Presidential directive

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National Security Decision Directive 114, signed by Ronald Reagan

Presidential Directives, better known as Presidential Decision Directives (or PDDs), are a form of an executive order issued by the President of the United States with the advice and analysis of the National Security Council. The directives articulate the executive's national security policy and carry the "full force and effect of law".[1][2][3]

Since many of the Presidential Directives pertain to the national security of the United States, many remain classified.

Names for Presidential Directives by Administration[2][edit]

Presidents have issued such directives under various names.

Acronym Full Title Time Frame Presidential Administration(s)
NSCID National Security Council Intelligence Directive 1947–1977 TrumanFord
NSAM National Security Action Memorandum 1961–1969 Kennedy and Johnson
NSSM National Security Study Memorandum 1969–1977 Nixon and Ford
NSDM National Security Decision Memorandum 1969–1977 Nixon and Ford
PRM Presidential Review Memorandum 1977–1981 Carter
PD Presidential Directive 1977–1981 Carter
NSSD National Security Study Directive 1981–1989 Reagan
NSDD National Security Decision Directive 1981–1989 Reagan
NSR National Security Review 1989–1993 G. H. W. Bush
NSD National Security Directive 1989–1993 G. H. W. Bush
PRD Presidential Review Directive 1993–2001 Clinton
PDD Presidential Decision Directive 1993–2001 Clinton
NSPD National Security Presidential Directive 2001–2009 G. W. Bush
HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive 2001–2017 G. W. Bush and Obama
PSD Presidential Study Directive 2009–2017 Obama[4]
PPD Presidential Policy Directive 2009–2017 Obama
NSPM National Security Presidential Memorandum 2017– Trump

List of National Security Decision Directives (Reagan Era)[5][edit]

