List of heads of state of Panama

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President of the Republic of Panama
Presidente de la República de Panamá
Presidential Flag of Panama.svg
Presidential Standard
Coat of arms of Panama.svg
Coat of Arms of Panama
Laurentino Cortizo (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Laurentino Cortizo

since 1 July 2019
ResidencePalacio de las Garzas, Panama City
Term lengthFive years
not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holderManuel Amador Guerrero
Formation20 February 1904
DeputyVice President of Panama
Salary7,000 USD per month[1]
WebsitePresidencia de la República
Coat of arms of Panama.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Panama

This article lists the heads of state of Panama since the short-lived first independence from the Republic of New Granada in 1840 and the final separation from Colombia in 1903.

Presidents of Colombia (1819-present)

Republic of Great Colombia (1819-1831)

Parties

  Independent

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office
1 Portrait of Simón Bolívar by Arturo Michelena.jpg Simón Bolívar y Palacios
(1783–1830)
1819 15 February 1819 4 May 1830 Independent
2 JoaquínMosquera2.jpg Joaquín de Mosquera y Arboleda
(1787–1878)
1830 4 May 1830 4 September 1830 Independent
3 Rafael urdaneta.jpg Rafael Urdaneta y Faría
(1788—1845)
4 September 1830 30 April 1831 Independent

Republic of New Granada (1831-1858)

Parties

  Independent   Liberal Party   Conservative Party

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office
1 Santander by Acevedo Bernal.jpg Francisco de Paula Santander
(1788—1845)
1832 30 April 1831 (informal)
10 March 1832 (official)
1 April 1837 Independent
2 José Ignacio de Márquez.jpg José Ignacio de Márquez
(1793–1880)
1837 1 April 1837 1 April 1841 Independent
3 Pedro Alcántara Herrán.jpg Pedro Alcántara Herrán
(1800–1872)
1841 1 April 1841 1 April 1845 Independent
4 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
(1798–1878)
1845 1 April 1845 1 April 1849 Independent
5 General José Hilario López.jpg José Hilario López
(1798–1869)
1849 1 April 1849 1 April 1853 Liberal Party
6 José María Obando del Campo.jpg José María Obando
(1795–1861)
1853 1 April 1853 17 April 1854 Liberal Party
7 Jose Maria Melo 1.jpg José María Melo
(1800–1860)
17 April 1854 1 April 1857 Liberal Party
8 Mariano Ospina Rodríguez.jpg Mariano Ospina Rodríguez
(1805–1885)
1857 1 April 1857 22 May 1858 Conservative Party

Granadine Confederation (1858-1863)

Parties

  Conservative Party   Liberal Party

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office
1 Mariano Ospina Rodríguez.jpg Mariano Ospina Rodríguez
(1805–1885)
1857 22 May 1858 1 April 1861 Conservative Party
2 Bartolomé Calvo.jpg Bartolomé Calvo Díaz
(1815–1889)
1861 1 April 1861 18 July 1861
(deposed by a revolution)
Conservative Party
3 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
(1798–1878)
18 July 1861 14 May 1863 Liberal Party

United States of Colombia (1863-1886)

Parties

  Liberal Party

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office
1 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
(1798–1878)
14 May 1863 1 April 1864 Liberal Party
2 Manuel Murillo Toro.JPG Manuel Murillo Toro
(1816–1880)
1864 1 April 1864 1 April 1866 Liberal Party
3 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2.JPG Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
(1798–1878)
1866 1 April 1866 23 May 1867 Liberal Party
4 Manuel María de los Santos Acosta.jpg Santos Acosta Castillo
(1828–1901)
23 May 1867 1 April 1868 Liberal Party
5 Santos Gutiérrez 1.jpg Santos Gutiérrez Prieto
(1820–1872)
1868 1 April 1868 1 April 1870 Liberal Party
6 Eustorgio Salgar 1.jpg Eustorgio Salgar Moreno
(1831–1885)
1870 1 April 1870 1 April 1872 Liberal Party
7 Manuel Murillo Toro.JPG Manuel Murillo Toro
(1816–1880)
1872 1 April 1872 1 April 1874 Liberal Party
8 Santiago Pérez.jpg Santiago Pérez de Manosalbas
(1830–1900)
1874 1 April 1874 1 April 1876 Liberal Party
9 Aquileo Parra Gómez.jpg Aquileo Parra Gómez
(1825–1900)
1876 1 April 1876 1 April 1878 Liberal Party
10 Julián Trujillo Largacha.jpg Julián Trujillo Largacha
(1828–1883)
1878 1 April 1878 1 April 1880 Liberal Party
11 Rafael Núñez Moledo.jpg Rafael Núñez Moledo
(1825–1894)
1880 1 April 1880 1 April 1882 Liberal Party
12 Francisco Javier Zaldúa 1.jpg Francisco Javier Zaldúa
(1811–1882)
1882 1 April 1882 21 December 1882
(died in office)
Liberal Party
13 José Eusebio Otálora.jpg José Eusebio Otálora
(1826–1884)
21 December 1882 1 April 1884 Liberal Party
14 Rafael Núñez Moledo.jpg Rafael Núñez Moledo
(1825–1894)
1884 1 April 1884 1 April 1886 Liberal Party

