Presidential Administration of Russia
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The Presidential Executive Office of Russia or the Presidential Administration of Russia (Russian: Администра́ция Президе́нта Росси́йской Федера́ции, tr. Administratsiya Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the executive office of the President of Russia created by a decree of Boris Yeltsin on 19 July 1991 as an institution supporting the activity of the president (then Yeltsin) and the vice-president (then Aleksandr Rutskoy, in 1993 the position was abolished) of Russian SFSR (now Russian Federation), as well as deliberative bodies attached to the president, including the Security Council.
The Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office, his deputies, heads of main directorates and services and their deputies are appointed by the President of Russia and don't need to be approved by any other government body. Other staff are appointed by the Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office.
On 25 March 2004, Vladimir Putin undertook a major reorganisation of this institution by a decree. Only two deputy chiefs remained out of seven. The Press Office and the Information Office were merged into the Press and Information Office, the Pardon Directorate and the Citizenship Directorate were merged into the Directorate for Protecting Citizens' Constitutional Rights. The Personnel Directorate and the State Decorations Directorate were merged into the Personnel and State Decorations Directorate, the Protocol Directorate and the Organisation Directorate were merged into the Protocol and Organization Directorate. The Territorial Directorate was included in the Domestic Policy Directorate. The Economic Directorate was abolished, the Civil Service Directorate was created.
The role in modern Russia
Initially the Presidential Administration of Russia was conceived as kind of office of the head of state. However, since Putin came to power this public body has assumed an enhanced role. On 9 May 2000, the newspaper Kommersant had published the document called «Revision number Six», which was the reform project of Presidential Administration. Before the text of the document, editor-in-chief wrote: «the fact that such program is being developing is very important it is in itself … if this will be a reality, almost of the entire population of Russia – from politicians and governors to ordinary voters – will be under surveillance by secret services». This document was published again in 2010.
Furthemore, on 9 May 2000, the newspaper Kommersant had published the article by deputy editor-in-chief Veronika Kutsyllo, according to which the text of «Revision number Six» had been provided to journalists by anonymous employee of the Presidential Administration; Putin was mentioned in the text of this document as acting President and the attached charts, totalling more than 100 pages, were drawn up before 1999 Russian legislative election, and these facts created the reason to believe that the work on this document started long before 2000 Russian presidential election.
The authors of «Revision number Six» stated that Russian social and political system at the time was self-regulatory that was totally unacceptable to Putin who wished that all social and political processes in Russia were completely managed by one single body. The Presidential Administration and, more specifically, its Domestic Policy Directorate was to be such body.
The authors of «Revision number Six» rejected the possibility of direct prohibition on opposition activities and independent mass media activities considering that Russian society was not ready for that, and it was the reason, they proposed that Domestic Policy Directorate of the Presidential Administration uses the combination of public and secret activities. Secret activities were to be carried out with the direct use of special services, in particular, Federal Security Service. The main objective of such secret activity was to take control over activity of political parties, community and political leaders, governors, legislatures, candidates for elective positions, election commissions and election officials, mass media and journalists. To achieve this objective, the following tasks were set: 1) the collection information (including dirt) about individuals and organizations of interests and the pressure on them; 2) the creation of conditions under which independent mass media cannot operate; 3) taking control over elections to ensure the victories of pro-Kremlin candidates; 4) the establishment of civil society organizations which are ostensibly independent but actually are under the full control of the Kremlin; 5) the discredit the opposition and the creation of the informational and political barrier around Putin (good things happen thanks to Putin personally but bad officials are responsible for bad things and not Putin; Putin doesn’t respond to opposition’s charge and doesn’t participate in debates – others do that for him).
According to Vasily Gatov, the analyst of Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern California, the realizations of the provisions of «Revision number Six» means building the state where democratic institutions exist nominally but in reality these institutions are fully controlled by Presidential Administration and secret police. He characterized such regime as «counterintelligence state» (one of the kinds of guided democracy).
On 7 May 2016, the newspaper Kommersant had published an article by Ilya Barabanov and Gleb Cherkasov containing an analysis of the implementation of provisions of «Revision number Six». They concluded that, although the authors of «Revision number Six» had not taken into account some things (for example, authors of the aforementioned document denied the need for creation of pro-Kremlin political party, which actually was established subsequently), by and large, the provisions of «Revision number Six» were conducted.
