Presidential $1 Coin Program

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Presidential One Dollar Coin
United States
Value 1 U.S. dollar
Mass 8.100 g (0.26 troy oz)
Diameter 26.49 mm (1.043 in)
Thickness 2.00 mm (0.0787 in)
Edge Engraved: text "E pluribus unum", the coin's mint mark, its year of issuance, and 13 five-pointed stars (prior to 2009: text "In God We Trust")
Composition Copper with manganese brass cladding:
88.5% Cu
6% Zn
3.5% Mn
2% Ni
Years of minting 2007–2011 (Circulation)
2012–Present (Collectors Only)
Catalog number -
LJohnson Unc.png
Design Portrait of US Presidents
Designer Various
Design date 2007-present
Presidential $1 Reverse.png
Design Statue of Liberty
Designer Don Everhart
Design date 2007

The Presidential $1 Coin Program is part of an Act of Congress, Pub.L. 109–145, 119 Stat. 2664, enacted December 22, 2005, which directs the United States Mint to produce $1 coins with engravings of relief portraits of U.S. presidents on the obverse.

From 2007 to 2011, presidential $1 coins were minted for circulation in large numbers, resulting in a large stockpile of unused $1 coins. Since 2012, new presidential coins have been minted only for collectors.

Legislative history[edit]

Senate Bill 1047 was introduced on May 17, 2005, by Senator John E. Sununu with over 70 co-sponsors.

It was reported favorably out of the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs without amendment on July 29, 2005. The Senate passed it with a technical amendment (S.AMDT.26760), by unanimous consent on November 18, 2005. The House of Representatives passed it (291–113) on December 13, 2005. (A similar bill, H.R. 902, had previously passed in the House, but it was the Senate bill which was passed by both chambers.) The engrossed bill was presented to president George W. Bush on December 15, 2005, and he signed it into law on December 22, 2005.

Program details[edit]

The program began on January 1, 2007, and is similar to the 50 State Quarters program in that it will not end until every eligible subject is honored. The program is to issue coins featuring each of four presidents per year on the obverse, issuing one for three months before moving on to the next president in chronological order by term in office. The U.S. Mint calls it the Presidential $1 Coin Program.[1]

The reverse of the coins bears the Statue of Liberty, the inscription "$1" and the inscription "United States of America". Inscribed along the edge of the coin is the year of minting or issuance of the coin, the mint mark, 13 stars, and also the legends E Pluribus Unum. The edge-lettering looks like this: ★★★★★★★★★★  2009  D  ★★★  E PLURIBUS UNUM; before 2009, In God We Trust was a part of the edge lettering. The legend "Liberty" is absent from the coin altogether, since the decision was made that the image of the Statue of Liberty on the reverse of the coin was sufficient to convey the message of liberty. The text of the act does not specify the color of the coins, but per the U.S. Mint "the specifications will be identical to those used for the current Golden dollar".[2] The George Washington $1 coin was first available to the public on February 15, 2007, in honor of Presidents' Day, which was observed on February 19.

This marks the first time since the St. Gaudens Double Eagle (1907–33) that the United States has issued a coin with edge lettering for circulation. Edge-lettered coins date back to the 1790s. The process was started to discourage the shaving of gold coin edges, a practice which was used to cheat payees. In December 2007, Congress passed H.R. 2764, moving "In God We Trust" to either the obverse or reverse of the coins.[3] This is the same bill that created a program that will include quarters for Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

The act had been introduced because of the failure of the Sacagawea $1 coin to gain widespread circulation in the United States. The act sympathized with the need of the nation's private sector for a $1 coin, and expected that the appeal of changing the design would increase the public demand for new coins (as the public generally responded well to the State Quarter program). The program is also intended to help educate the public about the nation's presidents and their history. Should the coins not catch on with the general public, the Mint is hoping that collectors will be as interested in the dollars as they were with the State Quarters, which generated about $4.6 billion in seigniorage (i.e. the difference between the face value of the coins and the cost to produce them) between January 1999 and April 2005, according to a report by the Congressional Budget Office.[full citation needed]

Stack showing writing on edge

Unlike the State Quarter program and the Westward Journey nickel series, which suspended the issuance of the current design during those programs, the act directed the Mint to continue to issue Sacagawea dollar coins during the presidential series. The law states that at least one in three issued dollars must be a Sacagawea dollar. Furthermore, the Sacagawea design is required to continue after the Presidential Coin program ends. These requirements were added at the behest of the North Dakota congressional delegation to ensure that Sacagawea, whom North Dakotans consider to be one of their own, ultimately remains on the dollar coin.

