President of Chile

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President of
the Republic of Chile
Flag of the President of Chile.svg
Portrait Michelle Bachelet.jpg
Incumbent
Michelle Bachelet

since 11 March 2014
Style His/Her Excellency
Residence No official residence
Seat La Moneda Palace
Term length Four years, not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holder Manuel Blanco Encalada
Formation 9 July 1826
Succession Minister of the Interior
(as Vice-President)
Website www.gob.cl
Coat of arms of Chile.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Chile
Comptroller General
Constitutional Court
Foreign relations

The President of the Republic of Chile (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Chile) is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile. The President is responsible for both government and state administration.[1] Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures. It is also considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", and is essential to the country's political stability.[2]

Under the current Constitution (adopted in 1980), the President is elected to serve for a period of four years, with immediate re-election being prohibited. The shorter period (previously the term was six years) allows for parliamentary and presidential elections to be synchronized. The official seat of the President of Chile is the La Moneda Palace in the capital Santiago.

Features of the office[edit]

Requirements[edit]

The Constitution of 1980 and its consecutive amendments (2005), establishes the requirements for becoming President. Originally the President must be a natural-born citizen of the country. The President must also be at least 40 years old. In addition, all the requirements for becoming a Senator apply. The president must meet all the requirements to qualify as a fully Chilean citizen with the right to vote. Those are who have reached the age of eighteen years and who have never never been sentenced to afflicting punishment. The loss of the right to vote (in case of interdiction on grounds of insanity, being tried for a crime deserving afflict punishment or for a crime that the law should define as a terrorist conduct, or in case of punishment by the Constitutional Court in conformity with Article 8 of this Constitution) is the main disqualification for the applicant.

In the 2005 constitutional reform, some of these requirements were changed:

The President now must have the Chilean nationality (being a natural-born citizen of the national territory or being born overseas and accredit that one of the parents or one of the grandparents is a Chilean national).[3] The President must also be at least 35 years old.

Election[edit]

Article 26 detail the electoral requirements. The President shall be elected by direct ballot, with an absolute majority of the votes validly cast. A two-round system is used. In order to win the election in the first round, the winning candidate's party must receive more than 50 percent of the valid votes leaving out of the count blank and spoiled votes.

The election shall be held the third Sunday of November of the year immediately before the end of the administration of the President then holding office. Should there be more than two candidates in the presidential election, none of them obtaining more than half of the votes validly cast, a new election shall be held. The second election ("balloting"), in the manner determined by law, shall be held the fourth Sunday after the first election, limited to the two candidates with the highest relative majorities. Then, the candidate with the majority of valid votes in that round is elected president.

Term duration[edit]

Under the 1828 constitution, the President served for four years, without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. In 1833, the presidential period was changed to five years, with a possibility of immediate reelection for one more term, limited to two consecutive terms. Then by a constitutional reform in 1878, possibility for reelection became disallowed. Under the 1925 constitution, the President served for a six-year term, without the possibility of immediate reelection only.

In the original text of the 1980 constitution, the President served for an eight-year term without the possibility of immediate reelection. Some transitory disposals, fixed during the government of the general Augusto Pinochet, allowed the exceptional possibility of his reelection in the 1988 plebiscite. Then, in the transition to democracy the 1989 referendum established a first transitional four-year presidential term (1990-1994), followed by common eight-year terms, without the possibility of immediate reelection. However, in March 4, 1994 the presidential period was reduced to a six-year term, without an immediate reelection.

Under the 2005 constitutional reform, the President serves for four years without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. A former president may run for office once again after serving their initial term, but only in an election following their successor, as it is not allowed to run for consecutive terms. There is no limit to how many times a person can run for candidacy if they have not previously served as President.

The Incumbent president, in accordance with the constitution, completes their corresponding term on March 11 of the immediate year after the election. The President-elect takes office the same day.

