1989 of the Constitutional Court of Chile, relapsed on the Central Bank of Chile's Constitutional Act project (declarations Nº 7 to 13).
  2. ^ Bravo Lira, Bernardino (1996). "Introducción. Raíz y razón del Estado de derecho en Chile". El Estado de Derecho en la Historia de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile. 
  3. ^ http://chile.gob.cl/en/consulados/tramites/para-chilenos/documentos/nacionalidad/

External links[edit]