President of El Salvador

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President of the
Republic of El Salvador
Presidente de la República de El Salvador
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg
Presidential Seal
Nayib Bukele (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Nayib Bukele

since 1 June 2019
ResidenceCasa Presidencial, San Salvador
Term lengthFive years, not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holderJuan Lindo
Formation22 February 1841
DeputyVice President of El Salvador
WebsitePresident of El Salvador
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
El Salvador
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The President of El Salvador (Spanish: Presidente de El Salvador), officially known as the President of the Republic of El Salvador (Spanish: Presidente de la República de El Salvador), is the Head of State and Head of Government of El Salvador. He is also, by Constitutional Law, the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of El Salvador. The office was created in the Constitution of 1841. From 1821 until 1841, the head of state of El Salvador was styled simply as Head of State (Jefe de Estado).

The President of the Republic of El Salvador begins his duties on June 1 of the year of his election and is accompanied by a Vice President.

According to the Electoral Code, for a person to be declared President-Elect of the Republic, he must obtain 50% plus one of the votes obtained in the election in the Presidential Elections; If none of the candidates gets to obtain that result, a Second Voting Tour will be held where the two candidates who have obtained the most electoral votes in the first round will participate.

The duration of the presidential office is five years, and each June 1 will be accountable to the Legislative Assembly of the Republic of El Salvador, on the contributions and Government Development that he, his Vice President and the Council of Ministers developed from the beginning of the Presidential term.

History[edit]

In 1824, the Mayor's Office of Sonsonate and the Intendency of San Salvador joined to form the State of El Salvador, united first to the United Provinces of Central America and then to the Federal Republic of Central America. According to the federal law, the Governor received the title of Supreme Chief until 1841, when El Salvador declared itself independent, with its Governor being called President. From then on, four stages with particular characteristics are recognized: the post-federal period, the Coffee Republic, the military governments, and civil governments.

In 1841, El Salvador was constituted as an independent and sovereign nation after the rupture of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1838. At that time, the legislative body created a constitution to legitimize the nation of El Salvador and also named Juan Lindo Provisional President of the Republic of El Salvador on 2 February 1841. It was not until 26 September 1842 Juan José Guzmán was elected by the people as President of El Salvador. From that moment, the republic suffered a constant series of provisional governments that brought many leaders to power.

In 1858, Captain General Gerardo Barrios arrived at the Presidency of the Republic in which his government gave entrance to the "French Bread". It is in 1863 when he resigned from power and the presidency of Francisco Dueñas was established.

It was not until the Constitution of the Republic of El Salvador of 1886 was ratified when the presidential term is increased from two to four years, beginning and ending the presidential terms on 1 March. In 1913, before the death of Manuel Enrique Araujo, a family 'dynasty' would begin. The Meléndez-Quiñonez Dynasty lasted 18 years until Arturo Araujo become President.

In 1931, a coup d'état led by Vice President General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez overthrew President Araujo. This dictatorial government would establish the foundations of a rigid and totally militarized nation. It was not until 1939 when General Martínez called for a Constituent Assembly to draft a new constitution which established that the Presidential term would be increased from 4 to 6 years and would begin and end on 1 January. During his Presidency, Martínez initiated the 1932 Salvadoran Peasant Massacre which killed 25,000 indigenous peoples. Martínez could not fully comply with this measure when he was overthrown in 1844. General Andrés Ignacio Menéndez would become Provisional President.

From that moment, the Presidency of the Republic once again showed dictatorial instability and military governments began to be established to the point of creating a republic with 'Military Authoritarianism' which would end until 1982. In 1950, Lieutenant Colonel Óscar Osorio constitutionally became the President of the Republic and a new constitution was drafted where the presidential term would be 6 years and begin and end on 14 September. Osorio was known as the President of the Social Programs since he implemented and founded programs such as the Urban Housing Institute (IVU), the Autonomous Port Executive Commission (CEPA) among others that benefited the nation.

In 1960, a coup d'état overthrew President José María Lemus which led to the formation of a Junta of Government which would later be overthrown by the Civic-Military Directory in 1961. This was the case until the constitutional order was reestablished and another constitution was created in 1962 which would bring with it significant presidential reforms. From that moment, the presidential term would last 5 years and begin and end on 1 July.