Free State of the Isthmus (1840–1841)

  • Superior Civil Chief: 18 November 1840 – 20 March 1841 General Juan Lopez
  • Superior Chief of State: 20 March 1841 – 8 June 1841 Tomás de Herrera
  • President: 8 June 1841 – 31 December 1841 Tomás de Herrera

Republic of Colombia (1886-1903)

Parties
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office
1 Rafael Núñez Moledo.jpg Rafael Núñez Moledo
(1825–1894)
1886 1 April 1886 18 September 1894
(died in office)
National Party
2 Miguel Antonio Caro 1.jpg Miguel Antonio Caro Tobar
(1845–1909)
18 September 1894 7 August 1898 National Party
3 Manuel Antonio Sanclemente.jpg Manuel Antonio Sanclemente
(1814–1902)
1898 7 August 1898 31 July 1900
(resigned for health problems)
National Party
4 José Manuel Marroquín.jpg José Manuel Marroquín
(1827–1908)
31 July 1900 7 August 1904 Conservative Party
5 Rafael Reyes.jpg Rafael Reyes Prieto
(1849–1921)
1904 7 August 1904 27 July 1909
(resigned)
Conservative Party

Republic of Panama (1903–present)

President of the Municipal Council of Panama and de facto President (1903)

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office
Demetrio H. Brid
(1859–1917)
Demetrio H. Brid.jpg 3 November 1903 4 November 1903

Members of the Provisional Government Junta (1903–1904)

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office
José Agustín Arango
(1841–1909)
Jose-Agustin-Arango.jpg 4 November 1903 20 February 1904
Tomás Arias
(1856–1932)
Tomás Arias p319.jpg
Federico Boyd
(1851–1924)
FBoyd4.jpg
Manuel Espinosa Batista
(1857–1919)
Manuel Espinosa Batista.jpg 9 November 1903 7 December 1903

Presidents of Panama (1904–present)

