President of the People's Republic of China
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
|President of the
People's Republic of China
|Style||Mr. President (主席)|
|Nominator||the Presidium of the National People's Congress|
|Appointer||the National People's Congress|
|Term length||Five Years, renewable
|Inaugural holder||Mao Zedong
as the first Provisional Chairman
as the first President under
the 1982 Constitution
|Formation||1 October 1949
18 June 1983
|President of the People's Republic of China|
|Literal meaning||Chinese People Republic Chairperson|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||State Chairperson|
The President of the People's Republic of China (PRC) is the head of state of the People's Republic of China (PRC). On paper, the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with limited powers. However, in recent years the General Secretary of the Communist Party has also served simultaneously as President, and his election to the post marks his ascension as paramount leader of the country.[a] The office is classified as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post.
The office was first established in the PRC Constitution of 1954 and successively held by Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi. Liu fell into political disgrace during the Cultural Revolution and the office was abolished. The office was officially scrapped under the Constitution of 1975, then reinstated in the Constitution of 1982, but with reduced powers. The official English-language translation of the title was "Chairman"; after 1982, this translation was changed to "President", although the Chinese title remains unchanged.[b]
Under the present Chinese constitution, the Presidency is a prestigious but largely ceremonial position holding few powers in its own right, most significantly the right to nominate the Premier. Most of the few powers the President does possess are subject to the approval of the National People's Congress, by whom the President is elected for up to two terms of five years each.
However, since the presidency of Jiang Zemin, every President has also simultaneously held the positions of CPC General Secretary and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, which, unlike the Presidency, wield significant power. As a result of this convention, the President, the de jure head of state, also controls the Chinese Communist Party, state and military, therefore being China's de facto "paramount leader". That is to say, present-day paramount leaders hold the office of President, but the President is not necessarily the paramount leader, as was the case between 1959 and 1993.
The current President is Xi Jinping, who took office on 14 March 2013.
Qualifications and election
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
According to the current Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the President must be a Chinese citizen with full electoral rights who has reached the age of 45. The President's term of office is the same as the term of the National People's Congress (currently five years), and the president and vice-president are both limited to two consecutive terms.
The President is elected by the National People's Congress (NPC), China's highest state body, which also has the power to remove the President and other state officers from office. Elections and removals are decided by a simple majority vote.
According to the Organic Law of the NPC, the President is nominated by the NPC Presidium, the Congress's executive organ. In practice, however, the ruling Communist Party of China reserves the post of President for its current General Secretary. Like all officers of state elected by the NPC, the President is elected from a one name ballot.
In the event that the office of President falls vacant, the Vice-President succeeds to the office. In the event that both offices fall vacant, the Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee temporarily acts as President until the NPC can elect a new President and Vice-President.
Powers and duties
Under the current Constitution of the People's Republic of China, instated in 1982 with minor revisions in later years, the President has the power to promulgate laws, select and dismiss the Premier of the State Council as well as the ministers of the State Council, grant presidential pardons, declares a state of emergency, issue mass mobilization orders, and issue state honours. In addition, the President names and dismisses ambassadors to foreign countries, signs and annuls treaties with foreign entities. According to the Constitution, all of these powers require the approval or confirmation of the National People's Congress. The President also conducts state visits on behalf of the People's Republic. Under the constitution the "state visit" clause is the only presidential power that does not stipulate any form of oversight from the National People's Congress. As the vast majority of presidential powers are dependent on the ratification of the NPC, the President is, in essence, a symbolic post without any direct say in the governance of state. It is therefore conceived to mainly function as an symbolic institution of the state rather than an office with true executive powers.
In theory, the President has discretion over the selection of the Premier, though in practice the Premier has historically been selected through the top-level discussions of the Communist Party of China. Upon the nomination of the Premier, the NPC convenes to confirm the nomination, but since only one name is on the ballot, it can only approve or reject. To date, it has never rejected a personnel nomination. Since the Premier, the head of government in China, is the most important political appointment in the Chinese government, the nomination power, under some circumstances, may give the President real political influence.
Once the NPC has approved the Premier, the President then issues his official appointment. As head of government, the Premier has the power to appoint the entire State Council of the People's Republic of China, subject to NPC approval. The President then issues the appointments for the Vice-Premiers, State Council members and Ministers for all departments.