Current staff of the Presidential Executive Office
Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office:
First Deputy Chiefs of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office:
Deputy Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office:
Deputy Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office and Presidential Press Secretary:
Aides to the President:
- Andrey Belousov
- Larisa Brychyova (Head of the Presidential State-Legal Directorate)
- Vladislav Surkov
- Igor Levitin
- Vladimir Kozhin
- Yuri Ushakov
- Andrei Fursenko
- Konstantin Chuychenko
- Evgeny Shkolov
- Igor Shchyogolev
Chief of the Presidential Protocol:
Advisers to the President:
- Alexander Bedritsky (Special Presidential Representative on Climate Issues)
- Sergey Glazyev
- Sergei Grigorov
- Anton Kobyakov
- Alexandra Levitskaya
- Vladimir Tolstoy
- Anton Ustinov
- Mikhail Fedotov (Chairman of the Presidential Council for Civil Society and Human Rights)
- Veniamin Yakovlev
Presidential Commissioner for Children's Rights:
Presidential Commissioner for Entrepreneurs' Rights:
Presidential Envoys to Federal districts of Russia
The Federal districts of Russia are a level of administration for the convenience of the federal government and have been organised in 2000. They are not the constituent units of Russia (which are the federal subjects). Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative). The official task of the Plenipotentiary Representative is simply to oversee the work of federal agencies in the regions, although in practice this oversight is extensive and of considerable consequence. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.
This institution is organised as follows:
- Central Federal District
- Southern Federal District
- Northwestern Federal District
- Far Eastern Federal District
- Siberian Federal District
- Ural Federal District
- Volga Federal District
- North Caucasian Federal District
- Crimean Federal District (abolished)
Presidential Envoys to Branches of Federal Power
The Presidential Plenipotentiary to the Federal Assembly:
- Alexander Yakovlev (18 February 1994 – 10 February 1996)
The Presidential Plenipotentiary to the Federation Council:
- Anatoly Sliva (10 February 1996 – 27 October 1998)
- Yury Yarov (7 December 1998 – 13 April 1999)
- Vyacheslav Khizhnyakov (12 May 1999 – 5 April 2004)
- Alexander Kotenkov (since 5 April 2004 – ?)
- Arthur Muravyov (since 29 October 2013)
The Presidential Plenipotentiary to the State Duma:
- Alexander Kotenkov (10 February 1996 – 5 April 2004)
- Alexander Kosopkin (since 5 April 2004 – ?)
- Garry Minkh (since 12 February 2009)
The Presidential Plenipotentiary to the Constitutional Court:
- Valery Savitsky (24 April 1995 – 5 February 1996)
- Mikhail Mityukov (5 February – 7 December 1996)
- Sergey Shakhray (7 December 1996 – 29 June 1998)
- Mikhail Mityukov (29 June 1998 – 7 November 2005)
- Mikhail Krotov (since 7 November 2005)
- Security Council Office
- Offices of the Plenipotentiary Envoys to the Federal Districts
- Presidential Advisers' Office
- State-Legal Directorate
- Presidential Chancellery
- Control Directorate (Chiefs: Yuri Boldyrev (1992–1993), Aleksey Ilyushenko (19 March 1993 – ), Vladimir Zaytsev (1995–1996), Alexei Kudrin (1 August 1996 – 26 March 1997), Vladimir Putin (26 March 1997 – May 1998), Nikolai Patrushev (31 May 1998 – October 1998), Yevgeny Lisov (October 1998 – 13 January 2004), Valery Nazarov (13 January 2004 – 12 March 2004), Alexander Beglov (27 May 2004 – ), Konstantin Chuychenko (at least since 2009)
- Presidential Speechwriters' Directorate
- Secretariat of the Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office
- Domestic Policy Directorate
- Foreign Policy Directorate
- Personnel and State Decorations Directorate (since 25 March 2004)
- Personnel Directorate (until 25 March 2004)
- State Decorations Directorate (until 25 March 2004)
- Civil Service Directorate (since 25 March 2004)
- Directorate for Protecting Citizens' Constitutional Rights (since 25 March 2004)
- Pardon Directorate
- Citizenship Directorate (until 25 March 2004)
- Document Processing Directorate
- Directorate for Communication and Public Feedback
- Press and Information Office (since 25 March 2004)
- Press Office (until 25 March 2004)
- Information Office (until 25 March 2004)
- Protocol and Organization Directorate (since 25 March 2004)
- Protocol Directorate (until 25 March 2004)
- Organization Directorate (until 25 March 2004)
- Experts' Directorate
- Directorate for Interregional Relations and Cultural Contacts with Foreign Countries
