President of the Palestinian National Authority
The President of the Palestinian National Authority (Arabic: رئيس السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). The President appoints the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority from the Palestinian Legislative Council, with whom he shares power.
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The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) was created by the 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement. The 2002 Basic Law, passed by the PLC in 1997, but only ratified by Arafat in 2002, originally established a presidential system, which granted the elected President the exclusive power to appoint and remove Ministers and to preside over the meeting of the Council of Ministers (Art. 62). Ministers were to be approved by the Legislative Council.
Under pressure of the international community and from within his own party Fatah, Arafat appointed a Prime Minister (PM) on 19 March 2003. Accordingly, the Basic Law was changed the day before and the political system was transformed into a semi-presidential one, meaning that President and PM are collectively responsible to the Parliament. More specifically it was a president-parliamentary form of semi-presidentialism, where the PM is responsible to both President and Parliament. The 2003 Amended Basic Law stipulates that the President has the power to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister (Art. 45) and the PM is accountable to the president and to the Legislative Council; the Ministers are accountable to the PM (Art. 74). A new Government is subjected to a vote of confidence by the PLC (Art. 66). Now, the Prime Minister chairs the Council of Ministers (Art. 68).
The office of the President becomes vacant in case of death, or resignation submitted to the Palestinian Legislative Council and accepted by two-thirds of its Members, or in case of loss of legal capacity, according to a High Constitutional Court ruling and approved by two-thirds of the PLC Members. In that case, the Speaker of the PLC shall temporarily assume the powers and duties of the Presidency for maximally 60 days, during which free and direct elections for a new President should take place (Art. 37).
Powers and responsibilities
- Commander-in-Chief of the Palestinian Forces
- Sends and receives all foreign ambassadors
- May veto bills within 30 days of passage with 2/3 majority needed to over turn veto
- May grant pardons or commute sentences but not general amnesty
- If Legislative Council is not in session, in exceptional cases, can issues decrees with force of law, but decrees must be presented to Legislative Council as soon as convened for approval or cease to have force of law
- Appoints the Prime Minister and may remove him
- Orders the Prime Minister to call together the Council of Ministers
- No right to dissolve the Legislative council and call for early elections.
Elections and terms
Article 34 of the 2003 Amended Basic Law states:
"The President of the Palestinian National Authority shall be elected in a general and direct election by the Palestinian people, in accordance with the Palestinian Election Law."
The introduction of the Amended Basic Law refers to the Oslo Accords. Article III.3 of the Oslo II Accord determines:
"The Council and the Ra'ees of the Executive Authority of the Council shall be directly and simultaneously elected by the Palestinian people of the West Bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and the Election Law and Regulations, which shall not be contrary to the provisions of this Agreement."
The Basic Law (originally passed in 1997) also refers to the interim period as defined in the Oslo I Accord. Although the interim period had ended on 4 May 1999, Article 36 reads:
"The term of the presidency of the National Authority shall be the interim phase, after which the President shall be elected in accordance with the law."
Since the Basic Law was only for the interim period specified in the Oslo Accords—a period that was supposed to end in 1999—there was no provision for re-election.
As upon the establishment of the Palestinian Authority there still had not been held elections, Yasser Arafat as Chairman of the PLO and as the man who negotiated the Oslo Accords, became as a matter of course the first Ra'ees or President on 5 July 1994 upon the formal inauguration of the PA. With the elections on 20 January 1996, Arafat's presidency for the interim phase was formalized.
The "2005 Amendment to the Basic Law", issued on 13 August 2005, changed the term from "the interim phase" into "four years" and restricted the position to two consecutive terms. The law also determines that the term of the Palestinian Legislative Council shall be four years. This conforms article 2 of the 2005 Elections Law No. 9, also issued on 13 August 2005, which additionally stipulates that the secret and free direct elections of President and Council members shall be simultaneously.
Furthermore, the 2005 Amendment determines that "The term of the current Legislative Council shall terminate when the members of the new elected Council take the constitutional oath." The first four year-term would thus start with the next Council. In 2005, the "current Council" was the one elected on 20 January 1996. Given the stipulation that "The President and the council members shall be elected simultaneously" (Elections Law), this means that the new Presidential term would start with the election of the new Council. In 2005, the "current President" was President Abbas, elected on 9 January of that year. The term of the "new elected Council" started with the inauguration on 18 February 2006 of the second Council elected on 25 January 2006, but only a new Legislative Council was elected, not a new President.
The 2005 Amended Basic Law was promulgated on 13 August 2005 by Mahmoud Abbas in his capacity of Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization and of President of the Palestinian National Authority.
Yasser Arafat was the Chairman of the PLO and became the PNA's first President when the governing body was created in 1994. His rule was validated by the election on 20 January 1996. Arafat remained President until his death on 11 November 2004, after which House Speaker Rauhi Fattouh became acting president. On 12 November, Fattouh instructed to start preparations for holding elections within 60 days.