List[edit]

Political parties
  • 1826–1841:

  Independent   Pipiolos   Pelucones

  • 1841–1973:

  Conservative Party   National Party   Liberal Party   Liberal Democratic Party   Radical Party   Christian Democratic Party   Socialist Party

  • 1973–1990:

  Military

  • 1990–present:

  Christian Democratic Party   Party for Democracy   Socialist Party   National Renewal

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Election Term of Office Party
(Coalition)
1 Manuel Blanco Encalada (Nataniel Hughes, 1853).jpg Manuel Blanco Encalada
(1790–1876)
1826 9 July 1826 9 September 1826 Independent
2 AgustinEyzaguirre.jpg Agustín Eyzaguirre
(1768–1837)
9 September 1826 25 January 1827
(Resigned)
Independent
3 Ramón Freire Presidente.jpg Ramón Freire
(1787–1851)
1827 25 January 1827 8 May 1827
(Resigned)
Pipiolos
FranciscoAntonioPinto.jpg Francisco Antonio Pinto
(1785–1858)
8 May 1827 16 July 1829 Pipiolos
Fcoramonvicuna.jpg Francisco Ramón Vicuña
(1775–1849)
16 July 1829 19 Outubro 1829 Pipiolos
4 FranciscoAntonioPinto.jpg Francisco Antonio Pinto
(1785–1858)
1829 19 Outubro 1829 2 November 1829
(Resigned)
Pipiolos
Fcoramonvicuna.jpg Francisco Ramón Vicuña
(1775–1849)
2 November 1829 7 November 1829 Pipiolos
Ramón Freire Presidente.jpg Ramón Freire
(1787–1851)
7 November 1829 8 November 1829 Pipiolos
Fcoramonvicuna.jpg Francisco Ramón Vicuña
(1775–1849)
8 November 1829 7 December 1829 Pipiolos
Vacant (7 December 1829 – 24 December 1829)
José Tomás Ovalle.jpg José Tomás Ovalle
(1787–1831)
24 December 1829 18 February 1830 Pelucones
Francisco Ruiz-Tagle.jpg Francisco Ruiz-Tagle
(1790–1860)
18 February 1830 1 April 1830 Pelucones
José Tomás Ovalle.jpg José Tomás Ovalle
(1787–1831)
1 April 1830 21 March 1831
(Died in Office)
Pelucones
Fernando Errázuriz Aldunate ( 1777- 1841).JPG Fernando Errázuriz Aldunate
(1777–1841)
21 March 1831 18 September 1831 Pelucones
5 Presidente José Joaquín Prieto.JPG José Joaquín Prieto
(1786–1854)
1831 18 September 1831 18 September 1836 Pelucones
(5) 1836 18 September 1836 18 September 1841 Conservative Party
6 ManuelBulnes.JPG Manuel Bulnes
(1799–1866)
1841 18 September 1841 18 September 1846 Conservative Party
1846 18 September 1846 18 September 1851
7 Manuel Montt presidente-2.jpg Manuel Montt
(1809–1890)
1851 18 September 1851 18 September 1856 Conservative Party
(7) 1856 18 September 1856 18 September 1861 National Party
8 JJPEREZ.png José Joaquín Pérez
(1801–1889)
1861 18 September 1861 18 September 1866 National Party
(Fusion)
1866 18 September 1866 18 September 1871
9 Federico Errázuriz Zañartu.jpg Federico Errázuriz Zañartu
(1825–1877)
1871 18 September 1871 18 September 1876 Liberal Party
(Fusion)
10 Anibal Pinto 3.jpg Aníbal Pinto
(1825–1884)
1876 18 September 1876 18 September 1881 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
11 DomingoSantaMariaGonzalez.jpg Domingo Santa María
(1825–1889)
1881 18 September 1881 18 September 1886 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
12 JoseManuelBalmaceda.JPG José Manuel Balmaceda
(1840–1891)
1886 18 September 1886 29 August 1891
(Deposed)
Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
General Manuel Baquedano.jpg Manuel Baquedano
(1823–1897)
29 August 1891 31 August 1891 Military
Jorge Montt Alvarez(3).jpg Jorge Montt
