|President of the Kyrgyz Republic|
|Кыргыз Республикасынын Президенти (Kyrgyz)|
Президент Киргизской Республики (Russian)
|Style||Mr. President (informally)|
Comrade Commander-in-Chief (military)
His Excellency (international correspondence)
|Status||Head of state|
Head of government
|Residence||Ala Archa State Residence|
|Seat||White House, Bishkek|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Term length||5 years, renewable once|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan|
|Precursor||Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the Kirghiz SSR|
|Inaugural holder||Askar Akayev|
|Formation||27 October 1990|
|Salary||1 281 609 som/US$ 14,660 annually|
The president of Kyrgyzstan, officially the president of the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасынын Президенти, romanized: Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Prezidenti; Russian: Президент Киргизской Республики, romanized: Prezident Kirgizskoy Respubliki), is the head of state and head of government of the Kyrgyz Republic. The president directs the executive branch of the national government, is the commander-in-chief of the Kyrgyz military and also heads the National Security Council.
The president, according to the constitution, "is the symbol of the unity of people and state power, and is the guarantor of the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, and of an individual and citizen."
The office of president was established in 1990 replacing the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet that existed, in different forms, from 1936 whilst the country was known as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.
The first popularly elected officeholder was Askar Akayev, who served from October 1990 until 24 March 2005. In July 2005, Kurmanbek Bakiyev was elected. He was re-elected in 2009, but large riots in April 2010 forced him to resign and flee the country. Roza Otunbayeva was selected in April 2010 to head the interim government. She was officially inaugurated on 3 July 2010, as president for a limited term, until elections could be organised. Her successor, Almazbek Atambayev, was elected in the 2011 Kyrgyzstani presidential election and subsequently succeeded Otunbayeva on 1 December that year.
On 16 October 2017, Sooronbay Jeenbekov, the former prime minister, was elected president of the country. He took office on 24 November 2017. On 15 October 2020, Jeenbekov resigned following unrest over the parliamentary elections on 4 October. Jeenbekov was succeeded by Prime Minister Sadyr Japarov, who became acting president before being confirmed as president on 16 October.
Oath of office
On assuming office, the president raises his/her right arm and puts it on the Kyrgyz Constitution while reciting the following oath:
Мен, (аты-жөнү), Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентинин кызматына киришип жатып, өз элимдин алдында жана Ала-Тоо ыйык Ата, мен ант Кыргыз Республикасынын Башмыйзамынын сыйлоого жана коргоого жана анын мыйзамдарын, Кыргыз Республикасынын мамлекеттик, урмат-сый эгемендигин жана көз карандысыздыгын коргоого жана урмат-сый менен Кыргыз Республикасынын бардык жарандарынын эркиндиги менен укуктарын камсыз кылуу жана талыкпай жогорку милдеттерин жүзөгө ашыруу үчүн Кыргыз Республикасынын президенти, бүткүл эл ишенип мага жүктөгөн! Кудай бизди коргой берсин!
Я (полное имя), вступая в должность Президента Кыргызской Республики, перед своим народом и священным отечеством Ала-Тоо, клянусь уважать и защищать Конституцию Кыргызской Республики и ее законы, защищать суверенитет и независимость Кыргызского государства, уважать и обеспечивать права и свободы всех граждан Кыргызской Республики с честью и неустанно выполнять высокие обязанности Президент Кыргызской Республики, доверил мне доверие всего народа! Да защитит нас Бог!
I, (full name), in assuming the office of President of the Kyrgyz Republic, before my people and the sacred fatherland of Ala-Too, I swear to respect and protect the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic and its laws, to protect the sovereignty and independence of the Kyrgyz state, respect and ensure the rights and freedoms of all citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic with honor and tirelessly carry out the high duties of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic, entrusted to me by the confidence of the whole people! May God protect us!
The office of president is open to all citizens of Kyrgyzstan who are no younger than 35 years of age, and no older than 65 years of age. A candidate must have a command of the state language, and have resided in the republic for no less than 15 years before the nomination of his or her candidacy for the position. The president cannot be a deputy of the Jogorku Kenesh (Parliament), occupy other positions, or carry out entrepreneurial activities, and must suspend activity in political parties and organizations for their period in office.