On 15 October 1979, last coup d'état in the history of El Salvador took place. A group of young soldiers overthrew General Carlos Humberto Romero. The coup marked the beginning of the Salvadoran Civil War which would rage on from 1979 to 1992. The Revolutionary Government Junta was established and ruled over El Salvador while fighting against the communist guerrilla group Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). The Junta was abolished in 1982 and Álvaro Magaña became President of the Republic. The 1983 Constituent Assembly decided to create the current Constitution of El Salvador which set Presidential terms to 5 years and would begin and end on June 1. The civil war greatly affected the political stability of the country.

President José Napoleón Duarte would lead the government against the FMLN from 1984-1989. In 1989, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) won the 1989 Presidential Election. Alfredo Cristiani became the first President of ARENA. ARENA won the presidential elections in 1989, 1994, 1999, and 2004. Its presidents were Alfredo Cristiani, Armando Calderón Sol, Francisco Flores, and Elías Antonio Saca.

The Civil War ended in 1992 and the FMLN became a legal political party in accordance to the Chapultepec Peace Accords.

In 20 years of government, El Salvador was characterized by the privatization of national services such as coffee, telecommunications, the pension system, the National Bank, the Electric Power Service, among others. In 2001, the Economic Dollarization System was carried out in the country, a measure adopted by then PresidentFrancisco Flores which would have great long-term consequences for the Salvadoran economy and adopted the US Dollar as legal currency.

Mauricio Funes won the 2009 Presidential Election ending 20 years of ARENA rule and marked the first FMLN Presidency. Salvador Sánchez Cerén became the second FMLN President in 2015 after narrowly defeating Norman Quijano.

In 2019, Nayib Bukele, from the Grand Alliance for National Unity (GANA), won the 2019 Presidential Election ending 10 years of FMLN rule. He was the first President since Duarte to not be a member of either ARENA or FMLN. He was inaugurated on 1 June 2019.

Heads of State of El Salvador within the Federal Republic of Central America (1821–1841)[edit]

Intendants Political Leaders of the Province of San Salvador[edit]

  Independent (5)
No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Political Affiliation
1 Pedro Barriere
(?–1827)
PEDRO BARRIERE.jpg 21 September 1821 28 November 1821 Independent
2 José Matías Delgado
(1767–1832)
Primergrito ahumada.JPG 28 November 1821 9 February 1823 Independent
3 Vicente Filísola
(1789–1850)
Vicente Filisola.jpg 9 February 1823 7 May 1823 Independent
4 Felipe Codallos
(1790–?)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 7 May 1823 25 May 1823 Independent

Advisory Junta Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 25 May 1823 17 June 1823 Advisory Junta
5 Mariano Padro
(1776–1837)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 17 June 1823 22 April 1824 Independent
Head of State of El Salvador
  Independent (6)       Conservative (3)       Liberal (6)
No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Political Affiliation
1 Juan Manuel Rodríguez
(1771–1847)
Juanrod.jpg 22 April 1824 1 October 1824 Independent
Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
Acting Head of State
Mariano Prado (El Salvador).jpg 1 October 1824 13 December 1824 Liberal
2 Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz
(1764–1828)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 13 December 1824 1 November 1826 Liberal
Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
Acting Head of State
Mariano Prado (El Salvador).jpg 1 November 1826 30 January 1829 Liberal
3 José María Cornejo
(1788–1864)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 30 January 1829 16 February 1830 Conservative
4 José Damián Villacorta
(1796–1860)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 16 February 1830 4 December 1830 Independent
5 José María Cornejo
(1788–1864)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 4 December 1830 3 April 1832 Conservative
Francisco Morazán
(1792–1842)
Provisional Head of State
General Francisco Morazán.JPG 3 April 1832 13 May 1832 Liberal
Joaquín de San Martín
(1770–1854)
Acting Head of State
Joaquín de San Martín.jpg 13 May 1832 25 July 1832 Conservative
6 Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
Mariano Prado (El Salvador).jpg 25 July 1832 1 July 1833 Liberal
7 Joaquín de San Martín
(1770–1854)
Joaquín de San Martín.jpg 1 July 1833 23 July 1834 Conservative
Carlos Salazar Castro
(1800–1867)
Provisional Head of State
Carlos Salazar.jpg 23 June 1834 13 July 1834 Independent
José Gregorio Salazar
(1773–1838)
Provisional Head of State
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 13 July 1834 30 September 1834 Independent
8 Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
(?–?)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 30 September 1834 13 October 1834 Independent
José María Silva
(1804–1876)
Acting Head of State
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 13 October 1834 2 March 1835 Independent
9 Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
(?–?)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 2 March 1835 10 April 1835 Independent
10 Nicolás Espinoza
(1795–1845)
Nicolás Espinoza.jpg 10 April 1835 15 November 1835 Liberal
Francisco Gómez
(1796–1838)
Acting Head of State
Francisco Gómez.jpg 15 November 1835 1 February 1836 Independent
11 Diego Vigil Cocaña
(1799–1845)
Dvijil.JPG 1 February 1836 23 May 1837 Liberal
12 Timoteo Menéndez
(?–?)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 23 May 1837 7 June 1837 Independent
13 Diego Vigil Cocaña
(1799–1845)
Dvijil.JPG 7 June 1837 6 January 1838 Liberal
14 Timoteo Menéndez
(?–?)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 6 January 1838 23 May 1838 Independent
Antonio José Cañas
(1785–1844)
Acting Head of State
Antonio-José-Cañas.jpg 23 May 1838 11 July 1839 Independent
15 Francisco Morazán
(1792–1842)
General Francisco Morazán.JPG 11 July 1839 16 February 1840 Liberal
José María Silva
(1804–1876)
Acting Head of State
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 16 February 1840 5 April 1840 Independent
Municipal Council of San Salvador Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 5 April 1840 15 April 1840 Municipal Council of San Salvador
Antonio José Cañas
(1785–1844)
Provisional Head of State
Antonio-José-Cañas.jpg 15 April 1840 20 September 1840 Independent
Norberto Ramírez
(1802–1856)
Provisional Head of State
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 20 September 1840 7 January 1841 Independent
Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Provisional Head of State
Juan Lindo00001.JPG 7 January 1841 22 February 1841 Conservative