Number Document Title Status Date
NSDD 1 National Security Council Directives Declassified 25‑Feb‑81
NSDD 2 National Security Council Structure Declassified 12‑Jan‑82
NSDD 3 Crisis Management Declassified 14‑Dec‑81
NSDD 4 Disposition of Presidential Directives Declassified 12‑Jan‑82
NSDD 5 Conventional Arms Transfer Policy Declassified 8‑Jul‑81
NSDD 6 United States Non-proliferation And Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation Policy Declassified 16‑Jul‑81
NSDD 7 Enhanced Radiation Weapons Partially declassified 6‑Aug‑81
NSDD 8 Space Transportation System Declassified 13‑Nov‑81
NSDD 9 Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1982 and FY 1983 Partially declassified 28‑Sep‑81
NSDD 10 The Future Political Status of Micronesia Declassified 21‑Sep‑81
NSDD 11 Munitions / Technology Transfer to The People's Republic of China Declassified 22‑Sep‑81
NSDD 12 Strategic Forces Modernization Program Declassified 1‑Oct‑81
NSDD 13 Nuclear Weapons Employment Policy Partially declassified 19‑Oct‑81
NSDD 14 Security Considerations in Egypt and Sudan Declassified 8‑Oct‑81
NSDD 15 Theater Nuclear Forces (Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces) Declassified 81 Nov 16
NSDD 16 Economic and Security Decisions for Libya Declassified 10‑Dec‑81
NSDD 17 Cuba and Central America Declassified 4‑Jan‑82
NSDD 18 United States Chemical and Biological Weapons Arms Control Policy Declassified 4‑Jan‑82
NSDD 19 Classified National Security Council and Intelligence Information Declassified 12‑Jan‑82
NSDD 20 United States Law of the Sea Policy Declassified 29‑Jan‑82
NSDD 21 Responding to Floggers in Cuba Declassified 29‑Jan‑82
NSDD 22 Designation of Intelligence Officials Authorized to Request FBI Collection of Foreign Intelligence Declassified 29‑Jan‑82
NSDD 23 US Civil Defense Policy Declassified 3‑Feb‑82
NSDD 24 Mission to Certain European Countries Concerning Oil and Gas Equipment Exports to USSR and Restricting Credits to Soviet Bloc Countries Declassified 9‑Feb‑82
NSDD 25 Preparations for the Economic and NATO Summits in June 1982 Declassified 12‑Feb‑82
NSDD 26 US Civil Defense Policy Declassified 25‑Feb‑82
NSDD 27 Economic Decisions for Libya Partially declassified 9‑Mar‑82
NSDD 28 FY 1983-1987 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Declassified 17‑Mar‑82
NSDD 29 The Future Political Status of Micronesia: Nuclear Claims Declassified 31‑Mar‑82
NSDD 30 Managing Terrorism Incidents Declassified 10‑Apr‑82
NSDD 31 US Policy on Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions Declassified 16‑Apr‑82
NSDD 32 US National Security Strategy Declassified 20‑May‑82
NSDD 33 US Approach to START Negotiations Declassified 14‑May‑82
NSDD 34 US Actions in South Atlantic Crisis Declassified 14‑May‑82
NSDD 35 The M-X Program Declassified 17‑May‑82
NSDD 36 US Approach to START Negotiations II Declassified 25‑May‑82
NSDD 37 Cuba and Central America Declassified 28‑May‑82
NSDD 37a Cuba and Central America Partially declassified 28‑May‑82
NSDD 38 Staffing at Diplomatic Missions and Their Constituent Posts Declassified 4‑Jun‑82
NSDD 39 US Policy on Foreign Reprocessing and Use of Plutonium Subject to US Control Declassified 4‑Jun‑82
NSDD 40 The Future Political Status of Micronesia: Nuclear Claims Declassified 28‑May‑82
NSDD 41 December 30, 1981 Sanctions on Oil and Gas Equipment Exports to USSR Declassified 22‑Jun‑82
NSDD 42 National Space Policy Partially declassified 4‑Jul‑82
NSDD 43 United States Law of the Sea Policy Declassified 9‑Jul‑82
NSDD 44 US Approach to START Negotiations - III Declassified 10‑Jul‑82
NSDD 45 United States International Broadcasting Declassified 15‑Jul‑82
NSDD 46 Cooperation with France Classified 27‑Jul‑82
NSDD 47 Emergency Mobilization Preparedness Declassified 22‑Jul‑82
NSDD 48 International Economic Policy Declassified 23‑Jul‑82
NSDD 49 Standing Consultative Commission Declassified 23‑Jul‑82
NSDD 50 Space Assistance and Cooperation Policy Declassified 6‑Aug‑82
NSDD 51 US Nuclear Testing Limitations Policy Declassified 10‑Aug‑82
NSDD 52 Future Political Status of Micronesia Palau Declassified 20‑Aug‑82
NSDD 53 US Approach to START Negotiations- IV Declassified 1‑Sep‑82
NSDD 54 US Policy Towards Eastern Europe Declassified 2‑Sep‑82
NSDD 55 Enduring National Leadership Classified 14‑Sep‑82
NSDD 56 Private INF Exchange Declassified 15‑Sep‑82
NSDD 57 US Policy Towards Horn of Africa Declassified 17‑Sep‑82
NSDD 58 United States Oceans Policy and Law of the Sea Declassified 30‑Sep‑82
NSDD 59 Cuba and Central America Partially declassified 5‑Oct‑82
NSDD 60 Preparations for 1983 Summit Declassified 9‑Oct‑82
NSDD 61 Contingency Planning...Remainder of Title Classified Classified 15‑Oct‑82
NSDD 62 United States-Japan Relations Declassified 25‑Oct‑82
NSDD 63 Basis for Negotiation of Nuclear Test Verification Measures Declassified 28‑Oct‑82
NSDD 64 Steps on Lebanon Declassified 28‑Oct‑82
NSDD 65 Establishment of National Security Council Arms Control Verification Committee Declassified 10‑Nov‑82
NSDD 66 East-West Relations and Poland Related Sanctions Declassified 29‑Nov‑82
NSDD 67 Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1983 and FY 1984 Partially declassified 18‑Nov‑82
