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United States Conference of Mayors

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United States Conference of Mayors
Headquarters1620 I Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Region served
United States
1,407 United States cities with populations of 30,000 or more
Hillary Schieve (Reno, Nevada)
WebsiteOfficial website

The United States Conference of Mayors (USCM) is the official non-partisan organization of cities with populations of 30,000 or more. The cities are each represented by their mayors or other chief elected officials. The organization was founded in light of the Great Depression and was formed under Herbert Hoover until its original charter was signed at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.C., on the eve of the inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The organization is part of the "Big Seven", a group of organizations that represent local and state governments in the United States.


Barack Obama in a U.S. Conference of Mayors meeting in the East Room of the White House, January 21, 2010.

The organization serves the following functions: Help develop and promote effective national urban/suburban policy; build stronger and more effective federal-city relationships; monitor the effectiveness of federal policy in terms of its service to urban needs; help mayors develop leadership and management tools; and to create a forum in which mayors can share ideas and information.[1] By representing all large municipalities and their leaders in these ways, the conference is speaking for vast majority of the components of the nations economy. According to one of the Conference's own reports, metropolitan areas accounted for 84 percent of the nation's gross domestic product and at the same time generated 84 percent of the nation's employment opportunities.[2]


Frank Murphy, founder and first president of the USCM.
Current USCM President Hillary Schieve

In 1932, Mayor of Detroit Frank Murphy called a conference of mayors to meet in Detroit, Michigan, in June. In the shadow of the depression, he felt it was worthwhile to pursue federal aid for cities. Forty-eight mayors of cities in excess of 100,000 attended.[3] On June 3, two days after the Adjournment sine die of the first conference, Murphy appointed a seven-person commission (including himself) to lobby Washington using the powers vested in him by the conference. Murphy along with Mayor of Boston James Michael Curley, Mayor of Cleveland Ray T. Miller, Mayor of Milwaukee Daniel Hoan, Mayor of New Orleans T. Semmes Walmsley, Mayor of Minneapolis William A. Anderson, and Mayor of Grand Rapids George W. Welsh traveled to Washington, D.C., to lobby the federal government for aid.[4] The mayors that went with him urgently pleaded for relief. On June 6 at 10:00 a.m., they met with United States Speaker of the House John Nance Garner (D), Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives Henry T. Rainey (D) and Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives Bertrand H. Snell (R). They held out hope for a US$5 billion prosperity loan, but made it clear their true need for any relief for the despair of their constituents.[4] At 11:00 a.m., they met with United States Vice President/President of the United States Senate Charles Curtis and other Senate leaders.[5] The presence of the Mayors was unprecedented and despite some Democratic defections, a band of 12 Republicans led by Fiorello LaGuardia enabled the passage of a relief bill by a 205–189 margin.[5] Unfortunately for the mayors, President Herbert Hoover was not receptive to the $1.9 billion scale of the public works plan. However, the mayors were able to convince the President that federal support for local relief efforts was reasonable and this is considered a watershed event.[6] 42 of the 48 states benefited from the newly empowered Reconstruction Finance Corporation.[7] After the Emergency Relief and Construction Act of 1932 was signed into law by Hoover, the Conference wrote its charter at the Mayflower Hotel on the eve of the inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.[1] It held its second meeting in 1933 and formed the permanent United States Conference of Mayors with Murphy as its president.[3]

In 1972, USCM President Mayor of Milwaukee Henry Maier led the crusade for municipal resources at a time when federal grants to state and local governments was escalating rapidly. Richard Nixon started allowing cities to participate in federal revenue sharing. This source of municipal funding relieved cities until the mid-1980s. Jimmy Carter capped revenue payments and Reagan discontinued everything except for CDBGs.[8] The CDBG program has consistently allocated over $4 billion/year to state and local jurisdictions.[9] Currently, CDBG's are being used by 1180 local governments and states.[10] Using provisions in the 1995 Crime Bill, President Bill Clinton paid for municipal enforcement authorities on behalf of cities.[11]

Current issues[edit]