However, Federal Reserve officials indicated to Congress that "if the Presidential $1 Coin Program does not stimulate substantial transactional demand for dollar coins, the requirement that the Mint nonetheless produce Sacagawea dollars would result in costs to the taxpayer without any offsetting benefits." In that event, the Federal Reserve indicated that it would "strongly recommend that Congress reassess the one-third requirement."[4] The one-third requirement was later changed to one-fifth by the Native American $1 Coin Act,[5] passed on September 20, 2007, and Sacagawea dollars were only 0.8% of the total dollar coins produced through November 2007.[6]

Previous versions of the act called for removing from circulation dollar coins issued before the Sacagawea dollar, most notably the Susan B. Anthony dollar, but the version of the act which became law merely directs the Secretary of the Treasury to study the matter and report back to Congress. The act does require federal government agencies (including the United States Postal Service), businesses operating on federal property, and federally funded transit systems to accept and dispense dollar coins by January 2008, and to post signs indicating that they do so.[7]

The program's end[edit]

The act specifies that for a president to be honored, the former president must have been deceased for at least two years before issue.[8][9] It will take about ten years from the start to honor all 39 eligible presidents. The series will end in 2016, after honoring Ronald Reagan, since neither Ronald Reagan's immediate predecessor, Jimmy Carter, nor any of Reagan's successors (George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama) are eligible, all of whom were still living on August 14, 2015. On February 12, 2015 the US Mint confirmed that President and Mrs. Reagan will be getting coins in 2016 in a letter to Representative William P. Huizenga (R-MI).[10] The Mint also stated the work had started on designs for the Reagan coins.[10]

Once the program has terminated, producing coins for those presidents not yet honored would require another Act of Congress.[11]

Minting errors[edit]

On March 8, 2007, the United States Mint announced, on February 15, 2007, that an unknown number of George Washington Presidential $1 coins were released into circulation without their edge inscriptions (the U.S. mottoes, "In God we trust" and "E pluribus unum", the coin's mint mark, and its year of issuance; i.e. E PLURIBUS UNUM  •  IN GOD WE TRUST  •  2007   X (where X is either P or D)).[12] Ron Guth, of the Professional Coin Grading Service, estimated at least 50,000 coins were released without the edge inscriptions. The first such coin discovered was sold on eBay for $600, while later coins were selling for $40–$60, as of late March 2007.[13][14] Because one of the inscriptions missing from the coins is the motto "In God we trust", some articles on the subject have referred to them as "Godless dollars".[15][16] Fake "Godless dollars" have been produced with the edge lettering filed off.[17]

Also, John Adams Presidential dollars have been discovered with plain edges. They are fewer in quantity than George Washington plain-edge dollars, making them rarer, thus more expensive. A more frequently encountered edge lettering error for the John Adams dollar is a coin with doubled edge lettering. This error occurs when a coin passes through the edge lettering machine twice.[18] Most examples of the doubled-edge-letter John Adams dollar are from the Philadelphia Mint (Denver Mint issues are comparatively scarce). They are seen in two varieties: 1) with both edge lettering inscriptions reading in the same direction, called "overlapped", and 2) with the two inscriptions running in opposite directions—i.e., inverted or upside-down relative to one another—called "inverted".

In early March 2007, a Colorado couple found a dollar coin that was not stamped on either side, missing the portrait of George Washington and the Statue of Liberty.[19]

Some of the coins have the words on the rim struck upside down (president face up). These are not minting errors, but rather a variation created by the minting process. Such upside-down coins have been sold on auction websites for greater than their face value, though they represent roughly 50% of the minted population.[20]

Stockpile and suspension of production[edit]

A graph showing mintages of issues minted from 2007 to 2011

By 2011, 1.4 billion uncirculated $1 coins were stockpiled,[21] which, if stacked flat, could reach from Los Angeles to Chicago. By 2016, this number might have reached two billion.[22]