New elections were held on 9 January 2005, and won by Mahmoud Abbas. Abbas's term expired on 9 January 2009, creating a constitutional crisis. Abbas unilaterally extended his term by one year and is recognised as President by the government of Salam Fayad, which governed parts of the West Bank. After this Aziz Duwaik, as the Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council, was recognized as acting President by the government of Ismail Haniyeh that governed the Gaza Strip. In 2014 Salam Fayad was recognized by both sides as head of government and Mahmoud Abbas as president.
The Arabic term Ra'ees or Ra'is (رئيس) can be translated to English as either "President" or "Chairman".
As the status of Palestine as a political entity is controversial, the use of the term President to describe the leader of the Palestinian government is controversial to some, as its use may be seen to imply a recognition of state sovereignty. Until October 2006, Irael refused to use the title "President" for the Head of Palestine. The use of the term "Chairman" is controversial for the opposite reason—its use may be seen to imply denial of Palestinian aspirations for statehood.
The Arabic term was used in the English text of the 1995 Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, part of the Oslo accords which established the PNA. A letter delivered from (PLO Chairman) Yasser Arafat to the then Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, as part of the Gaza-Jericho agreement stated that "When Chairman Arafat enters the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, he will use the title 'Chairman (Ra'ees in Arabic) of the Palestinian Authority' or 'Chairman of the PLO', and will not use the title 'President of Palestine.'"
In practice, when referring to the ra'ees in English documents and statements, the PNA uses the term "president", whereas Israel uses "chairman". News releases from its embassy in Israel refer to the PNA "chairman"; press briefings in Washington use "president"; both occasionally avoid the issue with "Palestinian leader". Israeli press refers to the leader variously as "ra'ees", "president", "chairman" or by name alone. The international English-language press mostly (but not always) follows the Palestinian terminology.
The United States, in its role as peace broker, uses several different terms according to context. There are some documents signed by Arafat as 'Chairman'. The same term was used by Bill Clinton during 2000 Camp David Summit.
List of Presidents (1994–present)
|Term of Office||Party|
|5 July 1994||11 November 2004||Fatah
(Palestine Liberation Organization)
|11 November 2004||15 January 2005||Fatah
(Palestine Liberation Organization)
|15 January 2005||Incumbent
(disputed after 9 January 2009)
(Palestine Liberation Organization)
|15 January 2009||2 June 2014
(disputed after 9 January 2009)
- Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
- President of the State of Palestine
- Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority
- Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council
- Leaders of Palestinian institutions
- 2002 Basic Law, 29 May 2002.
- Inaugural Speech - Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmud Abbas. MidEastweb, 29 April 2003
- Arafat chooses Palestinian prime minister. CNN, 6 March 2003
- The Impact of Semi-Presidentialism on Governance in the Palestinian Authority (pdf), pp. 6, 10. Francesco Cavatorta and Robert Elgie. Parliam Affairs (2009). (Also in html version)
- 2003 Amended Basic Law, 18 March 2003
- 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement, 28 September 1995. On the ProCon website.
- Palestinian Presidential Elections. Nathan J. Brown, The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, July 2008. Here available
" It says that for the first cycle of elections, the four-year clock for both the president and the parliament should start with the later parliamentary elections...The election law therefore suggests that the fouryears begins with the later date."
- Europa World Year Book 2004, p. 2235. Taylor & Francis, 2004 (on Google Books).
"On 26–28 May  the PA held its inaugural meeting in Tunis, ... Arafat made a symbolic return to Gaza City on 1 July—his first visit for 25 years—and the PA was formally inaugurated in Jericho on 5 July."
- 2005 Amendment to the Basic Law, 13 August 2005.
- Elections Law No 9 of 2005, 13 August 2005
- PNA interim chairman calls for elections preparations. Xinhua News Agency, 13 November 2004
- Israel promotes Abbas to ′president′. Herb Keinon, Jerusalem Post, 16 September 2007
- Allosh And The Aftermath Of Camp David 2, Name: Abu Mohammad. July 2000. archived 2001-06-29
″Therefore, when he was given the title of "Ra'ees, " (president) the Israelis made a condition that his Arabic title be translated into "Chairman," not "President."″
- Arafat Gets a Thrashing. Danny Rubinstein, Haaretz, 30 January 2004
- Letter from PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat to Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, 4 May 1994. PLO-NAD
- The Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum on Implementation Timeline of Outstanding Commitments of Agreements Signed and the Resumption of Permanent Status Negotiations; 4 September 1999
- «The President: «Good morning. Early next week, Prime Minister Barak and Chairman Arafat will come to Camp David at my invitation»
- Died in office
- President of the Palestinian National Authority of the Government in the West Bank
- Acting President of the Palestinian National Authority of the Government in the Gaza Strip
- Palestine National Authority, Office of the Prime Minister (English)
- The Palestinian Basic Law – A collection of various proposals and amendments to the Basic Law of Palestine
- Palestinian President Office