In addition to nominating the Premier, the President also has the power to promulgate statutes, confer state medals and titles, issue pardons, proclaim war, and issue mobilization orders. However, since the President exercises these powers in accordance with the decisions of the NPC or its Standing Committee, and is not empowered to reject any of these measures, these are formal powers only.
The President has similar duties in foreign affairs, including appointment and recall of representatives abroad, and ratification and abrogation of treaties and agreements concluded with foreign states. The President exercises these powers in accordance with the decisions of the Standing Committee of the NPC, so that these are also formal powers only.
For President Liu Shaoqi, he was also the first Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China, ranked second in the Communist Party of China, behind Chairman Mao Zedong. For President Li Xiannian, he was also the 5th ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee, after CPC General Secretary and Premier. For President Yang Shangkun, he was not a member of Politburo Standing Committee, but he ranked third after General Secretary Zhao Ziyang and Deng Xiaoping. Since Jiang Zemin, the President is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, ranking first in Party and State.
The office of State Chairman (the original English translation, as noted above) was first established under China's 1954 Constitution. The ceremonial powers of the office were largely identical to those in the current Constitution.
The powers of the 1954 office differed from those of the current office in two areas: military and governmental. The State Chairman's military powers were defined in the 1954 Constitution as follows: "The Chairman of the People's Republic of China commands the armed forces of the state, and is Chairman of the National Defence Council (Chinese: 国防委员会)." The National Defence Council was unique to the 1954 Constitution, and was mandated as the civil command for the People's Liberation Army. It was abolished under the 1975 Constitution.
The State Chairman's governmental powers were defined in the 1954 Constitution as follows: "The Chairman of the People's Republic of China, whenever necessary, convenes a Supreme State Conference (Chinese: 最高国务会议) and acts as its chairman." The members of the Supreme State Conference included the main officers of state, and its views were to be presented to the main organs of state and government, including the National People's Congress and the State and National Defense Councils. The Supreme State Conference was also unique to the 1954 Constitution. It was abolished under the 1975 Constitution and later Constitutions have not included a similar body.
As Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Mao Zedong was elected State Chairman at the founding session of the National People's Congress. At the 2nd NPC in 1959, Mao was succeeded by Liu Shaoqi, first Vice Chairman of the Communist Party, in the position. Liu was reelected as State Chairman at the 3rd NPC in Jan 1965. However, in 1966, Mao launched the Cultural Revolution and by August 1966 Mao and his supporters succeeding in removing Liu from his position as party Vice Chairman. A few months later Liu was apparently placed under house arrest, and after a prolonged power struggle, on October 31, 1968, the 12th Plenum of the 8th Communist Party Congress stripped Liu Shaoqi of all his party and non-party positions, including that of State Chairman. This was in violation of the Constitution, which required a vote by the NPC to remove the State Chairman. In fact, during the Cultural Revolution the NPC itself ceased to operate; the last meeting of its Standing Committee was on July 7, 1966, when it voted to postpone its next session. The NPC and its Standing Committee did not meet again until 1975, and during that period the office of State Chairman was vacant.
Lin Biao's attempt to fill the vacant state chairmanship and vice-chairmanship posts in 1968-69 ended in failure, owing to Chairman Mao's opposition. From 1969 to 1972-73, Dong Biwu served as acting head of state.
When the 4th NPC was convened in 1975, its main act was to adopt a new Constitution which eliminated the office of State Chairman and emphasized instead the leadership of the Communist Party over the state, including an article that made the Party Chairman Supreme Commander of the PLA in concurrence as Chairman of the Party CMC. The 5th NPC was convened two years early, in 1978, and a third Constitution was adopted, which also lacked the office of State Chairman, but an acting chairman was appointed under it (Song Qingling in May of 1981). A draft of a fourth Constitution was published in 1982, which was adopted without significant amendment at the 6th NPC in 1983, and as a result, the office of State Chairman of the PRC became that of President of the PRC as per the official English translation.
