President of Haiti
|President of the|
Republic of Haiti
French: Président de la République d'Haïti
Haitian Creole: Prezidan Repiblik Ayiti
|Type||Head of state|
|Member of||Council of Ministers|
|Term length||Five years|
Renewable once non-consecutively
|Precursor||Emperor of Haiti|
|Formation||17 February 1807|
|First holder||Alexandre Pétion|
|Succession||Line of succession|
|Salary||250,000 Gourdes per month|
The president of Haiti (French: Président d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Prezidan peyi Ayiti), officially called the President of the Republic of Haiti (French: Président de la République d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Prezidan Repiblik Ayiti), is the head of state of Haiti. Executive power in Haiti is divided between the president and the government headed by the prime minister of Haiti.[A133] The current acting president of Haiti is Ariel Henry, who took office on 20 July 2021.
Term and election
The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Chapter III Section A (Articles 134 and 135) of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti.
The president is elected to a five-year term by popular vote. The president is not to be elected twice in a row; he may serve a second term only after an interval of five years, and must not run for a third term.[A134]
To be elected president, a candidate must:[A135]
- be a native-born Haitian and never renounced that nationality;
- have reached the age of 35 by election day;
- enjoy civil and political rights and not have been sentenced to death, or penal servitude or the loss of civil rights for a crime of ordinary law;[unreliable source?]
- be the owner of a real property and have one's habitual residence in the country;
- reside in the country at least 5 years before election day;
- have been discharged of responsibilities if previously handling public funds.
Elections are held on the last Sunday in November in the fifth year of the current president's term. However, the election time is not fixed according to the election held in 2015. If no candidate receives a majority, a runoff election is held between the top two candidates. The runoff candidate who has not withdrawn before the runoff, who has the highest number of votes, will become the next president.[A134]
Each presidential term in office begins and ends on the first February 7 after presidential elections are held. However this is also altered after Michel Martelly became the president on May 11, 2011. [A134]
Duties and powers
The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Articles 136 to 147, part of Chapter III Section B of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti. The president has no powers except those accorded to him in the Constitution.[A150]
The Constitution mandates that the president see to: the respect for and enforcement of the Constitution and the stability of the institutions; regular operations of the public authorities; the continuity of the State;[A136] and the nation's independence and the integrity of its territory.[A138]
When there is a majority in Parliament, the president must choose a prime minister from the majority party; otherwise, he chooses one after consultation with the two houses of Parliament. In either case, the choice must then be ratified by Parliament. The president terminates the duties of the prime minister when the Government resigns.[A137]
The president declares war and negotiates and signs peace treaties with the approval of the National Assembly,[A140] and signs all international treaties, conventions and agreements, submitting them to the National Assembly for ratification.[A139] The president accredits ambassadors and special envoys to foreign powers; receives letters of accreditation from ambassadors of foreign powers; and issue exequaturs to recognize consuls.[A139-1]
With the approval of the Council of Ministers, the president of the Republic appoints the directors general of the civil service, and delegates and vice delegates of Departments and Arrondissements. [A142]
The president is also the head of Haitian armed forces.[A143]
The president ratifies laws and has the right to choose between ratifying a law or not. [A144]
This section needs to be updated.(July 2021)
Line of succession
Under the 1987 constitution, the presidential line of succession went first to the president of the Supreme Court of Haiti, then to the vice-president of the court, then to judges in order of seniority. An election for president was required within three months, and the acting president could not run for the office. This was amended in 2011–2012 to remove all judges from the presidential line of succession.
List of presidents
^ [A___] citations are Article numbers of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Haiti. A government-issued but unofficial (and error-prone) English translation is available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b542c.html and http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987.html and the French original is available at http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987fr.html
- United Nations Heads of State Protocol and Liaison Service Heads of Government - Public List Ministers For Foreign Affairs
- NEWS, HAITIZ. "Le Chef de l'État n'a que 250 mille gourdes le mois". www.haitiz.com.
- Faiola, Anthony; Merancourt, Wildore; Hudson, John; Sonmez, Felicia (19 July 2021). "Haiti's acting prime minister Claude Joseph says he will step down amid leadership dispute". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
- "Haiti's acting prime minister to step down amid power struggle after president's assassination". France 24. 2021-07-20. Retrieved 2021-07-20.