During the Presidential transition of Barack Obama in December 2008, The Conference held a news conference along with United States House Committee on Ways and Means Chairman Charlie Rangel, United States House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Chairman James Oberstar and Congressional Urban Caucus Chairman Chaka Fattah. Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa announced that the meeting sought support of the Conferences survey of 11,391 "ready-to-go" infrastructure projects that they hoped to see in a Main Street recovery plan during Obama's first 100 days. According to New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, the $73.1 billion projects had completed the design and approval process and met all political requirement except for the need for funding.[12][13] At the same time the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials called for support for more 5,148 road and bridge infrastructure projects that they categorized as "ready-to-go."[14] Many of the ideas in the mayor proposal became part of the stimulus package.[15]

Another issue that the Conference took issue with in 2008 include the misappropriation of federal funds for municipal anti-terrorism emergency equipment through the Homeland Security Department, which was created in 2003, instead of for municipal police forces and other enforcement officials. On this issue, they stood by the International Association of Chiefs of Police who feel common domestic anti-crime expenditure might better serve the public interest. Since the September 11 attacks federally funded municipal purchases of bomb robots, chem-bio suits and other anti-terrorism equipment have often gone unused while crime is underserved. These organizations are calling for a re-evaluation of the federal grant system.[16] Along with various foreign governments, United States Chamber of Commerce and the Travel Industry Association, the conference also stood against the 2008 Homeland Security Department initiative to fingerprint foreign visitors before they leave the country by airplane.[17] These complaints came a few years after the conference complained that their cities were not receiving an equitable proportion of counterterrorism funding in the first few years after the attacks.[18][19]

The conference has been active in fighting foreclosures and predatory lending.[20] During the formulation and debate of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 in response to the global financial crisis of 2008, a conference spokesperson was cited for being in support of the inclusion of $4 billion for the purchase, rehabilitation and resale of low- and moderate-income family distressed property. The money would produce profits that would be used to develop neighborhoods. Another important feature to municipalities was $180 million devoted to grants for pre-foreclosure and legal counseling.[21]

Also in 2008, the conference unanimously both supported single-payer national health insurance and City-coordinated drug overdose prevention efforts.[22][23] After calling for a study on bottled water in 2007,[24] in 2008, the conference came out against bottled water which consumes 1.5 million barrels of oil per year to produce its plastic bottles.[25]

In 2009, the conference adopted a sweeping proposal for lesbian and gay equality by mayors Christopher Cabaldon, Sam Adams, and David Cicilline, making it the first national organization of American elected officials to call for marriage equality, passage of ENDA, and the repeal of Don't ask, don't tell.[26]

In 2013, the conference adopted a resolution urging the federal government to give states leeway in establishing marijuana policies. "Voters in states and cities that wish to break the stranglehold of organized crime over the distribution and sale of marijuana in their communities by legalizing, regulating and taxing marijuana should have the option of doing so," stated Mayor Stephen H. Cassidy of San Leandro, California.[27]

In 2020, in part of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the conference requested $250 billion in federal spending directly to cities to counteract the 88% shortfall in city revenues across the country.[28][29][30]


The organization convenes for its winter meeting each January in Washington, D.C., and an Annual Meeting each June in a different U.S. city in addition to ad hoc meetings.[1] At the annual meeting, members vote on policy resolutions. The results are distributed to the President of the United States and the United States Congress.

On January 11, 2007, the Conference leadership approved the annual ten-point platform called "Strong Cities, Strong Families for a Strong America", including positions on energy policy and homeland security, and support for Community development block grants (CDBG), government sponsored enterprises, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIPS), and the Workforce Investment Act. In 2008, travel and tourism were part of the plan for the first time.[31]

In the past, the Conference has taken stances against Ronald Reagan's 1983 budget.[32] It has also through its president Fiorello La Guardia, spoken against cuts in the Works Progress Administration on behalf of Franklin D. Roosevelt.[33] The conference has actively pursued legislation to curb handgun violence by changing the regulations for purchasing, adding regulatory oversight, and suing manufacturers for unreasonable marketing practices and lax safety standards.[34]