Rep. Jackie Speier of California circulated a "Dear Colleague" letter recommending that the U.S. not produce any dollar coins. She was planning to introduce legislation calling for the immediate halting of all dollar coin programs.[23]

The United States Government Accountability Office has stated that discontinuing the dollar bill in favor of the dollar coin would save the U.S. government about $5.5 billion over 30 years.[24]

On December 13, 2011, Vice President Joe Biden and Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner announced that the minting of Presidential $1 coins for circulation would be suspended.[21] Future entries in the program, beginning with that of Chester A. Arthur, would be issued in reduced quantities, only for collectors.[25]

Coin details[edit]

Dollar coins were issued bearing the likenesses of presidents, as follows:[26]

Release date Denver
Total Mintage Design In office
1 1st George Washington February 15, 2007[27] 163,680,000 176,680,000 340,360,000[28] Washington dollar 1789–1797
2 2nd John Adams May 17, 2007[27] 112,140,000 112,420,000 224,560,000[28] John Adams dollar 1797–1801
3 3rd Thomas Jefferson August 16, 2007[27] 102,810,000 100,800,000 203,610,000[28] Jefferson dollar 1801–1809
4 4th James Madison November 15, 2007[27] 87,780,000 84,560,000 172,340,000[28] Madison dollar 1809–1817
5 5th James Monroe February 14, 2008[27] 60,230,000 64,260,000 124,490,000[28] Monroe dollar 1817–1825
6 6th John Quincy Adams May 15, 2008[27] 57,720,000 57,540,000 115,260,000[28] John Quincy Adams dollar 1825–1829
7 7th Andrew Jackson August 14, 2008[27] 61,070,000 61,180,000 122,250,000[28] Jackson dollar 1829–1837
8 8th Martin Van Buren November 13, 2008[27] 50,960,000 51,520,000 102,480,000[28] Van Buren dollar 1837–1841
9 9th William Henry Harrison February 19, 2009[27] 55,160,000 43,260,000 98,420,000[28] William Henry Harrison dollar 1841
10 10th John Tyler May 21, 2009[27] 43,540,000 43,540,000 87,080,000[28] Tyler dollar 1841–1845
11 11th James K. Polk August 20, 2009[27] 41,720,000 46,620,000 88,340,000[28] Polk dollar 1845–1849
12 12th Zachary Taylor November 19, 2009[27] 36,680,000 41,580,000 78,260,000[28] Taylor dollar 1849–1850
13 13th Millard Fillmore February 18, 2010[27] 36,960,000 37,520,000 74,480,000[28] Fillmore dollar 1850–1853
14 14th Franklin Pierce May 20, 2010[27] 38,360,000 38,220,000 76,580,000[28] Pierce dollar 1853–1857
15 15th James Buchanan August 19, 2010[27] 36,540,000 36,820,000 73,360,000[28] Buchanan dollar 1857–1861
16 16th Abraham Lincoln November 18, 2010[27] 48,020,000 49,000,000 97,020,000[28] Lincoln dollar 1861–1865
17 17th Andrew Johnson February 17, 2011[29] 37,100,000 35,560,000 72,660,000[28] A. Johnson dollar 1865–1869
18 18th Ulysses S. Grant May 19, 2011[29] 37,940,000 38,080,000 76,020,000[28] Grant dollar 1869–1877
19 19th Rutherford B. Hayes August 18, 2011[29] 36,820,000 37,660,000 74,480,000 [28] Hayes dollar 1877–1881
20 20th James A. Garfield November 17, 2011[29] 37,100,000 37,100,000 74,200,000[28] Garfield dollar 1881
21 21st Chester A. Arthur February 5, 2012[29] 4,060,000 6,020,000 10,080,000[28] Arthur dollar 1881–1885
22 22nd Grover Cleveland May 25, 2012[29] 4,060,000 5,460,000 9,520,000[28] Cleveland 1st Term dollar 1885–1889
23 23rd Benjamin Harrison August 16, 2012[29] 4,200,000 5,640,001 9,840,001[28] Benjamin Harrison dollar 1889–1893
24 24th Grover Cleveland November 15, 2012[29] 3,920,000 10,680,001 14,600,001[28] Cleveland 2nd Term dollar 1893–1897
25 25th William McKinley February 19, 2013[30] 3,365,100 4,760,000 8,125,100[28] McKinley dollar 1897–1901
26 26th Theodore Roosevelt April 11, 2013[31] 3,920,000 5,310,700 9,230,700[28] Theodore Roosevelt dollar 1901–1909
27 27th William Howard Taft July 9, 2013[32] 3,360,000 4,760,000 8,120,000[28] Taft dollar 1909–1913
28 28th Woodrow Wilson October 17, 2013[33] 3,360,000 4,620,000 7,980,000[28] Woodrow Wilson dollar 1913–1921
29 29th Warren G. Harding February 6, 2014 [34] 3,780,000 6,160,000 9,940,000[35] Warren Harding dollar 1921–1923
30 30th Calvin Coolidge April 10, 2014[36] 3,780,000 4,480,000 8,260,000[35] Calvin Coolidge dollar 1923–1929
31 31st Herbert Hoover June 19, 2014[37] 3,780,000 4,480,000 8,260,000[35] Herbert Hoover dollar 1929–1933
32 32nd Franklin D. Roosevelt August 28, 2014[38] 3,920,000 4,760,000 8,680,000[35] Franklin Roosevelt dollar 1933–1945
33 33rd Harry S. Truman February 5, 2015[39] 3,360,000 4,900,000 8,260,000 Harry S. Truman dollar 1945–1953
34 34th Dwight D. Eisenhower April 13, 2015[40] 3,640,000 4,900,000 8,540,000 Eisenhower Presidential dollar 1953–1961
35 35th John F. Kennedy June 18, 2015 4,200,000 6,160,000 10,360,000 Kennedy Presidential dollar 1961–1963
36 36th Lyndon B. Johnson August 18, 2015 3,360,000 4,900,000 8,260,000 L. Johnson dollar 1963–1969
37 37th Richard Nixon 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1969–1974
38 38th Gerald Ford 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1974–1977
39th Jimmy Carter 1977–1981
39 40th Ronald Reagan 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1981–1989
41st George H. W. Bush 1989–1993
42nd Bill Clinton 1993–2001
43rd George W. Bush 2001–2009
44th Barack Obama 2009–