In this Constitution, the President was conceived of as a figurehead of state with actual state power resting in the hands of the General Secretary of the Communist Party and the Premier, and all three posts were designed to be held by separate people. The President therefore held minor responsibilities such as greeting foreign dignitaries and signing the appointment of embassy staff, and did not intervene in the affairs of the State Council or the Party. In the original 1982 Constitution plan, the Party would develop policy, the state would execute it, and the power would be divided to prevent a cult of personality from forming as it did with the case of Mao Zedong. Thus in 1982, China perceivably had four main leaders: Hu Yaobang, the Party General Secretary; Zhao Ziyang, the Premier; Li Xiannian, the President; and Deng Xiaoping, the "Paramount Leader", holding title of the CMC Chairman and was overall commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The current political structure of Vietnam is similar to the structure China followed in the 1980s.
In the 1990s, the experiment of separating party and state posts, which led to conflict during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, was terminated. In 1993, the post of President was taken by Jiang Zemin, who as General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, became the undisputed top leader of the party and the state. When Jiang Zemin stepped down in 2003, the offices of General Secretary and President were once again both given to one man, then Vice-President Hu Jintao, the first Vice President to assume the office. In turn, Hu vacated both offices for Xi Jinping in 2012 and 2013.
List of presidents
(27 September 1954 – 27 April 1959)
(27 April 1959 – 31 October 1968)
(24 February 1972 – 17 January 1975)
(16 May 1981 – 28 May 1981)
(18 June 1983 – 8 April 1988)
(8 April 1988 – 27 March 1993)
(27 March 1993 – 15 March 2003)
(15 March 2003 – 14 March 2013)
(14 March 2013 – present)
- Other Heads of State
Chairman of the Central People's Government (1949–1954)
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (1975–1976)
Acting Chairwoman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (1976–1978)
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (1978–1983)
Since the first president, seven had a spouse during term of office.
|1||Jiang Qing||Mao Zedong||1 October 1949 – 27 April 1959|
|2||Wang Guangmei||Liu Shaoqi||27 April 1959 – 31 October 1968|
|3||Lin Jiamei||Li Xiannian||18 June 1983 – 8 April 1988|
|4||Li Bozhao||Yang Shangkun||8 April 1988 – 27 March 1993|
|5||Wang Yeping||Jiang Zemin||27 March 1993 – 15 March 2003|
|6||Liu Yongqing||Hu Jintao||15 March 2003 – 14 March 2013|
|7||Peng Liyuan||Xi Jinping||14 March 2013 – Incumbent|
Living former presidents
As of November 2015, there are two living former presidents:
|President||Term of office||Date of birth|
|Jiang Zemin||1993–2003||17 August 1926|
|Hu Jintao||2003–2013||21 December 1942|
- List of leaders of the People's Republic of China
- Vice President of the People's Republic of China
- Premier of the People's Republic of China
- Political position ranking of the People's Republic of China
- Paramount Leader
- List of Chinese leaders
- Air transports of heads of state and government
- The office of the President is a prestigious one. The President is the Head of the State. The Constitution of 1982 restores powers and functions of the President for the first time after the office was abolished during the Cultural Revolution. The President is a largely ceremonial position.
- In Chinese the President of the PRC is termed zhǔxí while the Presidents of other countries are termed zǒngtǒng. Furthermore zhǔxí continues to have the meaning of "chairman" in a generic context.
- Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC.
- It is listed as such in the current Constitution; it is thus equivalent to organs such as the State Council, rather than to offices such as that of the Premier.
- Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Section 2, Article 79.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Articles 62, 63.
- Article 13 "Organic Law of the National People's Congress of the PRC" Check
|url=scheme (help). Retrieved 2013-07-03.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 84.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 62, Section 5. The NPC does no itself have the power to nominate the Premier.
- Yew, Chiew Ping; Gang Chen (2010-03-13). China's National People's Congress 2010: Addressing Challenges With No Breakthrough in Legislative Assertiveness (PDF). Background Brief. Singapore: East Asian Institute. Retrieved 2013-07-03.
- Weng, Byron (1982-09-01). "Some Key Aspects of the 1982 Draft Constitution of the People's Republic of China". The China Quarterly (91): 492–506. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 81.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 82.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, 1954, Articles 40–42.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 43.
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 44.
- Summary of the Decisions of the 33rd Meeting of the NPC Standing Committee
- Cohen, Jerome Alan (1978-12-01). "China's Changing Constitution". The China Quarterly (76): 794–841. ISSN 0305-7410. JSTOR 652647. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- The President's Official Website (English)