At times, the unified voice of Mayors has had significant impact on federal policies. An example was the controversy over the decision by investigators from the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Department of Justice to carry out an examination of waste, fraud and abuse in the housing programs in three cities led by black mayors (Kurt L. Schmoke, Marc H. Morial and Willie L. Brown Jr.). Eventually, the housing subcommittee of the United States House Committee on Appropriations Chairman, Jerry Lewis, in response into the collective voice of the mayors, with the support of President Bill Clinton and Andrew M. Cuomo, the United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, mandated a clarification of selection criteria for investigation subjects.[35]

In determining their positions and policies, the Conference has had to balance difficult political choices. They once opposed the Environmental Protection Agency in a resolution which came out against enforcing stricter smog and soot limits. The conference members felt that the stricter standards for ozone and fine particles would have hampered the economies of many municipalities, especially those that are steel-, automobile- and fossil fuel-intensive.[36]

Locales of annual meetings[edit]

Year City State Number
1963 Honolulu Hawai'i
1967 Honolulu Hawai'i
1972 New Orleans Louisiana 40th
1980 Seattle Washington 48th
1981 Louisville Kentucky 49th
1982 Minneapolis Minnesota 50th
1983 Denver Colorado 51st
1984 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 52nd
1985 Anchorage Alaska 53rd
1986 San Juan Puerto Rico 54th
1987 Nashville Tennessee 55th
1988 Salt Lake City Utah 56th
1989 Charleston South Carolina 57th
1990 Chicago Illinois 58th
1991 San Diego California 59th
1992 Houston Texas 60th
1993 New York New York 61st
1994 Portland Oregon 62nd
1995 Miami Florida 63rd
1996 Cleveland Ohio 64th
1997 San Francisco California 65th
1998 Reno Nevada 66th
1999 New Orleans Louisiana 67th
2000 Seattle Washington 68th
2001 Detroit Michigan 69th
2002 Madison Wisconsin 70th
2003 Denver Colorado 71st
2004 Boston Massachusetts 72nd
2005 Chicago Illinois 73rd
2006 Las Vegas Nevada 74th
2007 Los Angeles California 75th
2008 Miami Florida 76th
2009 Providence Rhode Island 77th
2010 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 78th
2011 Baltimore Maryland 79th
2012 Orlando Florida 80th
2013 Las Vegas Nevada 81st
2014 Dallas Texas 82nd
2015 San Francisco California 83rd
2016 Indianapolis Indiana 84th
2017 Miami Beach Florida 85th
2018 Boston Massachusetts 86th
2019 Honolulu Hawaii 87th[37]
2020 Virtual 88th
2021 Virtual 89th
2022 Reno Nevada 90th
2023 Columbus Ohio 91st
2024 Kansas City Missouri 92nd

Annual awards and grants[edit]

The U.S. Conference of Mayors also houses the Mayors Climate Protection Center, created in 2007 to support mayors in their efforts to reduce the effects of climate change on American cities.[38] In June 2007, the Center awarded its first annual "Mayors' Climate Protection Awards" to leading mayors. The "U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement", initiated by Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels in 2005, seeks the pledges of mayors from all 50 states to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 7% from 1990 levels by the year 2012, in line with the Kyoto Protocol. As of February 2010, 1017 mayors have signed the Agreement.[39] In 2007, the mayors called for a multibillion-dollar grant to help cities fight global warming and declared global warming as first on their list of top-ten priorities.[40][41] That year the conference and the city of Seattle hosted the "2007 Mayors Climate Protection Summit in Seattle", which featured Bill Clinton and Al Gore.[42] Wal-Mart has been a corporate partner in the presentation of the first two years of these awards.[43][44]

The conference has granted City Livability Awards since 1979 for mayors and governments as recognition for developing programs that enhance the quality of life in urban areas.[45] Programs such as drowning awareness and prevention programs earn such recognitions.[46]