† — The act specifies that a president must have been deceased for no fewer than two years to be honored in the series. (See above.) These Presidents are currently living and therefore do not qualify.

First Spouse program[edit]

Director of United States Mint Edmund C. Moy and First Lady Laura Bush at the unveiling of Dolley Madison's First Spouse coin on November 19, 2007

The United States is honoring the spouses of each of the Presidents honored by the Presidential $1 Coin Act by issuing half-ounce $10 gold coins featuring their images, in the order they served as First Spouse, beginning in 2007. To date, all first spouses have been women (often called First Ladies), but the law uses the term "First Spouse".

The obverse of these coins will feature portraits of the nation’s First Spouses, their names, the dates and order of their terms as first spouse, as well as the year of minting or issuance, and the words "In God We Trust" and "Liberty." The United States Mint will mint and issue First Spouse gold coins on the same schedule as the Presidential $1 coins issued honoring the Presidents. Each coin will have a unique reverse design featuring an image emblematic of that spouse’s life and work, as well as the words "The United States of America", "E Pluribus Unum", "$10", "1/2 oz.", and ".9999 Fine Gold".

When a President served without a First Spouse, as Thomas Jefferson did, a gold coin will be issued bearing an obverse image emblematic of Liberty as depicted on a circulating coin of that era, and bearing a reverse image emblematic of themes of that President. One exception will be the coin depicting suffragist Alice Paul representing the era of the Chester A. Arthur presidency, as Arthur was a widower.

The act, as written, explicitly states that the First Spouse coins will be released at the same time as their respective $1 Presidential coins.[41] Because the act links a First Spouse's eligibility for a coin to that of the Presidential spouse, it means that a living First Spouse may appear on a coin. Currently, one living First Lady, Nancy Reagan, is eligible.

The United States Mint launched these coins officially at 12 pm EDT on June 19, 2007. They provided two versions of the coin: a proof version for $429.95 and an uncirculated version for $410.95.