"I, ..., assuming the office of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic, before my People and the Sacred homeland Ala-Too do swear:
to sacredly observe and defend the Constitution and laws of the Kyrgyz Republic; to defend the sovereignty and independence of the Kyrgyz State;
to respect and guarantee the rights and freedoms of all citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic; with honor and tirelessly to perform the great responsibility of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic entrusted to me by the confidence of all the People!".
The president is elected by the citizens of Kyrgyzstan by a majority of votes cast. These elections are held on the basis of universal suffrage, and by secret ballot. To become a candidate a person must obtain the signatures of fifty thousand registered voters.
For an election to be considered valid the turnout must not be lower than fifty percent. Similarly, if a candidate wins the backing of fifty percent of the voters who participated they are the winner. Should no candidate win an outright majority in the first round, the two candidates with the highest number of votes face each other in a second ballot.
List of inaugural ceremonies
|Date||President||LocationPlace||Document Sworn On||Notes|
|10 December 1991||Askar Akayev||White House, Bishkek||Constitution of the Kyrgyz SSR||It was the first presidential inauguration in the history of Kyrgyzstan.|
|30 December 1995||Askar Akayev||White House, Bishkek||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan|||
|9 December 2000||Askar Akayev||Philharmonic Hall named after Toktogul Satylganov||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan|||
|14 August 2005||Kurmanbek Bakiyev||Ala-Too Square||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan||It took place on Ala-Too Square for the first time. The President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, the Prime Minister of Tajikistan Oqil Oqilov, the Chairman of the National Assembly of Belarus Gennady Novitsky, the Minister of Defense of Turkey Vecdi Gönül, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine Borys Tarasyuk attended the inauguration.|
|2 August 2009||Kurmanbek Bakiyev||Government House, Bishkek||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan|
|3 July 2010||Roza Otunbayeva||Philharmonic Hall named after Toktogul Satylganov||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan|||
|1 December 2011||Almazbek Atambayev||Philharmonic Hall named after Toktogul Satylganov||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan||He was inaugurated on 1 December 2011. The ceremony was attended by the president of Turkey, Abdullah Gul, and president of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili. The ceremony budget cost less than half of what was spent for inauguration ceremony of Kurmanbek Bakiev in 2009.|
|24 November 2017||Sooronbay Jeenbekov||Ala Archa State Residence||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan||Ala Archa State Residence.It was the first inauguration ceremony to take place at the|
|28 January 2021||Sadyr Japarov||Philharmonic Hall named after Toktogul Satylganov||Constitution of Kyrgyzstan||The President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the first President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev were invited, but ultimately did not attend the inauguration. However former leaders Sooronbay Jeenbekov and Roza Otunbayeva did attend.|
- State residence №1 (Ala Archa State Residence)
- State residence №2 (Cholpon-Ata State Residence)
- South Residence
- Jalal-Abad State Residence
Duties and functions
The head of state holds significant power as provided for in the constitution. This states that they have the authority to:
- Appoint the Prime Minister and other members of government
- Present candidates to Parliament for positions within the Supreme Court
- Direct foreign policy
- Present and sign law
- Announce all elections and enact decrees
- Act as the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Kyrgyzstan
- Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
- Cabinet ministers
- Procurator General of Kyrgyzstan
- Chairperson of the State Committee for National Security
- Chairperson of the State Border Guard Service
- Chairperson of the State Customs Service
- Chairperson of the State Forensic Experts Service
- Chairperson of the State Penitentiary Service
- Chairperson of the State Service for Combating Economic Crimes
- Chairperson of the National Bank of Kyrgyzstan
- Chief of the General Staff of Armed Forces
- Commanders of the different service branches
- Members of the Supreme Court of Kyrgyzstan
- Head of the Presidential Administration
- Press secretary
- Ambassadors of Kyrgyzstan
The president may be dismissed from office by Parliament only on the basis of a charge made by the Legislative Assembly of state treason or another grievous crime supported by a ruling of the Constitutional Court. Such a decision requires the support of two-thirds of the Jogorku Kenesh who are immediately dismissed should the president be found innocent.