Since 1997, the Conference of Mayors in conjunction with the Americans for the Arts has annually presented Public Leadership in the Arts Awards. The awards recognize "elected officials and artists or arts organizations that have demonstrated outstanding leadership in the advancement of the arts."[47] Various classes of elected officials are recognized and various types of contributions are recognized each year.[48]

The Conference has advocated for HIV/AIDS Prevention Grants Programs. Annually, in cooperation with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) it awards approximately hundreds of thousands of dollars in grants for HIV/AIDS prevention service to Native Americans as well as to African American or Hispanic Women at High Risk of HIV Infection.[49][50] This was part of a broader 24-year partnership with the CDC in which the conference has awarded $23 million in grants to community-based organizations and local health departments to promote local prevention and education efforts.[51]


Task forces[edit]

Temporary task forces are organized to study emerging issues and make recommendations to the body of the Conference. Prior task forces have addressed AIDS, hunger and homelessness,[52][53] unfunded federal mandates, youth crime and violence,[54] high fuel costs,[55] and brownfields.

Standing committees[edit]

The organizations members serve on the Conference's standing committee which recommend policies for the general body to evaluate for endorsement at the summer meetings. The endorsed policies are delivered to the United States President and United States Congress.[1] The Conference supports initiatives such as handgun regulation,[34] recycling, defense funding and global warming.[56][57][58] Although the organization is domestic, its reach is international. It partakes in missions to worldwide locations.[59] When the internet blossomed and President Bill Clinton made plans for an unregulated and untaxed electronic marketplace, state and local officials objected. Their voice was represented by the Conference.[60] Mayors may also serve on one or more of the Conference's standing committees: Children, Health and Human Services; Community Development and Housing; Criminal and Social Justice; Energy; Environment; International Affairs; Jobs, Education and the Workforce; Membership; Tourism, Arts, Parks, Entertainment and Sports; Transportation and Communications; and Urban Economic Policy.


The following is a comprehensive listing of presidents of the United States Conference of Mayors:[61]

