President of Rhodesia
|President of Rhodesia|
Flag of the President of Rhodesia (1970–79)
|Formation||2 March 1970|
|First holder||Clifford Dupont|
|Final holder||Henry Everard (Acting)|
|Abolished||1 June 1979|
|Succession||President of Zimbabwe Rhodesia|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The position of President of Rhodesia was the head of state of Rhodesia from 1970 to 1979. However, as Rhodesia never had a presidential system of government, power continued to be exercised by Rhodesia's Prime Minister, Ian Smith. Two individuals held the office of President, while two others served as acting presidents. All were white people of British descent. As with Rhodesia itself, the position lacked international recognition for the entire period.
On 11 November 1965, Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front Government proclaimed the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the United Kingdom. On orders from the UK, the then-Governor of Southern Rhodesia, Sir Humphrey Gibbs, immediately sacked Smith and his cabinet. This action was ignored by Smith, who stated that the UDI brought into immediate force a new constitution which dissolved the position of Governor. Under this constitution, the position of Governor was replaced by an "Officer Administering the Government", and this position was filled by Deputy Prime Minister Clifford Dupont. Following a referendum of the mostly white voters in favor of a republic in 1969, Gibbs resigned his office and left Rhodesia.
Smith had sought to make Rhodesia a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as Queen of Rhodesia. Through this period Elizabeth II would be recognised as Rhodesia's head of state, but he later decided to sever constitutional links with Britain, by making the country a republic. Following the declaration of a republic in 1970, Dupont assumed the office of President; Smith's position as prime minister remained unchanged. A presidential flag was adopted, featuring a blue field with the coat of arms in the centre.
Dupont resigned due to ill health in 1975. He was succeeded as President in 1976 by John Wrathall, who died in office in 1978. In 1979 there was an Internal Settlement, which saw a black majority government for the first time, and the country was renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Josiah Zion Gumede was chosen as president. Like the UDI and the declaration of a republic, Zimbabwe Rhodesia was unrecognised internationally and in 1979, Britain resumed control of the rebel colony under the Lancaster House Agreement. Britain appointed Lord Soames as Governor until the country became independent as Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980.
List of presidents of Rhodesia
|Picture||Took office||Left office||Political Party|
|Officer Administering the Government (1965–1970)|
|11 November 1965||2 March 1970||Rhodesian Front|
|Presidents of the Republic of Rhodesia (1970–1979)|
|16 April 1970
2 March 1970
|31 December 1975
|31 December 1975||14 January 1976||Rhodesian Front|
|14 January 1976||31 August 1978
(Died in office)
|31 August 1978||1 November 1978||Rhodesian Front|
|—||Jack William Pithey
|1 November 1978||5 March 1979||Rhodesian Front|
|5 March 1979||1 June 1979||Rhodesian Front|
- During this period, Queen Elizabeth II was still considered to be the official Head of State.