If the president becomes unable to carry out their duties for reasons such as death, illness or impeachment, the prime minister shall carry out their duties until the election of a new head of state. This must take place within three months of the termination of their Presidency. Kyrgyzstan has only had one peaceful transition of power from president to president (in 2017). Askar Akayev was forced from office by the Tulip Revolution of 2005 and Kurmanbek Bakiyev was forced from office by the Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010. Almazbek Atambayev was peacefully succeeded by Sooronbay Jeenbekov in 2017. However, Jeenbekov resigned from office due to the 2020 Kyrgyzstani protests and was succeeded by Sadyr Japarov.
List of Presidents of Kyrgyzstan
The first column consecutively numbers the individuals who have served as president, while the second column consecutively numbers the Presidential terms or administrations.
|Picture||Took office||Left office||Political party|
|27 October 1990||30 December 1995||Independent|
|1995||30 December 1995||9 December 2000|
|2000||9 December 2000||24 March 2005|
|24 March 2005||25 March 2005||Independent|
|25 March 2005||14 August 2005||Independent|
|2||2005||14 August 2005||15 October 2007||People's Movement of Kyrgyzstan|
|(2)||15 October 2007||2 August 2009||Ak Jol|
|2009[b]||2 August 2009||7 April 2010|
|7 April 2010||3 July 2010||Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan|
|3||3 July 2010||1 December 2011|
|1 December 2011||24 November 2017||Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan|
|24 November 2017||15 October 2020
|Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan|
|16 October 2020||14 November 2020||Mekenchil|
|14 November 2020||27 January 2021||Kyrgyzstan|
|28 January 2021||Incumbent||Mekenchil|
- Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
- Vice President of Kyrgyzstan
- Leadership of Communist Kyrgyzstan
- Security Council of Kyrgyzstan
- "Kyrgyzstan parliament approves referendum on new constitution". 11 March 2021.
- "Kyrgyzstan president Jeenbekov resigns after unrest". Reuters. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Merz, Theo (16 October 2020). "Ex-prisoner Sadyr Japarov confirmed as Kyrgyzstan president". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- Kyrgyz Constitution, article 45, §3[permanent dead link]
- "ИНАУГУРАЦИИ 1991-2000". Akipress.com.
- "Президент Киргизии впервые произнесет присягу перед народом". Ria.ru. 14 August 2005.
- "The state leader Nursultan Nazarbayev participated in inauguration ceremony of Kyrgyzstan President Kurmanbek Bakiyev, and after that in opening new premises of Kazakhstan Embassy in Bishkek. — Official site of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan". Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- "В столице Киргизии проходит инаугурация Курманбека Бакиева". Ria.ru. 14 August 2005.
- "Otunbayeva Inaugurated as Kyrgyz President | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "Otunbaeva Inaugurated As Kyrgyz President". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "Otunbayeva sworn in as Kyrgyz leader in historic first". BBC News. 3 July 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "Roza Otunbayeva sworn in, becoming Central Asia's first female president". France 24. 3 July 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "Kyrgyzstan sets date for presidential inauguration". Hindustan Times. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "Otunbayeva inaugurated as Kyrgyz president - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- "Almazbek Atambaev inaugurated as the president of Kyrgyzstan". Fergananews.com.
- "Date of inauguration of new president of Kyrgyzstan approved". 24.kg. 1 November 2017.
- "Инаугурация Садыра Жапарова состоится 28 января". РИА Новости (in Russian). 20 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- Короткова, Елена (21 January 2021). "В Бишкеке несколько дней будут перекрывать улицы из-за инаугурации Садыра Жапарова". KLOOP.KG - Новости Кыргызстана (in Russian). Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- ОСМОНАЛИЕВА, Бактыгуль (13 January 2021). "Инаугурация Садыра Жапарова. Когда и где она пройдет, и кого пригласили". 24.kg (in Russian). Retrieved 25 January 2021.