NSDD 68 FY 1983-1988 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Partially declassified 18‑Nov‑82
NSDD 69 The MX Program Declassified 22‑Nov‑82
NSDD 70 Nuclear Capable Missile Technology Transfer Policy Declassified 30‑Nov‑82
NSDD 71 US Policy Toward Latin America in Wake of Falklands Crisis Declassified 30‑Nov‑82
NSDD 72 US Program for the Exercise of Navigation and Overflight Rights at Sea Declassified 13‑Dec‑82
NSDD 73 The Peacekeeper Program Assessment Declassified 3‑Jan‑83
NSDD 74 Visit to the US of Prime Minister Nakasone Declassified 17‑Jan‑83
NSDD 75 US Relations with the USSR Declassified 17‑Jan‑83
NSDD 76 Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation with China Declassified 18‑Jan‑83
NSDD 77 Management of Public Diplomacy Relative to National Security Declassified 14‑Jan‑83
NSDD 78 US Approach to START Negotiations- V Declassified 1‑Feb‑83
NSDD 79 US Chemical Weapons Arms Control Policy Declassified 1‑Feb‑83
NSDD 80 Shuttle Orbiter Production Capability Declassified 3‑Feb‑83
NSDD 81 Negotiation of Improved Nuclear Test Verification Measures Declassified 7‑Feb‑83
NSDD 82 US Policy Initiatives to Improve Prospects for Victory in El Salvador Partially declassified 24‑Feb‑83
NSDD 83 US Oceans Policy, Law of the Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Declassified 10‑Mar‑83
NSDD 84 Safeguarding National Security Information Declassified 11‑Mar‑83
NSDD 85 Eliminating the Threat from Ballistic Missiles Declassified 25‑Mar‑83
NSDD 86 US Approach to INF Negotiations Declassified 28‑Mar‑83
NSDD 87 Comprehensive US Energy Security Policy Declassified 30‑Mar‑83
NSDD 88 Base Negotiations Policy Declassified 30‑Mar‑83
NSDD 89 Export Administration Act Declassified 11‑Apr‑83
NSDD 90 US Arctic Policy Declassified 14‑Apr‑83
NSDD 91 Strategic Forces Modernization Program Changes Declassified 19‑Apr‑83
NSDD 91a Special Access Annex to NSDD 91 Classified 13‑Dec‑83
NSDD 92 Accelerating the Withdrawal of Foreign Forces from Lebanon Declassified 27‑Apr‑83
NSDD 93 Refugee Policy and Processing Refugees from Indochina Declassified 13‑May‑83
NSDD 94 Commercialization of Expendable Launch Vehicles Declassified 16‑May‑83
NSDD 95 Crisis Information and Management System Declassified 18‑May‑83
NSDD 96 US Approach to International Debt Problem Declassified 9‑Jun‑83
NSDD 97 National Security Telecommunications Policy Declassified 13‑Jun‑83
NSDD 98 US Approach to START Negotiations- VI Declassified 14‑Jun‑83
NSDD 99 US Security Strategy for near East and South Asia Declassified 12‑Jul‑83
NSDD 100 Enhanced US Military Activity and Assistance in Central America Region Declassified 28‑Jul‑83
NSDD 101 US Strategy Towards Liberia Declassified 2‑Sep‑83
NSDD 102 US Response to Soviet Destruction of KAL Airliner Declassified 5‑Sep‑83
NSDD 103 Strategy for Lebanon Declassified 10‑Sep‑83
NSDD 104 US Approach to INF Negotiations-II Declassified 21‑Sep‑83
NSDD 105 Eastern Caribbean Regional Security Policy Partially declassified 4‑Oct‑83
NSDD 106 US Approach to START Negotiations- VII Declassified 4‑Oct‑83
NSDD 107 Foreign Aircraft Overflight Security Program Declassified 5‑Oct‑83
NSDD 108 Soviet Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Partially declassified 12‑Oct‑83
NSDD 109 Responding to the Lebanon Crisis Partially declassified 23‑Oct‑83
NSDD 110 Grenada—contingency Planning Partially declassified 21‑Oct‑83
NSDD 110a Response to Caribbean Govts Request to Restore Democracy in Grenada Partially declassified 23‑Oct‑83
NSDD 111 Steps Toward Progress in Lebanon and Middle East Partially declassified 28‑Oct‑83
NSDD 112 Processing and Disposition of Documents Acquired by US Forces in Grenada Declassified 15‑Nov‑83
NSDD 113 Security of Communications Systems Used by Key Govt Officials Declassified 17‑Nov‑83
NSDD 114 US Policy Toward Iran - Iraq War Declassified 26‑Nov‑83
NSDD 115 Visit of Prime Minister Shamir Declassified 26‑Nov‑83
NSDD 116 Strategic Defensive Initiative: Congressional and Allied Consultation Declassified 2‑Dec‑83
NSDD 117 Lebanon Declassified 5‑Dec‑83
NSDD 118 Preparations for the 1984 Economic Summit Declassified 5‑Dec‑83
NSDD 119 Strategic Defense Initiative Declassified 6‑Jan‑84
NSDD 120 Visit to the US of Premier Zhao Ziyang Declassified 9‑Jan‑84
NSDD 121 Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements Declassified 14‑Jan‑84
NSDD 122 Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions Declassified 18‑Jan‑84
NSDD 123 Steps in Lebanon Partially declassified 1‑Feb‑84
NSDD 124 Central America: Promoting Democracy, Economic Improvement and Peace Partially declassified 7‑Feb‑84
NSDD 125 FY 1984-1989 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Partially declassified 16‑Feb‑84
NSDD 126 Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions—mbfr Declassified 20‑Feb‑84
NSDD 127 Nuclear Weapons Master Plan - Phase III Declassified 23‑Feb‑84
NSDD 128 Lebanon Partially declassified 26‑Feb‑84
NSDD 129 Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1984 and 1985 Classified 28‑Feb‑84
NSDD 130 UN International Information Policy Declassified 6‑Mar‑84
NSDD 131 US Goals and Objectives for the 1984 Economic Summit Declassified 12‑Mar‑84
NSDD 132 Disposition of Presidential Directives Declassified 13‑Mar‑84