Presidents of the Independent Republic of El Salvador (1841–present)[edit]

  Independent (2)       Conservative (9)       Liberal (13)       NDP (4)       Labor (1)       PPP (1)       Military (14)       USDP (1)
  DPNU (2)       NCP (4)       DAP (1)       CDP (1)       ARENA (4)       FMLN (2)       GANA (1)
No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Political Affiliation
Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Provisional President
Juan Lindo00001.JPG 22 February 1841 20 June 1841 Conservative
Pedro José Arce (es)
(1801–1871)
Provisional President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 20 June 1841 28 June 1841 Independent
Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Provisional President
Juan Lindo00001.JPG 28 June 1841 1 February 1842 Conservative
José Escolástico Marín
(?–1846)
Acting President
Escolastico Marín.jpg 1 February 1842 14 April 1842 Independent
1 Juan José Guzmán
(1800–1847)
Presidente de la República de El Salvador Lic. Juan José Guzmán.jpg 14 April 1842 10 December 1843 Conservative
Cayetano Antonio Molina (es)
(1803–1873)
Provisional President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 10 December 1843 20 December 1843 Independent
Pedro José Arce (es)
(1801–1871)
Provisional President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 20 December 1843 29 December 1843 Independent
Cayetano Antonio Molina (es)
(1803–1873)
Provisional President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 29 December 1843 1 January 1844 Independent
Pedro José Arce (es)
(1801–1871)
Provisional President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 1 January 1844 1 February 1844 Independent
Fermín Palacios

(?-?)
Acting President

Fermín Palacios.jpg 1 February 1844 7 February 1844 Independent
2 Francisco Malespín
(1806–1846)
Francisco Malespín.jpg 7 February 1844 15 February 1845 Conservative
3 Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán
(1801–1875)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 15 February 1845 1 February 1846 Independent
Fermín Palacios

(?-?)
Acting President

Fermín Palacios.jpg 1 February 1846 21 February 1846 Independent
4 Eugenio Aguilar
(1804–1879)
Eugenio Aguilar Gonzalez Batres.jpg 21 February 1846 1 February 1848 Liberal
Tomás Medina
(1803–1884)
Acting President
Tomás Medina.jpg 1 February 1848 3 February 1848 Independent
José Félix Quirós
(1811–1883)
Acting President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 3 February 1848 7 February 1848 Independent
5 Doroteo Vasconcelos
(1803–1883)
Doroteo Vasconcelos.jpg 7 February 1848 1 February 1850 Liberal
Ramón Rodríguez

