President of Haiti

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President of the
Republic of Haiti
Président de la
République d'Haïti
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg
Flag of Haiti.svg
Jocelerme Privert 2016.jpg
Incumbent
Jocelerme Privert
Provisional

since 14 February 2016
Style His Excellency[1]
Member of Council of Ministers
Residence Palais National
Seat Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Term length Five years
Renewable once non-consecutively
Inaugural holder Alexandre Pétion
Formation October 17, 1806 (1806-10-17)
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Haiti
Constitution
Foreign relations

The President of the Republic of Haiti is the head of state of Haiti. Executive power in Haiti is divided between the president and the government headed by the Prime Minister of Haiti.[A133] The current Acting President is Jocelerme Privert, who took office on February 14, 2016.

Term and election[edit]

The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Chapter III Section A (Articles 134 and 135) of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti.

The President is elected to a five-year term by popular vote. The President is not to be elected twice in a row: he may serve a second term only after an interval of five years, and must not run for a third term.[A134]

To be elected President, a candidate must:[A135]

  1. be a native-born Haitian and never renounced that nationality;
  2. have reached the age of 35 by election day;
  3. enjoy civil and political rights and not have been sentenced to death, or penal servitude or the loss of civil rights for a crime of ordinary law;[unreliable source?]
  4. be the owner of a real property and have one's habitual residence in the country;
  5. reside in the country at least 5 years before election day;
  6. have been discharged of responsibilities if previously handling public funds.

Elections are held on the last Sunday in November in the fifth year of the current president's term. However, the election time is not fixed according to the election held in 2015. If no candidate receives a majority, a runoff election is held between those two candidates. Runoff candidate who have not withdrawn before the runoff, who have the highest number of votes will become the next president.[A134]

Each presidential term in office begins and ends on the first February 7 after presidential elections are held. However this is also altered after Michel Martelly became the president on May 11 of 2011. [A134]

Duties and powers[edit]

The qualifications for the presidency are specified by Articles 136 to 147, part of Chapter III Section B of the 1987 Constitution of Haiti. The President has no powers except those accorded to him in the Constitution.[A150]

The Constitution mandates that the President see to: the respect for and enforcement of the Constitution and the stability of the institutions; regular operations of the public authorities; the continuity of the State;[A136] and the nation's independence and the integrity of its territory.[A138]

When there is a majority in Parliament, the President must choose a Prime Minister from the majority party; otherwise, he chooses one after consultation with the two houses of Parliament. In either case, the choice must then be ratified by Parliament. The President terminates the duties of the Prime Minister when the Government resigns.[A137]

The President declares war and negotiates and signs peace treaties with the approval of the National Assembly,[A140] and signs all international treaties, conventions and agreements, submitting them to the National Assembly for ratification.[A139] The President accredits ambassadors and special envoys to foreign powers; receives letters of accreditation from ambassadors of foreign powers; and issue exequaturs to recognize consuls.[A139-1]

With the approval of the senate, the president appoints the Commander-in-chief of Haitian armed forces, Haitian police forces, ambassadors and consuls to foreign states.[A141]

With the approval of the Council of Ministers, the President of the Republic appoints the directors general of the civil service, and delegates and vice delegates of Departments and Arrondissements. [A142]

The President is also the head of Haitian armed forces.[A143]

The President ratifies laws and has the right to choose between ratifying a law or not. [A144]

The President could perform or commune sentences in all res judica cases, except ones carried by Supreme Court judges. The president, however, cannot grant amnesty to non-political prisoners. [A146][1]

Residence[edit]

The National Palace in the capital Port-au-Prince served as the official residence of the President of Haiti,[A153] but it was severely damaged in the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and demolished in 2012.

List of presidents[edit]

Latest election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 28 November 2010 and 20 March 2011 Haitian presidential election results
Candidates Nominating parties First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Michel Martelly Peasant Response 234,617 21.84 716,986 67.57
Mirlande Manigat Rally of Progressive National Democrats 336,878 31.37 336,747 31.74
Jude Célestin Unity 241,462 22.48  
Jean-Henry Céant Renmen Ayiti 87,834 8.18
Jacques-Édouard Alexis Mobilization for the Progress of Haiti 32,932 3.07
Charles Henri Baker Respect 25,512 2.38
Jean Chavannes Jeune Christian Citizens' Alliance for the Reconstruction of Haiti 19,348 1.80
Yves Cristalin Lavni Organization 17,133 1.60
Leslie Voltaire Ansanm Nou Fò 16,199 1.51
Anne Marie Josette Bijou Independent 10,782 1.00
Génard Joseph Solidarity 9,164 0.85
Wilson Jeudy Force 2010 6,076 0.57
Yvon Neptune Ayisyen Pou Ayiti 4,217 0.39
Jean Hector Anacacis Democratic Movement of the Haitian Youth 4,165 0.39
Léon Jeune Rally for Economic Liberation 3,738 0.35
Axan Delson Abellard National Rally for the Development of Haiti 3,110 0.29
Garaudy Laguerre Wozo Movement 2,802 0.26
Gérard Marie Necker Blot Platfom 16 Desanm 2,621 0.24
Eric Smarki Charles Party for Haitian National Evolution 2,597 0.24
no candidate 12,869 1.20 7,356 0.69
Total votes (turnout: 22.79%/22.52%) 1,074,056 100.00 1,061,089 100.00
Registered voters 4,712,693  
Source: Adam Carr's Election Archive, Provisional Electoral Council, Provisional Electoral Council

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ [A___] citations are Article numbers of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Haiti. A government-issued but unofficial (and error-prone) English translation is available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b542c.html and http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987.html and the French original is available at http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Haiti/haiti1987fr.html

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Schutt-Ainé, Patricia (1994). Haiti: A Basic Reference Book. Miami, Florida: Librairie Au Service de la Culture. p. 165. ISBN 0-9638599-0-0.