NSDD 133 US Policy Toward Yugoslavia Declassified 14‑Mar‑84
NSDD 134 US International Energy Policy Goals and Objectives Declassified 27‑Mar‑84
NSDD 135 Los Angeles Olympic Games Counterintelligence and Security Precautions Partially declassified 27‑Mar‑84
NSDD 136 US Initiative to Ban Chemical Weapons Declassified 2‑Apr‑84
NSDD 137 US Nuclear Arms Control Strategy for 1984 Declassified 31‑Mar‑84
NSDD 138 Combatting Terrorism Declassified 33 Apr 84
NSDD 139 Measures to Improve US Posture and Readiness to Respond to Developments in Iran-Iraq War Declassified 5‑Apr‑84
NSDD 140 President's Visit to People's Republic of China Declassified 21‑Apr‑84
NSDD 141 Responding to Escalation in the Iran-Iraq War Declassified 25‑May‑84
NSDD 142 Arms Limitation Talks, September 1984 Declassified 5‑Jul‑84
NSDD 143 US Third World Hunger Relief: Emergency Assistance Declassified 9‑Jul‑84
NSDD 144 National Space Strategy Classified 16‑Aug‑84
NSDD 145 National Policy on Telecommunications and Automated Information Systems Security Declassified 17‑Sep‑84
NSDD 146 The FY 1985 Grenadier Nuclear Test Program Declassified 28‑Sep‑84
NSDD 147 US Policy Toward India and Pakistan Declassified 11‑Oct‑84
NSDD 148 The US Umbrella Talks Proposal Declassified 26‑Oct‑84
NSDD 149 Support to Govt of Lebanon in Planning for Counter Terrorism Operations Classified 1‑Nov‑84
NSDD 150 The Annual Rpt on Nuclear Weapons Surety Declassified 28‑Nov‑84
NSDD 151 Preparatory Process for Visit of Prime Minister Nakasone and US-Japan Follow-up Effort Declassified 10‑Dec‑84
NSDD 152 Preparations for 1985 Economic Summit Declassified 20‑Dec‑84
NSDD 153 Instructions for the Shultz-Gromyko Meeting in Geneva Declassified 1‑Jan‑85
NSDD 154 US-Japan Trade Policy Relations Declassified 3‑Jan‑85
NSDD 155 US - Soviet Economic and Commercial Relations Declassified 4‑Jan‑85
NSDD 156 US Third World Food Aid: a "Food for Progress" Program Declassified 3‑Jan‑85
NSDD 157 Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1985 and FY 1986 Classified 9‑Jan‑85
NSDD 158 US Policy in Southeast Asia (The Kampuchea Problem) Declassified 9‑Jan‑85
NSDD 159 Covert Action Policy Approval and Coordination Procedures Declassified 18‑Jan‑85
NSDD 160 Preparing for Negotiations with Soviet Union Declassified 24‑Jan‑85
NSDD 161 Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements Partially declassified 6‑Feb‑85
NSDD 162 FY 1985-1990 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Partially declassified 11‑Feb‑85
NSDD 163 US Policy Towards the Philippines Declassified 20‑Feb‑85
NSDD 164 National Security Launch Strategy Declassified 25‑Feb‑85
NSDD 165 Instructions for First Round of US/Soviet Negotiations in Geneva Declassified 8‑Mar‑85
NSDD 166 US Policy, Programs, and Strategy in Afghanistan Declassified 27‑Mar‑85
NSDD 167 Food for Progress Program Implementation Declassified 29‑Apr‑85
NSDD 168 US Policy Toward North Africa Partially declassified 30‑Apr‑85
NSDD 169 US - USSR Joint Commercial Commission Meetings Declassified 17‑May‑85
NSDD 170 Radio Marti Partially declassified 18‑May‑85
NSDD 171 Deployment of Non-Enhanced Radiation W79 8-Inch Warheads Partially declassified 21‑May‑85
NSDD 172 Presenting the Strategic Defense Initiative Declassified 30‑May‑85
NSDD 173 Building an Interim Framework for Mutual Assistance Declassified 10‑Jun‑85
NSDD 174 US National Defense Stockpile Goals, Mobilization Planning Factors and Implementation Measures Declassified 10‑Jun‑85
NSDD 175 Establishment of a Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management Declassified 17‑Jun‑85
NSDD 176 Combatting Terrorism in Central America Partially declassified 9‑Jul‑85
NSDD 177 Classified Title Partially declassified 11‑Jul‑85
NSDD 178 Strategic Forces Modernization Declassified 10‑Jul‑85
NSDD 179 Task Force on Combatting Terrorism Declassified 17‑Jul‑85
NSDD 180 Civil Aviation Anti-terrorism Program Declassified 22‑Jul‑85
NSDD 181 Shuttle Pricing for Foreign and Commercial Users Declassified 30‑Jul‑85
NSDD 182 Classified Title Classified
NSDD 183 Meeting with Soviet Leader in Geneva Declassified 8‑Aug‑85
NSDD 184 Changes in Authorized Nuclear Deployments, Atomic Demolition Munitions (ADM) and Nike-Hercules (NH) Partially declassified 30‑Aug‑85
NSDD 185 Private Sector Cooperation in Pacific Basin Declassified 4‑Sep‑85
NSDD 186 Installation and Operation of Direct Communications Link (DCL)/ Hotline Btw Washington And Moscow Declassified 4‑Sep‑85
NSDD 187 US Policy Toward South Africa Declassified 7‑Sep‑85
NSDD 188 Government Coordination for National Security Emergency Preparedness Declassified 16‑Sep‑85
NSDD 189 National Policy on Transfer of Scientific, Technical and Engineering Information Declassified 21‑Sep‑85
NSDD 190 The FY 1986 Charioteer Nuclear Test Program Declassified 30‑Sep‑85
NSDD 191 Changes in Authorized Nuclear Deployments Classified 7‑Oct‑85
NSDD 192 The ABM Treaty and the SDI Program Declassified 11‑Oct‑85
NSDD 193 US Policy on New Zealand Port Access Issue Declassified 21‑Oct‑85
NSDD 194 Meeting with Soviet Leader in Geneva: Themes and Perceptions Declassified 25‑Oct‑85
NSDD 195 The US Position: Nuclear and Space Talks Declassified 30‑Oct‑85
NSDD 196 Counterintelligence/Countermeasure Implementation Task Force Partially declassified 1‑Nov‑85