(1845–1922)
31 August 1891 26 December 1891 Independent
(Coalition)
13 1891 26 December 1891 18 September 1896
14 Federico Errázuriz Echaurren.jpg Federico Errázuriz Echaurren
(1850–1901)
1896 18 September 1896 12 July 1901
(Died in Office)
Liberal Party
(Coalition)
Anibal Zanartu.jpg Aníbal Zañartu
(1847–1902)
12 July 1901 18 September 1901 Liberal Party
(Coalition)
15 German Riesco.jpg Germán Riesco
(1854–1916)
1901 18 September 1901 18 September 1906 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
16 Retrato de Pedro Montt.JPG Pedro Montt
(1849–1910)
1906 18 September 1906 16 August 1910
(Died in Office)
National Party
(Liberal Alliance)
Elías Fernández Albano.jpg Elías Fernández Albano
(1845–1910)
16 August 1910 6 September 1910
(Died in Office)
National Party
(Liberal Alliance)
Emiliano Figueroa retrato.jpg Emiliano Figueroa
(1866–1931)
6 September 1910 23 December 1910 Liberal Democratic Party
17 Barros Luco2.jpg Ramón Barros Luco
(1835–1919)
1910 23 December 1910 23 December 1915 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
18 Jlsanfuentes.PNG Juan Luis Sanfuentes
(1858–1930)
1915 23 December 1915 23 December 1920 Liberal Democratic Party
(Coalition)
19 Alessandri Ulk (1932).jpg Arturo Alessandri
(1868–1950)
1920 23 December 1920 11 September 1924
(Deposed)
Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
Government Junta (1924–1925)
Luis Altamirano (with hat).jpg Luis Altamirano
(1867–1938)
11 September 1924 23 January 1925
(Deposed)
Military
Government Junta (1925)
Pedro Pablo Dartnell 2.jpg Pedro Dartnell
(1873–1944)
23 January 1925 27 January 1925 Military
Emilio Bello Codesio 1925.JPG Emilio Bello Codesido
(1868–1941)
27 January 1925 20 March 1925 Liberal Democratic Party
(19) Alessandri Ulk (1932).jpg Arturo Alessandri
(1868–1950)
1920 20 March 1925
(Reinstated)
1 October 1925
(Resigned)
Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
Luis Barros Borgoño Vicepresidente.jpg Luis Barros Borgoño
(1858–1943)
1 October 1925 23 December 1925 Liberal Party
(Liberal Alliance)
20 Emiliano Figueroa retrato.jpg Emiliano Figueroa
(1866–1931)
1925 23 December 1925 10 May 1927
(Deposed)
Liberal Democratic Party
(Coalition)
21 Carlos Ibanez.jpg Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
(1877–1960)
1927 10 May 1927 26 July 1931
(Resigned)
Independent
Pedro Opazo.jpg Pedro Opaso
(1876–1957)
26 July 1931 27 July 1931
(Resigned)
United Liberal Party
JEMontero.jpg Juan Esteban Montero
(1879–1948)
27 July 1931 20 August 1931 Radical Party
Manuel Trucco.jpg Manuel Trucco
(1875–1954)
20 August 1931 15 November 1931 Radical Party
JEMontero.jpg Juan Esteban Montero
(1879–1948)
15 November 1931 4 December 1931 Radical Party
22 1931 4 December 1931 4 June 1932
(Deposed)
Government Junta of Socialist Republic (1932)
APuga.jpg Arturo Puga
(1879–1970)
4 June 1932 16 June 1932
(Resigned)
Socialist Republic
CDavila.jpg Carlos Dávila
(1887–1955)
16 June 1932 13 September 1932
(Resigned)
Socialist Republic
Bartolomé Blanche.jpeg Bartolomé Blanche
(1879–1970)
13 September 1932 2 October 1932
(Resigned)
Military
Blank Photo.png Abraham Oyanedel
(1874–1954)
2 October 1932 24 December 1932 Independent
23 Alessandri Ulk (1932).jpg Arturo Alessandri
(1868–1950)
1932 24 December 1932 24 December 1938 Liberal Party