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Affiliation Election Notes
1 Manuel Amador Guerrero
(1833–1909)
Amador Guerrero, Manuel.jpg 20 February 1904 23 June 1907[2] Conservative Party 1904
2 José Domingo de Obaldía
(1845–1910)
Jose Domingo de Obaldía.jpg 24 June 1907[2] 27 December 1907[2] National Liberal Party
(1) Manuel Amador Guerrero
(1833–1909)
Amador Guerrero, Manuel.jpg 29 December 1907[2] 1 October 1908 Conservative Party
(2) José Domingo de Obaldía
(1845–1910)
Jose Domingo de Obaldía.jpg 1 October 1908 1 March 1910 National Liberal Party 1908 Died in office.
Carlos Antonio Mendoza
(1856–1916)
Carlos Antonio Mendoza.jpg 1 March 1910 1 October 1910 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Federico Boyd
(1851–1924)
FBoyd4.jpg 1 October 1910 5 October 1910 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Pablo Arosemena
(1836–1920)
Pabloarosemena.jpg 5 October 1910 1 October 1912 National Liberal Party Acting President.
3 Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
1 October 1912 1 October 1916 National Liberal Party 1912 First tenure.
4 Ramón Maximiliano Valdés
(1867–1918)
RMvaldes7.jpg 1 October 1916 3 June 1918 National Liberal Party 1916 Died in office.
Ciro Luis Urriola
(1863–1922)
8CiroU.jpg 3 June 1918 1 October 1918 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Pedro Antonio Díaz
(1852–1919)
Pedro Antonio Díaz.jpg 1 October 1918 12 October 1918 Conservative Party Acting President.
(3) Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
12 October 1918 30 January 1920 National Liberal Party 1918 Second tenure.
Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre
(1876–1922)
Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre.jpg 30 January 1920 1 October 1920 National Liberal Party Acting President.
(3) Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
1 October 1920 1 October 1924 National Liberal Party 1920 Third tenure.
5 Rodolfo Chiari
(1869–1937)
Rodolfo Chiari.jpg 1 October 1924 1 October 1928 National Liberal Party 1924
6 Florencio Harmodio Arosemena
(1872–1945)
Florencio Harmodio Arosemena.jpg 1 October 1928 3 January 1931 National Liberal Party 1928 Deposed in a coup d'état.
Harmodio Arias Madrid
(1886–1963)
3 January 1931 16 January 1931 Independent Acting President.
7 Ricardo Joaquín Alfaro Jované
(1882–1971)
Ricardo J. Alfaro.jpg 16 January 1931 5 June 1932 National Liberal Party
8 Harmodio Arias Madrid
(1886–1963)
5 June 1932 1 October 1936 National Revolutionary Party 1932
9 Juan Demóstenes Arosemena
(1879–1939)
1 October 1936 16 December 1939 National Liberal Party 1936 Died in office.
Ezequiel Fernández
(1886–1946)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 16 December 1939 18 December 1939 National Revolutionary Party Acting President.
Augusto Samuel Boyd
(1879–1957)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 18 December 1939 1 October 1940 National Revolutionary Party Acting President.
10 Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
Monumento a Arnulfo Arias Madrid..-.jpg 1 October 1940 9 October 1941 National Revolutionary Party 1940 First tenure.
Deposed in a coup d'état.
11 Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango
(1899–1969)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 9 October 1941 15 June 1945 Independent
Enrique Adolfo Jiménez
(1888–1970)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 15 June 1945 7 August 1948 National Liberal Party 1945 Provisional President.
12 Domingo Díaz Arosemena
(1875–1949)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 7 August 1948 28 July 1949 National Liberal Party 1948 Resigned after a heart attack, and died less than a month later.
13 Daniel Chanis Pinzón
(1892–1961)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 28 July 1949 20 November 1949 National Liberal Party
14 Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón
(1905–1981)
Roberto F. Chiari.jpg 20 November 1949 24 November 1949 National Liberal Party First tenure.
(10) Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
Monumento a Arnulfo Arias Madrid..-.jpg 24 November 1949 9 May 1951 Panameñista Party Second tenure.
15 Alcibíades Arosemena
(1883–1958)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 9 May 1951 1 October 1952 Authentic Revolutionary Party
16 José Antonio Remón Cantera
(1908–1955)
Estatua de José Antonio Remón Cantera - Sede de la Policía Nacional de Panamá (2012).jpg 1 October 1952 2 January 1955 National Patriotic Coalition 1952 Assassinated.
17 José Ramón Guizado
(1899–1964)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 2 January 1955 29 March 1955 National Patriotic Coalition
18 Ricardo Arias
(1912–1993)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 29 March 1955 1 October 1956 National Patriotic Coalition
19 Ernesto de la Guardia
(1904–1983)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 1 October 1956 1 October 1960 National Patriotic Coalition 1956
(14) Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón
(1905–1981)
Roberto F. Chiari 1962.jpg 1 October 1960 1 October 1964 National Liberal Party 1960 Second tenure.
20 Marco Aurelio Robles
(1908–1990)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 1 October 1964 1 October 1968 National Liberal Party 1964
(10) Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
Monumento a Arnulfo Arias Madrid..-.jpg 1 October 1968 11 October 1968 Panameñista Party 1968 Third tenure.
Deposed in a coup d'état.
José María Pinilla Fábrega
(1919–1979)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 12 October 1968 18 December 1969 National Guard Chairman of the Provisional Junta.
21 Colonel
Bolívar Urrutia Parrilla
(1918–2005)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg President.
22 Demetrio B. Lakas
(1925–1999)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 19 December 1969 11 October 1978 Independent 1972 Chairman of the Provisional Junta to 11 October 1972.
23 Aristides Royo
(born 1940)
Aristides Royo (6713987733) (cropped).jpg 11 October 1978 31 July 1982 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1978
24 Ricardo de la Espriella
(born 1934)
De-la-espriella-crop.jpg 31 July 1982 13 February 1984 Democratic Revolutionary Party
25 Jorge Illueca
(1918–2012)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 13 February 1984 11 October 1984 Independent
26 Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino
(born 1938)
Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino.jpg 11 October 1984 28 September 1985 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1984
Eric Arturo Delvalle
(1937–2015)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 28 September 1985 26 February 1988 Republican Party Acting President.
Manuel Solís Palma
(1917–2009)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 26 February 1988 1 September 1989 Democratic Revolutionary Party Acting President.
Francisco Rodríguez
(born 1938)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 1 September 1989 20 December 1989 Democratic Revolutionary Party Provisional President.
Deposed in the US invasion.
27 Guillermo Endara
(1936–2009)
Guillermo Endara 1993.jpg 20 December 1989 1 September 1994 Panameñista Party 1989
28 Ernesto Pérez Balladares
(born 1946)
Mr. Ernesto Perez Balladares (cropped).jpg 1 September 1994 1 September 1999 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1994
29 Mireya Moscoso
(born 1946)
Mireya Moscoso.jpg 1 September 1999 1 September 2004 Panameñista Party 1999 Widow of Arnulfo Arias.
30 Martín Torrijos
(born 1963)
Panama.MartinTorrijos.01.jpg 1 September 2004 1 July 2009 Democratic Revolutionary Party 2004 Son of Omar Torrijos.
31 Ricardo Martinelli
(born 1951)
Ricardo Martinelli Presidente de Panamá.jpg 1 July 2009 1 July 2014 Democratic Change 2009
32 Juan Carlos Varela
(born 1963)
Juan Carlos Varela (2014).jpg 1 July 2014 1 July 2019 Panameñista Party 2014
33 Nito Cortizo
(born 1953)
Laurentino "Nito" Cortizo (cropped).jpg 1 July 2019 Incumbent Democratic Revolutionary Party 2019