The United States Mint will also produce and make available to the public bronze medal duplicates of the First Spouse gold coins which are not legal tender.[42] In February 2009 Coin World reported that some 2007 Abigail Adams medals were struck using the reverse from the 2008 Louisa Adams medal.[43] These pieces, called mules, were contained within the 2007 First Spouse medal set.[43]

A full listing of the coins is:

Name Release date Proof Issue Price Mintage
Dates served
1 1 Martha Washington June 19, 2007[44] $429.95 N/A Martha Washington First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Martha Washington First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg 1789–1797
2 2 Abigail Adams June 19, 2007[44] $429.95 N/A Abigail Adams First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Abigail Adams First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg 1797–1801
3 3 Thomas Jefferson’s Liberty August 30, 2007[45] $429.95 N/A Jefferson Liberty First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Jefferson Liberty First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg 1801–1809
4 4 Dolley Madison November 19, 2007[46] $529.95 N/A Dolley Madison First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Dolley Madison First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg 1809–1817
5 5 Elizabeth Monroe February 28, 2008[47] $619.95* N/A Monroe E.jpg Reverse Monroe.jpg 1817–1825
6 6 Louisa Adams May 29, 2008[48] $619.95* N/A Quincy L.jpg Quincy Reverse.jpg 1825–1829
7 7 Andrew Jackson’s Liberty August 28, 2008[49] $619.95* N/A Jackson L.jpg Jackson reverse.jpg 1829–1837
8 8 Martin Van Buren’s Liberty November 25, 2008[50] $549.95 N/A Van Buren L.jpg VAn buren reverse.jpg 1837–1841
9 9 Anna Harrison March 5, 2009[51] $629.00 N/A Harrisona-o.jpg Harrisona-r.jpg 1841
10 10 Letitia Tyler July 2, 2009[52] N/A N/A Tylerl-o.jpg Tylerl-r.jpg 1841–1842
10A 10A Julia Tyler August 6, 2009[53] N/A N/A Tylerj FS-o.jpg Tylerj FS-r.jpg 1844–1845
11 11 Sarah Polk September 3, 2009[54] N/A N/A Polks-o.jpg Polks-r.jpg 1845–1849
12 12 Margaret Taylor December 3, 2009[55] N/A N/A Taylorm-o.jpg Taylorm-r.jpg 1849–1850
13 13 Abigail Fillmore March 18, 2010[56] N/A N/A Fillmorea-o.jpg Fillmorea-r.jpg 1850–1853
14 14 Jane Pierce June 3, 2010[57] N/A N/A Piercej-o.jpg Piercej-r.jpg 1853–1857
15 15 James Buchanan’s Liberty September 2, 2010[58] N/A N/A Buchanansliberty-o.jpg Buchanansliberty-r.jpg 1857–1861
16 16 Mary Todd Lincoln December 2, 2010[59] N/A N/A Lincolnm-o.jpg Lincolnm-r.jpg 1861–1865
17 17 Eliza Johnson May 5, 2011[60] N/A N/A EJohnson-proof-obv.jpg EJohnson-proof-rev.jpg 1865–1869