- Territorial Directorate (until 25 March 2004)
- Economic Directorate (until 25 March 2004)
- Cossacks Directorate (7 August 1998 – 25 February 2003)
- Archive of the President of the Russian Federation (since 1998)
Former members of the presidential executive office
First Deputy Chiefs of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office:
Deputy Chiefs of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office:
- Sergey Yastrzhembsky (1997–1998)
- Dzhakhan Pollyeva (1998 – March 2004)
- Sergei Prikhodko (1998 – March 2004)
- Dmitry Kozak (May 1999 – August 1999, 4 June 2000 – 30 October 2003)
- Alexander Abramov (1999 – March 2004)
- Vladislav Surkov (August 1999 – December 2011)
- Yevgeny Lisov (until 12 January 2004)
- Viktor Ivanov (2000 – March 2004)
- Igor Shuvalov (October 2003 – March 2004)
Aides to the President:
- Sergei Prikhodko (1997 1998, March 2004)
- Igor Shuvalov (June – October 2003, March 2004 – )
- Igor Sergeyev (28 March 2001 – 30 March 2004)
- Yevgeny Shaposhnikov (March 1997 – 30 March 2004)
- Aslambek Aslakhanov (October 2003 – March 2004)
- Igor Sechin (March 2004 – May 2008)
- Vladislav Surkov (March 2004 – December 2011)
Press Attaches for the President:
Chiefs of the Presidential Protocol:
Advisers to the President:
- Vladimir Shevchenko (for special affairs, 2000 – )
- Andrey Illarionov (for Economy, 12 April 2000 – 25 December 2005)
- Sergey Samoylov (for Federalism and Local Government, 2001 – )
- Anatoly Pristavkin (for Pardon, December 2001 – )
- Sergey Karaganov (for Foreign Policy, 2002 – )
- Gennady Troshev (for Cossacks, 2003 – )
- Alexander Burutin (for Military Technology and Industry, April 2003 – )
- Aslambek Aslakhanov (for North Caucasus, March 2004 – )
- Yury Laptev (for Culture, April 2004 – )
- Mikhail Lesin (for Mass Media and Information Technologies, April 2004 – 17 November 2009)
- Executive Office of the President, the equivalent United States body
- Imperial Household Agency in Japan
References and notes
- "About Presidential Executive Office". President of Russia. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- President of Russia Decree of 2 October, 1996, №1412
- Full text: "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 25 марта 2004 г. N 400 Об Администрации Президента Российской Федерации". Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian) (0(3440)). 27 March 2004. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "09.05.2000 Редакция N 6". Коммерсантъ-Власть.
- "14.06.2010 Редакция N 6. Избранное". Коммерсантъ-Власть.
- "09.05.2000 Пока не страшно, но уже противно". Коммерсантъ-Власть.
- "17.05.2016 Путин пошёл дальше Андропова". Радио Свобода.
- "14.05.2016 Канарейка в шахте. РБК и общественный интерес в «государстве контрразведки»". Carnegie Moscow Center.
- "14.05.2016 No Canaries in the Coal Mine: The Demise of RBC". The Russian Reader.
- "07.05.2016 16 лет Редакции №6". Коммерсантъ-Власть.
- "Anna Kuznetsova appointed Presidential Commissioner for Children's Rights". President of Russia. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "Titov, Boris". President of Russia. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "Major staff and key officials". President of Russia. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "On appointments of Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoys to a number of federal districts". President of Russia. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- Жанна Ульянова; Яна Милюкова (31 August 2013). Дальнему Востоку подобрали нового управленца. Gazeta.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "Putin creates ministry for North Caucasus, makes new appointments". TASS. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "Предложение президента для Игоря Холманских стало неожиданностью". Vesti.Ru (in Russian). 18 May 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBK (in Russian). 21 March 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "Muravyov, Arthur". President of Russia. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "Minkh, Garry". President of Russia. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "Krotov, Mikhail". President of Russia. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "Dmitry Medvedev had a working meeting with Head of the Presidential Control Directorate Konstantin Chuychenko". President of Russia. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "ArcheoBiblioBase: Archives in Russia: C-1". International Institute of Social History. Retrieved 23 June 2019.