(?-?)
Acting President

Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 1 February 1850 4 February 1850 Independent
6 Doroteo Vasconcelos
(1803–1883)
Doroteo Vasconcelos.jpg 4 February 1850 12 January 1851 Liberal
Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Provisional President
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 12 January 1851 1 March 1851 Conservative
José Félix Quirós
(1811–1883)
Acting President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 1 March 1851 3 May 1851 Independent
7 Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 13 May 1851 30 January 1852 Conservative
José María San Martín
(1811–1857)
Acting President
Colonel José María de San Martín.png 30 January 1852 1 February 1852 Conservative
8 Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 1 February 1852 1 February 1854 Conservative
Vicente Gómez

(?-?)
Acting President

Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 1 February 1854 15 February 1854 Independent
9 José María San Martín
(1811–1857)
Colonel José María de San Martín.png 15 February 1854 1 February 1856 Conservative
Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Acting President
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 1 February 1856 12 February 1856 Conservative
10 Rafael Campo
(1813–1890)
Rafael Campo.jpg 12 February 1856 1 February 1858 Conservative
Lorenzo Zepeda

(?-?)
Acting President

Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 1 February 1858 7 February 1858 Independent
11 Miguel Santín del Castillo
(1830–1880)
87 Miguel Santin del Castillo.jpg 7 February 1858 24 January 1859 Conservative
Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán
(1801–1875)
Acting President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 24 January 1859 15 February 1859 Independent
José María Peralta
(1807–1883)
Acting President
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 15 February 1859 12 March 1859 Independent
12 Gerardo Barrios
(1813–1865)
GBarrios.jpg 12 March 1859 26 October 1863 Liberal
13 Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Francisco Dueñas.jpg 26 October 1863 15 April 1871 Conservative
14 Santiago González
(1818–1887)
Santiago gonzalez.jpg 15 April 1871 1 February 1876 Liberal
15 Andrés del Valle
(1833–1888)
Andresdelvalle.jpg 1 February 1876 1 May 1876 Liberal
16 Rafael Zaldívar
(1834–1903)
Zaldívar.jpg 1 May 1876 6 April 1884 Liberal
Ángel Guirola (es)
(1826–1910)
Provisional President
Angel Guirola.png 6 April 1884 21 August 1884 Independent
17 Rafael Zaldívar
(1834–1903)
Zaldívar.jpg 21 August 1884 14 May 1885 Liberal
Fernando Figueroa
(1849–1919)
Provisional President
Illus-059 (Salvador, 20th Century).jpg 14 May 1885 18 June 1885 Military /
Liberal
José Rosales
(1827–1891)
Provisional President
Jose Rosales.png 18 June 1885 22 June 1885 Independent
18 Francisco Menéndez
(1830–1890)
Francisco Menéndez.jpg 22 June 1885 22 June 1890 Military /
Liberal
19 Carlos Ezeta
(1852–1903)
General Carlos Ezeta.png 22 June 1890 9 June 1894 Military /
Liberal
20 Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez
(1845–1921)
Rafael A. Gutierrez.jpg 10 June 1894 13 November 1898 Military /
Liberal
21 Tomás Regalado
(1861–1906)
Tomás Regalado.jpg 14 November 1898 1 March 1903 Military /
Liberal
22 Pedro José Escalón
(1847–1923)
Escalon.jpg 1 March 1903 1 March 1907 Military /
Conservative
23 Fernando Figueroa
(1849–1919)
Illus-059 (Salvador, 20th Century).jpg 1 March 1907 1 March 1911 Military /
Liberal
24 Manuel Enrique Araujo
(1865–1913)
Manuel Enrique Araujo 01.jpg 1 March 1911 8 February 1913 Independent
Carlos Meléndez Ramirez
(1861–1919)
Provisional President
Carlos Meléndez.jpg 9 February 1913 29 August 1914 National Democratic Party
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Provisional President
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1915.jpg 29 August 1914 1 March 1915 National Democratic Party
25 Carlos Meléndez Ramirez
(1861–1919)
Carlos Meléndez.jpg 1 March 1915 21 December 1918 National Democratic Party
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Acting President
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1915.jpg 21 December 1918 1 March 1919 National Democratic Party
26 Jorge Meléndez
(1871–1953)
62 Jorge Melendez.jpg 1 March 1919 1 March 1923 National Democratic Party
27 Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1915.jpg 1 March 1923 1 March 1927 National Democratic Party
28 Pío Romero Bosque
(1860–1935)
Dr. Pio Romero Bosque.jpg 1 March 1927 1 March 1931 National Democratic Party
29 Arturo Araujo