NSDD 197 Reporting Hostile Contacts and Security Awareness Declassified 1‑Nov‑85
NSDD 198 Preparations for 1986 Economic Summit Declassified 7‑Nov‑85
NSDD 199 Review by PFIAB of Implications of Yurchenko Defection and Related Espionage Cases Declassified 12‑Nov‑85
NSDD 200 US Port Security Declassified 4‑Dec‑85
NSDD 201 National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) Telecommunications Funding Declassified 17‑Dec‑85
NSDD 202 Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements Partially declassified 27‑Dec‑85
NSDD 203 Nuclear Testing Limitations: Responding to Soviet Proposal of December 5 Declassified 24‑Dec‑85
NSDD 204 Transfer of National Intelligence Collection Tasking Authority Partially declassified 27‑Dec‑85
NSDD 205 Acting Against Libyan Support of International Terrorism Declassified 8‑Jan‑86
NSDD 205a NSDD 205 Annex- Acting Against Libyan Support of International Terrorism Partially declassified 8‑Jan‑86
NSDD 206 Instructions for Fourth Round of US/USSR Negotiations in Geneva Declassified 13‑Jan‑86
NSDD 207 The National Program for Combatting Terrorism Declassified 20‑Jan‑86
NSDD 208 US Policy Toward the Southwest Indian Ocean Partially declassified 30‑Jan‑86
NSDD 209 Implementing Decisions of Geneva Summit Declassified 4‑Feb‑86
NSDD 210 Allied Consultations on US Response to General Secretary Gorbachev's Jan 14, 1986, Arms Control Proposal Declassified 4‑Feb‑86
NSDD 211 Diplomatic Telecommunications Service (DTS) Partially declassified 10‑Feb‑86
NSDD 212 US Policy Towards Angola Declassified 10‑Feb‑86
NSDD 213 US Policy Towards Malta Declassified 11‑Feb‑86
NSDD 214 US Response to Gorbachev's January Arms Control Proposals Declassified 21‑Feb‑86
NSDD 215 Philippines Declassified 23‑Feb‑86
NSDD 216 FY 1986-1991 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Partially declassified 4‑Mar‑86
NSDD 217 Classified Title Classified
NSDD 218 Operations in Gulf of Sidra Classified 15‑Mar‑86
NSDD 219 Implementation of Recommendations of President's Commission on Defense Management Declassified 1‑Apr‑86
NSDD 220 Haiti Partially declassified 2‑Apr‑86
NSDD 221 Narcotics and National Security Declassified 8‑Apr‑86
NSDD 222 Consultations on US Interim Restraint Policy Declassified 21‑Apr‑86
NSDD 223 Implementing the Geneva Exchanges Initiative Declassified 22‑Apr‑86
NSDD 224 Counter-terrorist Operations Against Libya Classified 12‑Apr‑86
NSDD 225 Central America: US Policy on Search for a Negotiated Solution Declassified 20‑May‑86
NSDD 226 Machine Tools and National Security Declassified 21‑May‑86
NSDD 227 US Interim Restraint Policy Declassified 23‑May‑86
NSDD 228 Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1986 and FY 1987 Classified 27‑May‑86
NSDD 229 US/Australian Relations: Policy for Official Working Visit to US of Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke, April 17, 1986 Declassified 28‑May‑86
NSDD 230 Annual Report on Nuclear Weapons Surety Declassified 8‑Jul‑86
NSDD 231 Crisis Management Policies and Procedures Classified 14‑Jul‑86
NSDD 232 Preparations for next NST Negotiating Round Declassified 16‑Aug‑86
NSDD 233 Consultations on a Response to General Secretary Gorbachev Declassified 31‑Jul‑86
NSDD 234 Libya Policy Partially declassified 16‑Aug‑86
NSDD 235 Strengthening US Policy Towards Cuba Declassified 18‑Aug‑86
NSDD 236 Interim Restraint Policy Declassified 25‑Aug‑86
NSDD 237 Director, Presidential Contingency Programs Classified 2‑Sep‑86
NSDD 238 Basic National Security Strategy Partially declassified 2‑Sep‑86
NSDD 239 Supplemental Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1986 Classified 6‑Sep‑86
NSDD 240 Instructions for NST Round VI Declassified 18‑Sep‑86
NSDD 241 Preparations for 1987 Economic Summit Declassified 26‑Sep‑86
NSDD 242 The FY 1987 Musketeer Nuclear Test Program Declassified 29‑Sep‑86
NSDD 243 Standing Consultative Commission Declassified 30‑Sep‑86
NSDD 244 Meetings with Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev Declassified 3‑Oct‑86
NSDD 245 Reagan-Gorbachev Preparatory Meeting Declassified 7‑Oct‑86
NSDD 246 The Political Status of Micronesia Declassified 8‑Oct‑86
NSDD 247 Ratification of Existing Treaties Limiting Nuclear Testing Declassified 10‑Oct‑86
NSDD 248 Central America Partially declassified 22‑Oct‑86
NSDD 249 Additional Instructions for Current NST Negotiating Round Declassified 29‑Oct‑86
NSDD 250 Post Reykjavik Follow-up Declassified 3‑Nov‑86
NSDD 251 Arms Control Discussions Declassified 24‑Dec‑86
NSDD 252 ICBM Modernization Partially declassified 24‑Dec‑86
NSDD 253 Suriname Classified 24‑Dec‑86
NSDD 254 US Space Launch Strategy Declassified 27‑Dec‑86
NSDD 255 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Partially declassified 9‑Jan‑87
NSDD 256 Instructions for the Seventh NST Negotiating Round Declassified 14‑Jan‑87
NSDD 257 Guidance to US Delegation for Negotiations with Western Europe, Japan and Canada on Space Station Partially declassified 3‑Feb‑87
NSDD 258 Anti-satellite (ASAT) Program Partially declassified 6‑Feb‑87
NSDD 259 US Civil Defense Declassified 6‑Feb‑87
NSDD 260 Soviet Noncompliance with Arms Control Agreements Declassified 17‑Feb‑87
