President of the European Union
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- the President of the European Council (since 1 December 2014, Donald Tusk)
- the President of the European Commission (since 1 November 2014, Jean-Claude Juncker)
- the President of the European Parliament (since 17 January 2017, Antonio Tajani)
Alongside these the Council of the European Union (also known as the Council of Ministers or simply "the Council") containing 28 national ministers, one of each nation, rotates its presidency by country. This presidency is held by a country not person; meetings are chaired by the minister from the country holding the presidency (depending on the topic, or "configuration"), except for the Foreign Affairs Council (one so-called "configuration" of the Council of the EU), which is usually chaired by the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Presidency of the Council of the European Union has been held by Austria (and by extension Chancellor Sebastian Kurz) since 1 July 2018.
In protocol (ceremonial) terms, it is the President of the Parliament who comes first, as it is listed first in the treaties. However, on the world stage, the principal representative of the EU is considered to be the President of the European Council, but the President of the European Commission, as head of the executive branch of the European Union, takes part in the G7 and other international summits as well.
All four offices have been described as the President of Europe, however, none can be seen to be analogous to the President of the United States (who is both head of state and head of government). Imperfect comparisons with other political system have attempted to explain the complex nature of the European institutions. As each institution has its own leader, it has been suggested that the terms "Speaker" of the European Parliament, "Governor" of the European Central Bank, "Chairman" of the Council of the European Union, "President" of the European Council and "Prime Commissioner" would give a clearer indication of their respective roles.
During the height of the Commission President's powers in the late-1980s and 1990s, the Commission President was sometimes referred to as the Europe's Prime Minister and the role of the President is similar to that of a national Prime Minister chairing a cabinet.[full citation needed] The formulation of titles is not without precedent in Europe; for comparison, the title for the Prime Minister of Spain in Spanish is the Presidente del Gobierno ("President of the Government"), not Prime Minister.
The Presidents of each institution are chosen in a slightly different way;
- The President of the European Parliament is elected from among MEPs every 2.5 years.
- The President of the European Council is elected by the leaders in the Council every 2.5 years.
- The President of the European Commission is officially appointed by the European Council, taking into account the latest Parliament elections and with Parliament's approval. However, a stronger direct link between elections and the President is emerging.
- The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates automatically between the governments of each member state.
Whilst distinct, each president is required to closely co-operate with one another in a complex political system. Under the ordinary legislative procedure of the European Union, the Commission proposes legislation with the Parliament and Council of the European Union coming to a co-decision on amendments and adoption of the law. The president of each of these organs is generally held responsible their functioning and direction.
President of the European Council
The president of the European Council is considered the principal representative of the EU internationally and diplomatically. They are required to lead the Council, which works to set the EU's general political direction and promote compromise and consensus within the Council. They are appointed by the appropriate national leaders in the European Council.
Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon, each member state (in turn) took the responsibilities of both the Presidency of the European Council and the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, . The press frequently summarised these responsibilities to the shorthand tag "EU Presidency" or "EU President", both for the country holding it or its political leader.
President of the European Commission
The president of the European Commission leads the Commission, the executive and cabinet of the European Union. The president, as part of this institution, is responsible for the political direction, logistics and implementation of European law and held accountable to both the European Parliament and Council of the European Union. They are also required to make a State of the Union address to the European Parliament, modelled after the United States.
The role gives the holder the right to allocate portfolios to, dismiss and reshuffle European Commissioners and direct the Commission's civil service. The president is nominated by the European Council and appointed by the European Parliament. It is customary that the European Council uses the result of the last European elections to guide their nomination.
President of the European Parliament
The president of the European Parliament ensures proper parliamentary procedure is followed and is responsible for representing the Parliament in both legal and diplomatic settings. The president must also give final assent to the EU budget.
- List of presidents of the institutions of the European Union
- Presidency of the Council of the European Union
- Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Dagnis (September 2014). "Uno, duo, trio? Varieties of trio presidencies in the Council of Ministers". Journal of Common Market Studies. Wiley-Blackwell. 52 (5): 1035–1052. doi:10.1111/jcms.12130.
- "EU Presidents – who does what? - European Union - European Commission". European Union. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- 9.5. Administrative structure of the European Union: official titles and listing order, European Commission
- Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, Article 9 B
- ‘The European Union: How Does it Work?' (3rd ed) Elizabeth Bomberg, John Peterson and Richard Corbett (2012, Oxford University Press) ISBN 978-0-19-957080-5 and ISBN 0-19-957080-9
- James, Barry (16 April 1999). "Prodi to Have Wide, New Powers as Head of the European Commission". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
- Rossant, John (27 September 1999). "Commentary: Romano Prodi: Europe's First Prime Minister? (int'l edition)". Business Week. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
- Hix 2008, p. 155.
- Official web site of La Moncloa, the Spanish Prime Minister's Office Accessed 2009-03-05
- The Oxford Spanish Dictionary and Grammar, ed. C.Lea et al., 2nd ed.(2001)
- Winter is here for Spitzenkandidat, but he'll survive, EUObserver 20 July 2017
- José Manuel Durão Barroso President of the European Commission State of the Union 2012 Address Plenary session of the European Parliament/Strasbourg, 12 September 2012