Military (de facto) leaders of Panama (1968–1989)

Panama was from 1968–1989 de facto controlled by a military junta which appointed the nominal president, who himself had little power, while the junta and its leaders, while not official heads of state, exerted actual control over the country.

Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Military Affiliation Notes
Brigadier-General
Omar Torrijos
(1929–1981)
Omar Torrijos 1977.jpg 11 October 1968 31 July 1981 National Guard Styled as Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution from 11 October 1968.
Killed in an air crash.
Colonel
Rubén Darío Paredes
(1934–)
Coat of arms of Panama.svg 3 March 1982 12 August 1983 National Guard
General
Manuel Noriega
(1934–2017)
Manuel Noriega mugshot cropped.jpg 12 August 1983 20 December 1989 National Guard
(until 29 September 1983.)
Styled as Maximum Leader of the National Liberation from 15 December 1989.
Deposed in the US invasion.
Panama Defense Forces

Living former presidents

There are nine living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was Eric Arturo Delvalle (1985–1988), on 2 October 2015.

Timeline

Laurentino CortizoJuan Carlos VarelaRicardo MartinelliMartín TorrijosMireya MoscosoErnesto Pérez BalladaresGuillermo EndaraFrancisco RodríguezManuel Solís PalmaEric Arturo DelvalleNicolás Ardito Barletta VallarinoJorge IlluecaRicardo de la EspriellaAristides RoyoDemetrio B. LakasBolívar Urrutia ParrillaJosé María Pinilla FábregaManuel NoriegaRubén Darío ParedesFlorencio Flores AguilarOmar TorrijosMarco Aurelio RoblesErnesto de la GuardiaRicardo Arias (politician)José Ramón GuizadoJosé Antonio Remón CanteraAlcibíades ArosemenaRoberto Francisco Chiari RemónDaniel Chanis PinzónDomingo Díaz ArosemenaEnrique Adolfo JiménezRicardo Adolfo de la Guardia ArangoArnulfo AriasAugusto Samuel BoydEzequiel FernándezJuan Demóstenes ArosemenaRicardo Joaquín Alfaro JovanéHarmodio Arias MadridFlorencio Harmodio ArosemenaRodolfo ChiariErnesto Tisdel LefevrePedro Antonio DíazCiro Luis UrriolaRamón Maximiliano ValdésBelisario Porras BarahonaPablo ArosemenaFederico BoydCarlos Antonio MendozaJosé Domingo de ObaldíaManuel Amador Guerrero

Latest election

Candidate Party Votes %
Laurentino Cortizo Democratic Revolutionary Party 655,428 33.35
Rómulo Roux Democratic Change 609,223 31.00
Ricardo Lombana Independent 369,303 18.79
José Blandón Panameñista Party 212,812 10.83
Ana Matilde Gómez Independent 93,608 4.76
Saúl Méndez Broad Front for Democracy 13,582 0.69
Marco Ameglio Independent 11,321 0.58
Invalid/blank votes 48,782
Total 2,014,059 100
Registered voters/turnout 2,757,823 73.03
Source: Election Tribunal

See also

References

  1. ^ "Shocking Gap Between Latin America's Presidential Salaries And Workers Minimum Wage". Latin Post. 22 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d ".:: SomosPanama.com ::". 2 April 2016. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2018.