NSDD 261 Consultations on the SDI Program Declassified 18‑Feb‑87
NSDD 262 Amendment to NSDD 159 Classified 25‑Feb‑87
NSDD 263 Central America Declassified 25‑Feb‑87
NSDD 264 Central America Declassified 27‑Feb‑87
NSDD 265 Freedom of Navigation Program Partially declassified 16‑Mar‑87
NSDD 266 Implementation of the Recommnedations of the President's Special Review Board Declassified 31‑Mar‑87
NSDD 267 Review of US Arms Reductions Negotiating Positions Declassified 9‑Apr‑87
NSDD 268 PFIAB Worldwide Evaluation of Procedures and Practices Which Our Foreign Missions Protect Classified Information and Facilities Declassified 14‑Apr‑87
NSDD 269 Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1987 and 1988 Partially declassified 23‑Apr‑87
NSDD 270 Afghanistan Declassified 5‑Jun‑87
NSDD 271 Instructions for Eighth NST Negotiating Round Declassified 7‑May‑87
NSDD 272 US Objectives in Southern Africa Declassified 7‑May‑87
NSDD 273 US Policy Toward South Africa Declassified 7‑May‑87
NSDD 274 US Policy Toward Angola Declassified 7‑May‑87
NSDD 275 Cooperation with France Classified 5‑Jun‑87
NSDD 276 National Security Council Interagency Process Declassified 9‑Jun‑87
NSDD 277 National Policy and Strategy for Low Intensity Conflict Partially declassified 15‑Jun‑87
NSDD 278 Establishing a US Negotiating Position on SRINF Missiles Declassified 13‑Jun‑87
NSDD 279 The Annual Report on Nuclear Weapons Surety Declassified 16‑Jun‑87
NSDD 280 National Airlift Policy Declassified 24‑Jun‑87
NSDD 281 Nuclear Weapons Command and Control Partially declassified 28‑Aug‑87
NSDD 282 Continuing Authority to Deliver Nuclear Materials and to Acquire Utilization Facilities Declassified 30‑Sep‑87
NSDD 283 The FY 1988 Touchstone Nuclear Test Program Declassified 7‑Oct‑87
NSDD 284 US Military Capabilities in Support of NATO Declassified 15‑Oct‑87
NSDD 285 Central America Classified 15‑Oct‑87
NSDD 286 Approval and Review of Special Activities Partially declassified 15‑Oct‑87
NSDD 287 Organizing for Summit with General Secretary Gorbachev Declassified 10‑Nov‑87
NSDD 288 My Objectives at the Summit Declassified 10‑Nov‑87
NSDD 289 US Policy Toward Malta Declassified 25‑Nov‑87
NSDD 290 Instructions for Arms Reductions Discussions at Washington Summit (Dec 8-10, 1987) Declassified 7‑Dec‑87
NSDD 291 US Policy Toward Mexico Declassified 16‑Dec‑87
NSDD 292 Organizing for the INF Ratification Effort Declassified 29‑Dec‑87
NSDD 293 National Space Policy Classified 5‑Jan‑88
NSDD 294 Central America - Transfer of FY 1988 Funds for Nicaraguan Resistance to CIA Classified 6‑Jan‑88
NSDD 295 Instructions for Ninth NST Negotiating Round Declassified 14‑Jan‑88
NSDD 296 Organizing to Manage on Site Inspection under INF Treaty Classified 15‑Jan‑88
NSDD 297 Preparations for the 1988 Economic Summit Declassified 20‑Jan‑88
NSDD 298 National Operations Security Program Declassified 22‑Jan‑88
NSDD 299 Restoring Normal Immigration Procedures for Cuban Nationals Declassified 26‑Jan‑88
NSDD 300 US Policy Toward Mexico Declassified 11‑Feb‑88
NSDD 301 Establishment and Operation of US Nuclear Risk Reduction Center Partially declassified 22‑Feb‑88
NSDD 302 US Policy on Special Nuclear Material Partially declassified 14‑Apr‑88
NSDD 303 Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1988 and FY 1989 Classified 15‑Apr‑88
NSDD 304 Organizing for the Moscow Summit Declassified 19‑Apr‑88
NSDD 305 Objectives at the Moscow Summit Declassified 26‑Apr‑88
NSDD 306 National Coordination of Emergency Relocation Sites Partially declassified 23‑May‑88
NSDD 307 Review of US Arms Reduction Positions in Preparation for the Moscow Summit Declassified 27‑May‑88
NSDD 308 FY 1988- 1989 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Partially declassified 13‑Jun‑88
NSDD 309 Nuclear Weapons Safety, Security and Control Declassified 27‑Jun‑88
NSDD 310 Instructions for Tenth Nst Negotiating Round Declassified 18‑Jul‑88
NSDD 311 US-Soviet Defense and Military Relations Declassified 28‑Jul‑88
NSDD 312 Instructions for the Third Five-year Review of the 1972 Anti-ballistic (ABM) Treaty Classified 8‑Aug‑88
NSDD 313 ABM Treaty Review - US Delegation Instructions Classified 15‑Aug‑88
NSDD 314 National Security Information and Situation Management System—NSI and SMS Partially declassified 8‑Sep‑88
NSDD 315 Strengthening US Efforts to Limit Global Missile Proliferation Declassified 22‑Sep‑88
NSDD 316 FY 1989 Cornerstone Nuclear Test Program Declassified 11‑Oct‑88
NSDD 317 Amendment to Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization for FY 1988 and FY 1989 Partially declassified 20‑Oct‑88
NSDD 318 Nuclear and Space Talks Additional Elements of the US Position Classified 24‑Oct‑88
NSDD 319 US Policy Toward Indochina Declassified 14‑Nov‑88
NSDD 320 National Policy on Strategic Trade Controls Partially declassified 20‑Nov‑88
NSDD 321 Disposition of National Security Decision Directives Partially declassified 2‑Dec‑88
NSDD 322 US Interests and Policy in Chad Declassified 14‑Dec‑88
NSDD 323 Disposition of Pre-reagan Policy Papers Partially declassified 9‑Jan‑89
NSDD 324 Special Verification Commission Declassified 19‑Jan‑89
NSDD 325 FY 1989-1994 Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Plan Partially declassified 19‑Jan‑89