24 Pedro Aguirre Cerda.jpg Pedro Aguirre Cerda
(1879–1941)
1938 24 December 1938 25 November 1941
(Died in Office)
Radical Party
(Popular Front)
Jerónimo Méndez Arancibia.jpg Jerónimo Méndez
(1887–1959)
25 November 1941 2 April 1942 Radical Party
25 Retrato del Presidente Juan Antonio Ríos.jpg Juan Antonio Ríos
(1888–1946)
1942 2 April 1942 27 June 1946
(Died in Office)
Radical Party
(Democratic Alliance)
Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez.jpg Alfredo Duhalde
(1898–1985)
27 June 1946 3 August 1946
(Resigned)
Radical Party
(Democratic Alliance)
Blank Photo.png Vicente Merino
(1889–1977)
3 August 1946 13 August 1946 Independent
Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez.jpg Alfredo Duhalde
(1898–1985)
13 August 1946 17 October 1946
(Resigned)
Radical Party
(Democratic Alliance)
Juan Antonio Iribarren.JPG Juan Antonio Iribarren
(1885–1966)
17 October 1946 4 November 1946 Radical Party
(Democratic Alliance)
26 Gabriel Gonzalez Videla.jpg Gabriel González Videla
(1898–1980)
1946 3 November 1946 3 November 1952 Radical Party
27 Carlos Ibanez.jpg Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
(1877–1960)
1952 3 November 1952 3 November 1958 Independent
(FENAFUI)
28 Retrato de Jorge Alessandri con banda presidencial.JPG Jorge Alessandri
(1896–1986)
1958 3 November 1958 3 November 1964 Independent
(Democratic Front of Chile)
29 Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva 2 (cropped).jpg Eduardo Frei Montalva
(1911–1982)
1964 3 November 1964 3 November 1970 Christian Democratic Party
30 Salvador Allende Gossens-.jpg Salvador Allende
(1908–1973)
1970 3 November 1970 11 September 1973
(Deposed)
Socialist Party
(Popular Unity)
Government Junta (1973–1990)
Augusto Pinochet foto oficial.jpg Augusto Pinochet
(1915–2006)
11 September 1973 17 December 1974 Military
31 17 December 1974 11 March 1981
1980
(referendum)
11 March 1981 11 March 1990
32 Aylwin Banda.jpg Patricio Aylwin
(1918–2016)
1989 11 March 1990 11 March 1994 Christian Democratic Party
(Concertación)
33 Eduardo Frei 1998 (recorte).jpg Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
(1942–)
1993 11 March 1994 11 March 2000 Christian Democratic Party
(Concertación)
34 Ricardo Lagos despedida (cropped).jpg Ricardo Lagos
(1938–)
1999–2000 11 March 2000 11 March 2006 Party for Democracy
(Concertación)
35 Michelle Bachelet foto campaña (Recortada).jpg Michelle Bachelet
(1951–)
2005–06 11 March 2006 11 March 2010 Socialist Party
(Concertación)
36 Fotografía oficial del Presidente Sebastián Piñera - 2.jpg Sebastián Piñera
(1949–)
2009–10 11 March 2010 11 March 2014 National Renewal
(Coalición)
37 Michelle Bachelet foto campaña (Recortada).jpg Michelle Bachelet
(1951–)
2013 11 March 2014 Incumbent Socialist Party
(Nueva Mayoría)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See Sentencia Rol 78-1989 of the Constitutional Court of Chile, relapsed on the Central Bank of Chile's Constitutional Act project (declarations Nº 7 to 13).
  2. ^ Bravo Lira, Bernardino (1996). "Introducción. Raíz y razón del Estado de derecho en Chile". El Estado de Derecho en la Historia de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile. 
  3. ^ http://chile.gob.cl/en/consulados/tramites/para-chilenos/documentos/nacionalidad/

External links[edit]