(1878–1967)
Arturo Araujo Fajardo.jpg 1 March 1931 2 December 1931 Labor Party
Civic Directory (es)
(1878–1967)
Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 2 December 1931 4 December 1931 Civic Directory
Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
(1882–1966)
Acting President
Hernandez Martinez.jpg 4 December 1931 28 August 1934 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
Andrés Ignacio Menéndez
(1879–1962)
Provisional President
67 General Andres I. Menendez.jpg 29 August 1934 1 March 1935 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
30 Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
(1882–1966)
Hernandez Martinez.jpg 1 March 1935 9 May 1944 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
Andrés Ignacio Menéndez
(1879–1962)
Provisional President
67 General Andres I. Menendez.jpg 9 May 1944 20 October 1944 Military /
National Pro Patria Party
Osmín Aguirre y Salinas
(1889–1977)
Provisional President
Coronel Osmin Aguirre.jpg 21 October 1944 1 March 1945 Military
31 Salvador Castaneda Castro
(1888–1965)
Gral-castaneda.jpg 1 March 1945 14 December 1948 Military /
Unification Social Democratic Party
Revolutionary Council of Government (es) Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 15 December 1948 14 September 1950 Revolutionary Council of Government
32 Óscar Osorio
(1910–1969)
Oscar Osorio.jpg 14 September 1950 14 September 1956 Military /
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification
33 José María Lemus
(1911–1993)
Jose M. Lemus.jpg 14 September 1956 26 October 1960 Military /
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification
Junta of Government (es) Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 26 October 1960 25 January 1961 Junta of Government
Civic-Military Directory Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 25 January 1961 25 January 1962 Civic-Military Directory
Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea
(1899–1966)
Provisional President
Rodolfo Cordon.jpg 25 January 1962 1 July 1962 Independent
34 Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo
(1921–1973)
Copia de Coronel Julio Adalberto Rivera.jpg 1 July 1962 1 July 1967 Military /
National Coalition Party
35 Fidel Sánchez Hernández
(1917–2003)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 1 July 1967 1 July 1972 Military /
National Coalition Party
36 Arturo Armando Molina
(born 1927)
Coronel Arturo Molina.png 1 July 1972 1 July 1977 Military /
National Coalition Party
37 Carlos Humberto Romero
(1924–2017)
Humberto Romero 1977.jpg 1 July 1977 15 October 1979 Military /
National Coalition Party
Revolutionary Government Junta Coat of arms of El Salvador.svg 15 October 1979 2 May 1982 Revolutionary Government Junta
38 Álvaro Magaña
(1925–2001)
Alvaro Magaña.jpg 2 May 1982 1 June 1984 Democratic Action Party
39 José Napoleón Duarte
(1925–1990)
José Napoleón Duarte 1987c.jpg 1 June 1984 1 June 1989 Christian Democratic Party
40 Alfredo Cristiani
(born 1947)
Alfredo Cristiani.jpg 1 June 1989 1 June 1994 Nationalist Republican Alliance
41 Armando Calderón Sol
(1948–2017)
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg 1 June 1994 1 June 1999 Nationalist Republican Alliance
42 Francisco Flores Pérez
(1959–2016)
President Francisco Flores El Salvador1.jpg 1 June 1999 1 June 2004 Nationalist Republican Alliance
43 Antonio Saca
(born 1965)
Antonio Saca.png 1 June 2004 1 June 2009 Nationalist Republican Alliance
44 Mauricio Funes
(born 1959)
Mauricio Funes (Brasilia, May 2008).jpg 1 June 2009 1 June 2014 Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
45 Salvador Sánchez Cerén
(born 1944)
Salvador Sanchez Ceren.jpg 1 June 2014 1 June 2019 Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
46 Nayib Bukele
(born 1981)
Nayib Bukele (cropped).jpg 1 June 2019 Incumbent Grand Alliance for National Unity

Latest election[edit]

Candidate Party First round
Votes %
Nayib Bukele Grand Alliance for National Unity (GANA) 1,434,856 53.10
Carlos Calleja Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) 857,084 31.72
Hugo Martínez Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) 389,289 14.41
Josué Alvarado VAMOS 20,763 0.77
Invalid/blank votes 31,186
Total 2,733,178 100
Registered voters/turnout 5,268,411 51.88
Source: TSE [1], [2][permanent dead link]

Living former presidents[edit]

See also.[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Luis Eliezer Garcia. "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de El Salvador » Autoridades » Titulares". Rree.gob.sv. Retrieved 10 July 2019.

External links[edit]