A 1986 National Security Decision Directive gave the State Department authority and responsibility to coordinate responses to international terrorism across government agencies including the CIA, DoD, and FBI. This was intended to reduce interagency conflicts which were observed in the response to the hijacking of the Achille Lauro cruise ship.[6] The State Department's Bureau of Counterterrorism continues this coordinating function.

List of Homeland Security Presidential Directives[edit]

After September 11, 2001, George W. Bush issued Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs), with the consent of the Homeland Security Council.

  • The first such directive created the Homeland Security Council.
  • The second changed immigration policies to combat terrorism.
  • HSPD 5 directed the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and run nationally coordinated emergency incident management systems.
  • HSPD-7 defines policy for protecting certain key infrastructure; the National Infrastructure Protection Plan was developed to implement the policy.
  • HSPD-8 directed Federal agencies to prepare in certain ways for emergencies.
  • HSPD-9 established policy to protect against attacks on food and agriculture.
  • HSPD-12 assigned responsibility for setting standards for the identification to be shown by persons entering federal government buildings.[7] The technical standard FIPS 201 was developed to satisfy this requirement.
  • HSPD-13 established a Maritime Security Policy Coordinating Committee from across federal government agencies.
  • HSPD-14 established a Domestic Nuclear Detection Office to coordinate efforts to protect the domestic U.S. against dangers from nuclear or radiological materials.[8][9]
  • HSPD-20 makes definitions and procedures for continuing the federal government after a catastrophic emergency. Federal agencies developed Continuity of Operations Plans in response to this directive.
  • HSPD-21, issued October 18, 2007, called for public and private healthcare organizations, hospitals, and healthcare facilities to form "disaster healthcare" system.
  • HSPD-23 defines cybersecurity objectives. It was secret at first. The National Cybersecurity Center began in response to this directive.