Years President City State Party
1932–1933 Frank Murphy Detroit Michigan Democratic
1933 James Michael Curley Boston Massachusetts Democratic
1933–1934 T. Semmes Walmsley New Orleans Louisiana Democratic
1934–1935 Daniel Hoan Milwaukee Wisconsin Democratic
1935–1945 Fiorello La Guardia New York City New York Republican
1945–1947 Edward Joseph Kelly Chicago Illinois Democratic
1947–1949 George W. Welsh Grand Rapids Michigan Republican
1949–1950 Cooper Green Birmingham Alabama Democratic
1950–1952 David L. Lawrence Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Democratic
1952–1953 Martin H. Kennelly Chicago Illinois Democratic
1953 Thomas A. Burke Cleveland Ohio Democratic
1953–1955 Elmer Robinson San Francisco California Republican
1955–1957 John Hynes Boston Massachusetts Democratic
1957–1958 Robert F. Wagner Jr. New York City New York Democratic
1958–1959 Norris Poulson Los Angeles California Republican
1959–1960 Richard J. Daley Chicago Illinois Democratic
1960–1961 Richardson Dilworth Philadelphia Pennsylvania Democratic
1961–1962 W. Haydon Burns Jacksonville Florida Democratic
1962 Anthony J. Celebrezze Cleveland Ohio Democratic
1962–1963 Richard C. Lee New Haven Connecticut Democratic
1963 Arthur L. Selland Fresno California Republican
1963–1965 Raymond Tucker St. Louis Missouri Democratic
1965–1966 Neal Blaisdell Honolulu Hawaii Republican
1966–1967 Jerome Cavanagh Detroit Michigan Democratic
1967–1968 Joseph M. Barr Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Democratic
1968–1969 Terry Schrunk Portland Oregon Democratic
1969–1970 Jack D. Maltester San Leandro California Democratic
1970–1971 James Tate Philadelphia Pennsylvania Democratic
1971–1972 Henry Maier Milwaukee Wisconsin Democratic
1972–1973 Louie Welch Houston Texas Republican
1973–1974 Roy Martin Norfolk Virginia Democratic
1974–1975 Joseph Alioto San Francisco California Democratic
1975–1976 Moon Landrieu New Orleans Louisiana Democratic
1976–1977 Kenneth A. Gibson Newark New Jersey Democratic
1977–1978 Lee Alexander Syracuse New York Democratic
1978–1979 William H. McNichols Jr. Denver Colorado Democratic
1979–1980 Dick Carver Peoria Illinois Republican
1980–1981 Richard Hatcher Gary Indiana Democratic
1981–1982 Helen Boosalis Lincoln Nebraska Democratic
1982–1983 Coleman Young Detroit Michigan Democratic
1983–1984 Richard Fulton Nashville Tennessee Democratic
1984–1985 Hernán Padilla San Juan Puerto Rico Republican
1985–1986 Dutch Morial New Orleans Louisiana Democratic
1986–1987 Joseph Riley Charleston South Carolina Democratic
1987–1988 Richard Berkley Kansas City Missouri Republican
1988–1989 Arthur Holland Trenton New Jersey Democratic
1989–1990 Kathy Whitmire Houston Texas Democratic
1990–1991 Bob Isaac Colorado Springs Colorado Republican
1991–1992 Raymond Flynn Boston Massachusetts Democratic
1992–1993 William Althaus York Pennsylvania Republican
1993–1994 Jerry Abramson Louisville Kentucky Democratic
1994–1995 Victor Ashe Knoxville Tennessee Republican
1995–1996 Norm Rice Seattle Washington Democratic
1996–1997 Richard M. Daley Chicago Illinois Democratic
1997–1998 Paul Helmke Fort Wayne Indiana Republican
1998–1999 Deedee Corradini Salt Lake City Utah Democratic
1999–2000 Wellington Webb Denver Colorado Democratic
2000–2001 Brent Coles Boise Idaho Republican
2001–2002 Marc Morial New Orleans Louisiana Democratic
2002–2003 Tom Menino Boston Massachusetts Democratic
2003–2004 James Garner Hempstead New York Republican
2004–2005 Don Plusquellic Akron Ohio Democratic
2005–2006 Beverly O'Neill Long Beach California Democratic
2006 Michael Guido Dearborn Michigan Republican
2006–2008 Douglas Palmer Trenton New Jersey Democratic
2008–2009 Manny Diaz Miami Florida Democratic
2009 Greg Nickels Seattle Washington Democratic
2009–2011 Elizabeth Kautz Burnsville Minnesota Republican
2011–2012 Antonio Villaraigosa Los Angeles California Democratic
2012–2013 Michael Nutter Philadelphia Pennsylvania Democratic
2013–2014 Scott Smith Mesa Arizona Republican
2014–2015 Kevin Johnson Sacramento California Democratic
2015–2016 Stephanie Rawlings-Blake Baltimore Maryland Democratic
2016–2017 Mick Cornett Oklahoma City Oklahoma Republican
2017–2018 Mitch Landrieu New Orleans Louisiana Democratic
2018–2019 Steve Benjamin Columbia South Carolina Democratic
2019–2020 Bryan Barnett Rochester Hills Michigan Republican
2020–2021 Greg Fischer Louisville Kentucky Democratic
2021–2022 Nan Whaley Dayton Ohio Democratic
2022–2023 Francis Suarez Miami Florida Republican
2023–2024 Hillary Schieve Reno Nevada Independent
2024- Andrew Ginther Columbus Ohio Democratic


The organization has had some controversies. In Newark, New Jersey, one of its non-partisan presidential straw polls was determined to be contrary to a New Jersey Supreme Court ruling because the court had determined that it was improper for any municipality to test public opinion on an area outside of its jurisdiction.[62]

In 2002, protests by about 3000 people against corporate financing of the U.S. Conference of Mayors was met by arrests and the barricading of much of downtown Madison, Wisconsin, by then Mayor Sue Bauman.[63][64]