18 18 Julia Grant June 23, 2011[61] N/A N/A JuliaGrant-proof-obv.jpg JuliaGrant-proof-rev.jpg 1869–1877
19 19 Lucy Hayes September 1, 2011[62] N/A N/A 2011-LHayes-proof-obv.jpg 2011-LHayes-proof-rev.jpg 1877–1881
20 20 Lucretia Garfield December 1, 2011[63] N/A N/A 2011-LGarfield-proof-obv.jpg 2011-LGarfield-proof-rev.jpg 1881
21 21 Alice Paul [64] October 12, 2012[65] N/A N/A Alice Paul-unc-obv.jpg Alice Paul-unc-rev.jpg N/A †
22 22 Frances Cleveland November 15, 2012[66] N/A N/A 2012-FCleveland1-unc-obv.jpg 2012-FCleveland1-unc-rev.jpg 1886–1889
23 23 Caroline Harrison December 6, 2012[51] N/A N/A 2012-CHarrison-unc-obv.jpg 2012-CHarrison-unc-rev.jpg 1889–1892
24 24 Frances Cleveland December 20, 2012[67] N/A N/A 2012-FCleveland2-unc-obv.jpg 2012-FCleveland2-unc-rev.jpg 1893–1897
25 25 Ida McKinley November 14, 2013[68] N/A N/A 2013-First Spouse-McKinley unc obv 2000.jpg 2013-First Spouse-McKinley unc rev 2000.jpg 1897–1901
26 26 Edith Roosevelt November 21, 2013[69] N/A N/A 2013-First Spouse-Roosevelt-unc-obv 2000.jpg 2013-First Spouse-Roosevelt-unc-rev 2000.jpg 1901–1909
27 27 Helen Taft December 2, 2013[70] $770.00 N/A 2013-First Spouse-Taft-unc-obv 2000.jpg 2013-First Spouse-Taft-unc-rev 2000.jpg 1909–1913
28 28 Ellen Wilson December 9, 2013[71] $770.00 N/A 2013-First Spouse-Ellen Wilson-unc-obv 2000.jpg 2013-First Spouse-Ellen Wilson-unc-rev 2000.jpg 1913–1914
28A 28A Edith Wilson December 16, 2013[72] $770.00 N/A 2013-First Spouse-Edith Wilson-unc-obv 2000.jpg 2013-First Spouse-Edith wilson-unc-rev 2000.jpg 1915–1921
29 29 Florence Harding July 10, 2014[73] $770.00 N/A 2014 FS-Harding-Unc O 2000.jpg 2014 FS-Harding-Unc R 2000.jpg 1921–1923
30 30 Grace Coolidge July 17, 2014[74] $770.00 N/A 2014 FS-Coolidge-Unc O 2000.jpg 2014 FS-Coolidge-Unc R 2000.jpg 1923–1929
31 31 Lou Hoover August 14, 2014[75] $770.00 N/A 2014 FS-Hoover Unc O 2000.jpg 2014 FS-Hoover Unc R 2000.jpg 1929–1933
32 32 Eleanor Roosevelt September 4, 2014[76] $770.00 N/A 2014 FS-Roosevelt Unc O 2000.jpg 2014 FS-Roosevelt Unc R 2000.jpg 1933–1945
33 33 Bess Truman April 16, 2015[77] $770.00 N/A N/A N/A 1945–1953
34 34 Mamie Eisenhower 2015 $770.00 N/A N/A N/A 1953–1961
35 35 Jacqueline Kennedy 2015 $770.00 N/A N/A N/A 1961–1963
36 36 Lady Bird Johnson 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1963–1969
37 37 Pat Nixon 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1969–1974
38 38 Elizabeth Ford 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1974–1977
39 Rosalynn Carter 1977–1981
39 40 Nancy Reagan 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1981–1989
41 Barbara Bush 1989–1993
42 Hillary Clinton 1993–2001
43 Laura Bush 2001–2009
44 Michelle Obama 2009 -

