President of Slovakia

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President of the Slovak Republic
Prezident Slovenskej republiky
Flag of the President of Slovakia.svg
Presidential Standard
Andrej Kiska in Senate of Poland.jpg
Andrej Kiska

since 15 June 2014
ResidenceGrassalkovich Palace
AppointerPopular vote
Term lengthFive years
renewable once, consecutively
Inaugural holderMichal Kováč
2 March 1993
FormationConstitution of Slovakia
Salaryc. 110,880 [1]
WebsitePresident of the Slovak Republic
Coat of arms of Slovakia.svg
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The President of the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Prezident Slovenskej republiky) is the head of state of Slovakia and the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The president is directly elected by the people for five years, and can be elected for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the president does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion. The president's official residence is the Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava.

History of the office[edit]

The office was established by the constitution of Slovakia on 1 January 1993 when Slovakia permanently split from Czechoslovakia and became independent. The office was vacant until 2 March 1993 when the first president Michal Kováč was elected by the National Council of Slovak Republic. However, in 1998, the National Council was unable to elect a successor to Kováč. The result was that for half a year after Kováč's term ended in March 1998, the position was vacant. The duties and powers of the office were devolved upon the then prime minister and speaker of the National Council. In order to come to a solution, the constitution was changed to transfer election of the president to the people. Presidential elections have been held in 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

The current president is Andrej Kiska, who took office on 15 June 2014.

Role and powers[edit]

The President of Slovakia has a limited role in policy-making, as the office is largely ceremonial. According to the constitution, the president is the supreme representative of the state both in Slovakia and abroad.

Among the President's constitutional powers are nominating and appointing the Prime Minister, three judges of the constitutional court and three members of the judicial council. The president can also veto any bill or proposal by the National Council, except for constitutional amendments. This veto can be overridden if the National Council passes the same bill again with a two-thirds majority of all members of the Council, similar to the US system of presidential veto. The president also acts as the commander-in-chief of the Slovak armed forces.

Among their other constitutional duties are signing bills into the law, appointing ministers on the recommendation of the prime minister and appointing various other state officials: generals, professors, judges, rectors, procurators and such. The president can grant pardon, amnesty, commutations, and parole on the recommendation of the minister of justice.

Presidents of the Slovak Republic[edit]


  HZDS   SOP   HZD   PS   Independent

President Presidency Party Election Previous office
1 Michal Kováč.jpg Michal Kováč
(Lived: 86 years)
2 March 1993

2 March 1998
Movement for a Democratic Slovakia
1993 Chairman of the Federal Assembly of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (1992)
2 Rudolf Schuster 2011.jpg Rudolf Schuster
Born 1934
(85 years old)
15 June 1999

15 June 2004
Party of Civic Understanding
1999 Member of the National Council
Mayor of Košice
3 Ivan Gašparovič.jpg Ivan Gašparovič
Born 1941
(78 years old)
15 June 2004

15 June 2014
Movement for Democracy
2004 Chairman of the National Council (1993–1998)
Independent 2009
4 Andrej Kiska in Senate of Poland.jpg Andrej Kiska
Born 1963
(56 years old)
15 June 2014

Independent 2014 No prior elected office
5 ZuzanaCaputovaPokracujeVKampani-Orez-IMG 0394-SF.jpg Zuzana Čaputová
Born 1973
(45 years old)
15 June 2019
Progressive Slovakia
2019 No prior elected office

Latest election[edit]

First round results by districts:
 Zuzana Čaputová
 Maroš Šefčovič
 Štefan Harabin
Second round results by districts:
 Zuzana Čaputová
 Maroš Šefčovič

Zuzana Čaputová of the Progressive Slovakia party finished far ahead of the other candidates, receiving 40.6% of the votes, but failed to achieve the necessary threshold of 50%+1 vote from all registered voters to avoid a run-off. Maroš Šefčovič, the Vice-President of the European Commission for the Energy Union, who was running as an independent supported by the governing Smer-SD,[2] was the runner-up with 18.7% of the vote and earned the other place in the run-off. Voter turnout in the first round was 48.74%, the highest percentage for that stage of presidential elections since direct voting for the position was introduced in 1999.[3]

In the second round, Čaputová won election to the presidency, garnering 58.4% of the vote to Šefčovič's 41.6%. She became the first woman to be elected to the position and will become Slovakia's youngest-ever president upon her inauguration on 15 June 2019.[4] The second round turnout of just 41.80% was the lowest for any round of presidential elections in Slovakia.[5] The number of votes with which Čaputová was elected to office is also the lowest for any directly elected Slovakian president to date.[5]

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Zuzana Čaputová Progressive Slovakia 870,415 40.57 1,056,582 58.41
Maroš Šefčovič Independent 400,379 18.66 752,403 41.59
Štefan Harabin Independent 307,823 14.35
Marian Kotleba Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia 222,935 10.39
František Mikloško Independent 122,916 5.73
Béla Bugár Most–Híd 66,667 3.11
Milan Krajniak We Are Family 59,464 2.77
Eduard Chmelár Independent 58,965 2.75
Martin Daňo Independent 11,146 0.52
Róbert Švec Independent 6,567 0.31
Juraj Zábojník Independent 6,219 0.29
Ivan Zuzula Slovak Conservative Party 3,807 0.18
Bohumila Tauchmannová Independent 3,535 0.16
Robert Mistrík[a] Independent 3,318 0.15
József Menyhárt[a] Party of the Hungarian Community 1,208 0.06
Invalid/blank votes 13,495 38,432
Total 2,158,859 100 1,847,417 100
Registered voters/turnout 4,429,033 48.74 4,419,883 41.80
Source: (1st round), (2nd round)
  1. ^ a b Candidate withdrew, but was still on the ballot.

Living former Presidents[edit]

There are two living former Slovak Presidents:

See also[edit]


  2. ^ Liberal Upstart Caputova Elected 1st Slovak Female President The New York Times, 30 March 2019
  3. ^ Terenzani, Michaela (18 March 2019). "Solovakia Initial Presidential Election Overview" (PDF). CEC Government Relations. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  4. ^ Zuzana Caputova elected the President of Slovakia TASS, 31 March 2019
  5. ^ a b Terenzani, Michaela (31 March 2019). "Čaputová won on a record low turnout". The Spectator. Retrieved 31 March 2019.