Also, at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, striking Boston Police Department officers decided to picket a Conference of Mayors meeting. 2004 Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry, who was the invited speaker, decided to honor the picket line.[65]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "About the Conference". The United States Conference of Mayors. November 23, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  2. ^ "Report Shows the Economic Might of Urban Areas". The New York Times. November 4, 1999. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  3. ^ a b Holli, p. 81.
  4. ^ a b Gunther, p. 50.
  5. ^ a b Gunther, p. 51.
  6. ^ Gunther, p. 52.
  7. ^ Gunther, p. 53.
  8. ^ Norquist, pp. 12–13.
  9. ^ "Use of CDBG Funds by All Grantees". U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. September 30, 2008. Archived from the original on May 14, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2009.
  10. ^ "Community Development Block Grant Program - CDBG". Homes & Communities. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2009.
  11. ^ Norquist, p. 14.
  12. ^ "Mayors want funds to fix their cities". Cable News Network. December 8, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  13. ^ Poole, Robert (December 10, 2008). "Stimulus Shouldn't Be an Excuse for Pork: The nation's mayors have presented a revealing wish list to Washington". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  14. ^ Boudreau, Abbie & Scott Zamost (December 8, 2008). "Report: Road projects could spur 1.8 million jobs". Cable News Network. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  15. ^ Levitz, Jennifer & Philip ShiShkin (February 4, 2009). "Stimulus Brings Out City Wish Lists: Neon for Vegas, Harleys for Shreveport: Most Ask for Roads, Sewers, but Some Want the Kitchen Sink -- and a Frisbee Golf Course". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  16. ^ Hall, Mimi (October 1, 2008). "Rethink spending on anti-terrorism, report says". USA Today. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  17. ^ Frank, Thomas (July 1, 2008). "Lawmakers, airlines oppose Bush fingerprinting plan". USA Today. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  18. ^ Shenon, Philip (September 18, 2003). "Counterterror Aid Is Tied Up by the States, Mayors Assert". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  19. ^ Brinkley, Joel (January 24, 2002). "A NATION CHALLENGED: CITIES; Mayors Seek Payback of Spending on Security". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  20. ^ "Cities fight foreclosures with unusual tactics". USA Today. June 21, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  21. ^ Bahney, Anna (July 28, 2008). "Housing rescue bill may fall short; who benefits?". USA Today. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  22. ^ Prensky, David; Young, Quentin; Landes, Alison (June 23, 2008). "U.S. Conference of Mayors Backs Single-Payer National Health Insurance" (Press release). Physicians for a National Health Program. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  23. ^ Robelo, Daniel & Reena Szczepanski (June 25, 2008). "United States Conference of Mayors Unanimously Passes Resolution Calling for City-Coordinated Drug Overdose Prevention Efforts". Common Dreams NewsCenter. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  24. ^ Painter, Kim (August 26, 2007). "Water wars: Bottled vs tap". USA Today. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  25. ^ Gashler, Krisy (June 7, 2008). "Thirst for bottled water unleashes flood of environmental concerns". USA Today. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  26. ^ "Aggie Pride LGBTQ Network of Texas A&M University".
  27. ^ "Nation's mayors want state control of pot policies". The Denver Post. June 24, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  28. ^ Durr, Sara (April 14, 2020). "Findings Highlight the Need for Congress to Address the Fiscal Crisis Facing Cities of All Sizes". www.usmayors.org. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  29. ^ Durr, Sara (March 27, 2020). "CITY DATA: Survey of 213 Mayors Reveals Extent of Shortage of COVID-19 Emergency Equipment". www.usmayors.org. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  30. ^ Durr, Sara (March 18, 2020). "United States Conference of Mayors Requests $250 Billion in Localized Aid to Fight Virus, Maintain City Services, Help Workers and Local Businesses". www.usmayors.org. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  31. ^ Brennan, Bill (January 24, 2008). "Honolulu Mayor Drives Travel and Tourism Action Plan of Nation's Mayors". Hawaii Reporter. Hawaii Reporter, Inc. Retrieved December 14, 2008. [dead link]