* Due to volatility in the gold market, the U.S. Mint lowered the price to $549.95 on November 12, 2008 to more accurately reflect the current spot price of gold. This however constantly changes as the price of gold changes. The mint uses this pricing range table to adjust pricing of gold coin: † Chester A. Arthur's wife died before he succeeded to the presidency. Since there was no First Lady during his presidency, the act explicitly states that Alice Paul, who was born during his term, will appear on this coin.[64] Since Paul was never First Lady, the coin will not have a served date.

‡ For this spouse to be honored, the respective president must qualify for a coin (see above).

Other provisions[edit]

The act also has two other provisions, for:

In 2009, numismatic cents which have the metallic copper content of cents minted in 1909 were issued for collectors.

After 2009, another redesigned reverse for the Lincoln cent is being minted; this "shall bear an image emblematic of President Lincoln's preservation of the United States of America as a single and united country", and will replace the Lincoln Memorial reverse in use from 1959 to 2008.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The United States Mint (2010-03-23). "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program". Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  2. ^ Presidential dollar coin series being developed, United States Mint News & Views, David A. Lebryk, Acting Director, April 2006
  3. ^ H.R. 2764 (Pub.L. 110–161) amends 31 U.S.C. § 5112(n)(2) to remove "In God We Trust" from the edge and adds it to the obverse or reverse (signed December 27, 2007 by George W. Bush, and effective as soon as practical by the Secretary of the Treasury):
  4. ^ Louise L. Roseman, Director, Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems
  5. ^ "Public Law 110–82, the "Native American $1 Coin Act"" (PDF). September 20, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  6. ^ Production Figures, United States Mint.
  7. ^ The United States Mint. "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program". Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  8. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5112(n)(2)(E):
  9. ^ Staff reporter (2010-03-22). "Legislator calls for Ronald Reagan portrait on $50 FRNs". Coin World 51 (2606): 73. 
  10. ^ a b Gilkes, Paul (2015-02-12). "Ronald Reagan to be recognized on Presidential dollar, Nancy Reagan on First Spouse gold $10 coin in 2016". Coin World. Retrieved 2015-02-12. 
  11. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5113(n)(8):
  12. ^ "U.S. Mint Produces 'Godless' Dollar Coins". 2007-03-07. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  13. ^ "''Canadian Press:'' U.S. Mint goof: Unknown number of new dollar coins missing 'In God We Trust'". Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  14. ^ U.S. Mint Press Release. (March 7, 2007)
  15. ^ David S Morgan (2007-03-07). ""Godless" Dollar Coins Slip Through Mint". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  16. ^ Associated Press: Dollar Coins Missing 'In God We Trust'[dead link], By David S Morgan, (Mar. 7, 2007), CBS News
  17. ^ Walters, Patrick (2007-03-22). "Collectors report fake 'Godless' dollars". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. [dead link]
  18. ^ Presidential $1 Error Coins: John Adams. Numismatic Guaranty Corporation.
  19. ^ Squires, Chase (2007-03-14). "Colo. couple find faceless dollar coin". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. 
  20. ^ Washington Dollar Errors discusses a variety of actual and rumored minting errors.[dead link]
  21. ^ a b Wolin, Neal (December 13, 2011). Reducing the Surplus Dollar Coin Inventory, Saving Taxpayer Dollars. Treasury Notes Blog. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  22. ^ Nasaw, Daniel (2010-08-10). "BBC News - Why the US keeps minting coins people hate and won't use". Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  23. ^ Bill Would Kill Dollar Coin Program : Planet Money : NPR
  24. ^ U.S. GAO. "U.S. Coins: Replacing the $1 Note with a $1 Coin Would Provide a Financial Benefit to the Government". U.S. GAO. Retrieved 2011-08-16. 
  25. ^ Deshishku, Stacia (December 13, 2011). Treasury to stop producing unneeded dollar coins. CNN. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  26. ^ The United States Mint (2010-03-23). "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program". Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Staff (1998–2013). "Presidential Dollar Coin Release Schedule". United States Mint. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "US Mint Circulating Presidential $1 Coin Production Figures". 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Staff (2010). "Presidential $1 Coin Information". Federal Reserve Financial Services. Retrieved 2010-12-04. [dead link] (Archived by WebCite at
  30. ^ "United States Mint Releases William McKinley Presidential $1 Coin Products February 19" (Press release). United States Mint. 2013-02-12. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  31. ^ "United States Mint to Release Theodore Roosevelt Presidential $1 Coin Products on April 11" (Press release). United States Mint. 2013-04-04. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  32. ^ "United States Mint Releases William Howard Taft Presidential $1 Coin Products July 9". US MMint. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  33. ^ "Woodrow Wilson Presidential $1 Coin Products Available October 17". US Mint. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  34. ^ "United States Mint Set to Release Warren G. Harding Presidential $1 Coin Products Feb. 6". US Mint. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  35. ^ a b c d
  36. ^ "United States Mint Set to Release Calvin Coolidge Presidential $1 Coin Products April 10". United States Mint. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  37. ^ "Herbert Hoover Presidential $1 Coin Available June 19". United States Mint. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  38. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential $1 Coin Product Options Available August 28". United States Mint. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  39. ^ "Harry S. Trumann Presidential $ 1 Coin Product Options Available February 5". 
  40. ^ "United States Mint Begins Accepting Orders for Eisenhower Presidential $1 Coin Products on April 13" (Press release). 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2015-04-15. 
  41. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5112(o)(5)(A) says:
  42. ^ U.S. Mint: First Spouse Program. Accessed 2008-06-27. "The United States Mint also produces and make available to the public bronze medal duplicates of the First Spouse Gold Coins."
  43. ^ a b Gilkes, Paul (2009-02-16). "First Spouse medals set holds Adams mule". Coin World 50 (2549): 1. Some collectors have begun receiving a First Spouse medal mule - a piece bearing the obverse for Abigail Adams and a reverse intended for the Louisa Adams medal. The mules surfaced in some of the 2007 First Spouse sets... 
  44. ^ a b "United States Mint Offers First Spouse Coins" (Press release). United States Mint. 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  45. ^ "Thomas Jefferson's Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin Available August 30" (Press release). United States Mint. 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  46. ^ "United States Mint Offers Dolley Madison First Spouse Gold Coins November 19" (Press release). United States Mint. 2007-11-15. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  47. ^ "Elizabeth Monroe First Spouse Gold Coin Available February 28" (Press release). United States Mint. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  48. ^ "Louisa Adams First Spouse Coin and Medal Available May 29" (Press release). United States Mint. 2008-05-27. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  49. ^ "Andrew Jackson’s Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available August 28" (Press release). United States Mint. 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  50. ^ "Martin Van Buren’s Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin Available November 25" (Press release). United States Mint. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  51. ^ a b "United States Mint Releases Anna Harrison First Spouse Gold Coin March 5" (Press release). United States Mint. 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2010-12-04.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Harrison" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  52. ^ "Letitia Tyler First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available July 2" (Press release). United States Mint. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  53. ^ "Julia Tyler First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available August 6" (Press release). United States Mint. 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  54. ^ "Sarah Polk First Spouse Gold Coin Available September 3" (Press release). United States Mint. 2009-09-01. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  55. ^ "Numismatic Products Featuring First Spouse Margaret Taylor Available December 3 and December 17" (Press release). United States Mint. 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  56. ^ "Abigail Fillmore First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available March 18" (Press release). United States Mint. 2010-03-15. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  57. ^ "United States Mint to Release Jane Pierce First Spouse Bronze Medal Gold Coin and Bronze Medal on June 3" (Press release). United States Mint. 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  58. ^ "James Buchanan’s Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available September 2" (Press release). United States Mint. 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  59. ^ "United States Mint Releases Final 2010 First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal December 2" (Press release). 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  60. ^ "Eliza Johnson First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal Available May 5" (Press release). 2011-04-28. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  61. ^ "United States Mint to Release Julia Grant First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal June 23" (Press release). 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  62. ^ "Lucy Hayes First Spouse Gold Coin & Bronze Medal Available September 1" (Press release). 2011-08-30. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  63. ^ "Lucretia Garfield First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal Available December 1" (Press release). 2011-11-22. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  64. ^ a b Alice Paul is explicitly specified in 31 U.S.C. § 5112(o)(3)(D)(i)(II)
  65. ^ "United States Mint Launches 2012 First Spouse Gold Coin Series" (Press release). 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  66. ^ "Frances Cleveland (first term) First Spouse Gold Coins Available November 15" (Press release). 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  67. ^ "United States Mint Opens Sales for Final 2012 Numismatic Products Featuring First Spouse Gold Coins and Bronze Medal" (Press release). 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  68. ^ "United States Mint Set to Release Ida McKinley First Spouse Gold Coin November 14" (Press release). 2013-11-07. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  69. ^ "Edith Roosevelt First Spouse Gold Coins Available November 21" (Press release). 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  70. ^ "United States Mint Opens Sales for Helen Taft First Spouse Gold Coins on December 2" (Press release). 2013-11-26. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  71. ^ "Ellen Wilson First Spouse Gold Coin Available December 9" (Press release). 2013-12-06. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  72. ^ "United States Mint Opens Sales for First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medals December 16" (Press release). 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  73. ^ "United States Mint Set to Release Florence Harding First Spouse Gold Coin July 10" (Press release). 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2014-09-01. 
  74. ^ "Grace Coolidge First Spouse ½ Ounce Gold Coins Go On Sale July 17" (Press release). 2014-07-10. Retrieved 2014-09-01. 
  75. ^ "United States Mint Opens Sales for Lou Hoover First Spouse ½ Ounce Gold Coins August 14" (Press release). 2014-08-07. Retrieved 2014-09-01. 
  76. ^ "United States Mint Opens Sales for Eleanor Roosevelt First Spouse ½ Ounce Gold Coins Sept. 4" (Press release). 2014-08-28. Retrieved 2014-09-01. 
  77. ^ "United States Mint Opens Sales for Bess Truman First Spouse Gold Coins on April 16" (Press release). 2015-04-09. Retrieved 2015-04-15. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Sacagawea Dollar
Presidential Dollar Coin Program
(2007-present) ---- Concurrent with: Sacagawea Dollar (2000-present)
Succeeded by