President of the Irish Republic
President of the Republic was the title given to the head of the Irish ministry or Aireacht in August 1921 by an amendment to the Dáil Constitution, which replaced the previous title, Príomh Aire or President of Dáil Éireann. Unlike the previous offices, which were simply head of government or prime minister, the President of the Republic was explicitly declared to be the Irish Republic's head of state.
Presidents of the Republic
- Éamon de Valera – Sinn Féin (August 1921 to January 1922)
- Arthur Griffith – Pro-Treaty Sinn Féin (January to August 1922)
- Following de Valera's resignation, Arthur Griffith was elected to his office, but though he preferred to use the earlier title of President of Dáil Éireann he never actually reverted the constitutional amendments of August 1921. Meanwhile Michael Collins became Chairman of the Provisional Government of the provisional state created in the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty.
- W. T. Cosgrave – Pro-Treaty Sinn Féin (August to December 1922)
- Following Arthur Griffith's death and Michael Collins's assassination in August 1922, Cosgrave simultaneously held both their offices; like Griffith he used the title "President of Dáil Éireann". In reality all distinction between both offices and indeed both states ceased to exist – by September 1922 it was not even clear when TDs assembled whether they were meeting as the Dáil or the Provisional Parliament of the treaty state. Both states themselves and their respective heads of government disappeared with the coming into force in December 1922 of the Constitution of the Irish Free State.