  32. ^ Magnuson, Ed, Douglas Brew, and Laurence I. Barrett (February 22, 1982). "A Line Drawn in the Dirt". Time. Time Inc. Archived from the original on March 2, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2008.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  33. ^ "Snow on the Lawn". Time. Time Inc. January 30, 1939. Archived from the original on December 14, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  34. ^ a b Janofsky, Michael (January 29, 1999). "Mayors Help Draft a Handgun Crackdown Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  35. ^ Janofsky, Michael (June 21, 1998). "U.S. Retreats on Inquiries Into Urban Housing Offices". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  36. ^ "Mayors Are Opposed To Air Quality Plan". The New York Times. June 25, 1997. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  37. ^ GmbH, finanzen.net (June 29, 2019). "Plano & Aguadilla Deemed". markets.businessinsider.com. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  38. ^ "Mayors Climate Protection Center". United States Conference of Mayors. Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  39. ^ "Mayors Leading the Way on Climate Protection". Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
  40. ^ El Nasser, Haya (February 1, 2007). "Mayors unite on the 'green' front". USA Today. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  41. ^ O'Driscoll, Patrick & Dan Vergano (March 1, 2007). "Fossil fuels are to blame, world scientists conclude". USA Today. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  42. ^ "2007 Mayors Climate Protection Summit in Seattle". The United States Conference of Mayors. 2007. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  43. ^ "The U.S. Conference of Mayors' Climate Protection Awards". walmartstores.com. 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  44. ^ "Wal-Mart Backs Mayors' Climate Protection Award". The Executive's Daily Green Briefing. Environmental Leader. May 1, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  45. ^ "City Livability". The United States Conference of Mayors. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  46. ^ "Soccer Lives In West Palm - Free Swim Classes Lifesavers". The Palm Beach Post. Newsbank. August 8, 2002. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  47. ^ "Press Room: For Immediate Release". Americansforthearts.org. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  48. ^ "Awards For Arts Achievement". Americansforthearts.org. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  49. ^ "United States Conference of Mayors: HIV Prevention Grants". The Communication Initiative Network. December 14, 2007. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2009.
  50. ^ "The United States Conference of Mayors HIV Prevention Program AIDS Information Exchange (AIX) Subscription/Order Form" (PDF). usmayors.org. United States Conference of Mayors. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 28, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2009.
  51. ^ "The United States Conference of Mayors Observes World AIDS Day". Bio-Medicine. December 2, 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  52. ^ "More Of Homeless Are Now Families". The New York Times. December 22, 1993. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  53. ^ "Washington: Appeals For Food And Shelter Rise Slightly". The New York Times. December 15, 2004. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  54. ^ "National News Briefs; Curfews in More Cities, Survey of Mayors Shows". The New York Times. December 1, 1997. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  55. ^ Cave, Damien (June 21, 2008). "Fuel Costs Pinch Cities; Mayors Push Mass Transit". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  56. ^ Long, Tom & Michael Grunwald (April 10, 1994). "Mayor Mann of Newton Dead; Served 23 Years". Boston Globe. Newsbank. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  57. ^ Montano, Ralph (December 21, 2006). "Fargo: Flood risk an issue". The Sacramento Bee. Newsbank. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  58. ^ Lenihan, Kevin (May 10, 1997). "Liaison Group Watchful On New Base-Closing Threats". Watertown Daily Times. Newsbank. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  59. ^ "2:20 p.m." The Sun. Newsbank. January 31, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  60. ^ McAllester, Matthew & William Douglas (July 2, 1997). "Clinton's Ideal Internet / He wants an unregulated and untaxed marketplace". Newsday. Newsbank. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  61. ^ "Leadership". The United States Conference of Mayors. November 23, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  62. ^ Pristin, Terry (September 14, 1995). "NEW JERSEY DAILY BRIEFING; Election Poll Is Called Illegal". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  63. ^ Price, Jenny (June 17, 2002). "Corporations Gain Access to Mayors". GlobalPolicy.org. Associated Press. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
  64. ^ Sawan, Youssef (September 10, 2002). "Civil disobedience the solution to civil flaws and disarray". The Daily Cardinal. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
  65. ^ Greenhouse, Steven (June 30, 2004). "Democrats Fear Boston Police Union May Picket During Party Convention". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2008.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]