Regarding the secrecy of presidential directives, Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists' Project on Government Secrecy stated in February 2008 that:

Of the 54 National Security Presidential Directives issued by the (George W.) Bush Administration to date, the titles of only about half have been publicly identified. There is descriptive material or actual text in the public domain for only about a third. In other words, there are dozens of undisclosed Presidential directives that define U.S. national security policy and task government agencies, but whose substance is unknown either to the public or, as a rule, to Congress.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moss, Randolph D. (29 January 2000). "Legal Effectiveness of a Presidential Directive as Compared to an Executive Order - Memorandum For The Counsel to the President". Office of Legal Counsel, Department of Justice. 
  2. ^ a b Relyea, Harold C. 2008. Presidential Directives: Background and Overview. Congressional Research Service report 98-611.
  3. ^ Presidential Directives and Executive Orders, Federation of American Scientists' Intelligence Resource Program
  4. ^ Mark Landler (February 16, 2011). "Secret Report Ordered by Obama Identified Potential Uprisings". NYT. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  5. ^ Pike, John (2012-10-09). "PSD". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2012-12-10. 
  6. ^ Johnson, Larry C. 2005. Terrorism: Why the Numbers Matter.
  7. ^ Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12: Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Federal Employees and Contractors. At Department of Homeland Security website.
  8. ^ Homeland Security Presidential Directive - 14 description at Center of Army Lessons Learned web site, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center
  9. ^ Text of HSPD-14 (same as NSPD-43) at Federation of American Scientists website
  10. ^ Aftergood, Steven (2008-02-07). "The next president should open up the Bush Administration's record". Neiman Watchdog; Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 

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