List of presidents of France

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The President of France is the head of state of France. The first officeholder is considered to be Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who was elected in 1848 and provoked the 1851 self-coup to later proclaim himself emperor as Napoleon III. His coup, which proved popular as he sought the restoration of universal male suffrage previously abolished by the legislature, granted the newly established Second Empire firm ground.

A republican regime was given way again in 1870 through the Third Republic, after the fall of Napoleon III. A 1962 referendum held under the Fifth Republic at the request of President Charles de Gaulle transferred the election of the president of France from an electoral college to a popular vote. Since then, ten presidential elections have taken place. The 25th and current officeholder has been Emmanuel Macron since 14 May 2017.

French First Republic (1792–1804)[edit]

National Convention[edit]

The National Convention (20 September 1792 – 26 October 1795) was led by the President of the National Convention; the presidency rotated fortnightly.

From 1793 the National Convention was dominated by its Committee of Public Safety, in which the leading figures were Georges Danton and then Maximilien Robespierre.

Directory[edit]

The Directory was officially led by a president, as stipulated by Article 141 of the Constitution of the Year III. An entirely ceremonial post, the first president was Rewbell who was chosen by lot on 2 November 1795. The Directors conducted their elections privately, with the presidency rotating every three months.[1] The last President was Gohier.[2]

The leading figure of the Directory was Paul Barras, the only director to serve throughout the Directory.

Political parties

  Centre (Thermidorians)       Right-wing (Clichyens)       Left-wing (Montagnards)       Other (Maraisards)

Directors of the Directory (1 November 1795 – 10 November 1799)
Barras.jpg
Paul Barras
2 November 17959 November 1799
Adélaïde Marie Pilastre - Portrait de Louis-Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux (1753-1824), conventionnel, membre du Directoire - P993 - Musée Carnavalet.jpg
Louis-Marie
de la Révellière

2 November 179518 June 1799
(Compelled to resign)
Jean-François Reubell.JPG
Jean-François Rewbell
2 November 179516 May 1799
(Replaced by sortition)
Lazare-Carnot-par-Boilly.jpg
Lazare Carnot
2 November 17954 September 1797
(Proscribed and replaced after the Coup of 18 Fructidor)
Charles-Louis François Letourneur--Jean-Baptiste-François Désoria IMG 2312.JPG
Étienne-François Letourneur
2 November 179520 May 1797
AduC 290 Barthélemy (François, 1750-1830).JPG
François Barthélemy
20 May4 September 1797
(Proscribed and replaced after the Coup of 18 Fructidor)
Merlin de Douai par Delpech.jpg
Philippe Antoine Merlin
4 September 179718 June 1799
(Compelled to resign)
AduC 227 François de Neufchateau (N.L., 1750-1828).JPG
François de Neufchâteau
4 September 179715 May 1798
(Replaced by sortition)
Le Vachez Collection - Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (1742-1810).jpg
Jean-Baptiste Treilhard
15 May 179817 June 1799
(Election annulled as irregular)
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, by Jacques Louis David.jpg
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
16 May9 November 1799
AduC 233 Ducos (R., 1747-1816).JPG
Roger Ducos
18 June9 November 1799
JFMoulin.jpg
Jean-François Moulin
18 June10 November 1799
Louis-Jérôme Gohier.jpg
Louis-Jérôme Gohier
17 June10 November 1799
After the Coup of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799), Barras, Ducos and Sieyès resigned.
Moulin and Gohier, refusing to resign, were arrested by General Moreau.

Consulate[edit]

Consuls of the Consulate (10 November 1799 – 18 May 1804)
First Consul Second Consul Third Consul
Provisional Consuls
(10 November – 12 December 1799)
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg
Napoléon Bonaparte
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, by Jacques Louis David.jpg
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
AduC 233 Ducos (R., 1747-1816).JPG
Roger Ducos
Consuls
(12 December 1799 – 18 May 1804)
Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès.jpg
Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès
Charles François Lebrun prince architrésorier de l'Empire.jpg
Charles-François Lebrun
Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed himself Emperor of the French in 1804, reigning as Emperor Napoleon I 1804–1814 (First French Empire) and 1815 (Hundred Days).

The monarchy was restored 1814–1815 and 1815–1830 (Bourbon Restoration); again 1830–1848 (July Monarchy).

French Second Republic (1848–1852)[edit]

President of the Provisional Government of the Republic[edit]

Political parties

  Moderate Republicans

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- Ary Scheffer - Dupont de l'Eure.jpg Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure
(1767–1855)
26 February 1848 9 May 1848 73 days Moderate Republicans [3]
1848
Appointed President of the Provisional Government by the National Assembly, during the February Revolution. Resigned in May 1848, making way for the Executive Commission.

President of the Executive Commission[edit]

Political parties

  Moderate Republicans

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- François Arago by Carl von Steuben.jpg François Arago
(1786–1853)
9 May 1848 24 June 1848 46 days Moderate Republicans [4]
1848
The Executive Commission was appointed by the National Assembly, with François Arago acting as President of the Commission, and other members including Alphonse de Lamartine, Louis-Antoine Garnier-Pagès, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin and Pierre Marie de Saint-Georges, who acted jointly as head of state. The Commission was removed from power by the National Assembly, during the June Days uprising, and replaced by an executive power under Louis-Eugène Cavaignac.

Chief of the Executive Power[edit]

Political parties

  Moderate Republicans

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- Général Cavaignac - photo Pierre Petit.jpg Louis-Eugène Cavaignac
(1802–1857)
28 June 1848 20 December 1848 175 days Moderate Republicans [5]
1848
Granted dictatorial powers by the National Assembly, during the June Days uprising. Following his suppression of the uprising, Cavaignac was appointed Chief of the Executive Power by the National Assembly. He ran in the 1848 French presidential election, but lost to Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who was elected the first President of the French Republic.

President of the Republic[edit]

Political parties

  Bonapartist

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office;
Electoral mandates
Time in office Political party Ref.
1 Franz Xaver Winterhalter Napoleon III.jpg Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
(1808–1873)
20 December 1848 2 December 1852 3 years, 348 days Bonapartist [6]
1848
Nephew of Napoléon I. Elected first President of the French Republic in the 1848 election against Louis-Eugène Cavaignac. He provoked the coup of 1851 and proclaimed himself Emperor in 1852. Henri Georges Boulay de la Meurthe, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's vice president, was the sole person to hold that office.

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed himself Emperor of the French in 1852, reigning as Emperor Napoleon III 1852–1870 (Second French Empire).

French Third Republic (1870–1940)[edit]

President of the Government of National Defense[edit]

Political parties

  Monarchist

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- Louis Jules Trochu.jpg Louis-Jules Trochu
(1815–1896)
14 September 1870 13 February 1871 152 days Moderate Monarchist (Orléanist) [7]
Following the capture of Napoleon III at the Battle of Sedan, the National Assembly proclaimed the establishment of a Government of National Defense, with Louis Jules Trochu as its President. He rallied the French defenses during the Siege of Paris, but the Government was defeated by the nascent German Empire.

Chief of the Executive Power[edit]

Political parties

  Monarchist

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- Adolphe Thiers Nadar 2.JPG Adolphe Thiers
(1797–1877)
17 February 1871 30 August 1871 194 days Moderate Monarchist (Orléanist);
Opportunist Republican
[8]
Elected Chief of the Executive Power by the National Assembly, following the Siege of Paris, and established a government with a republican majority. After fighting to re-establish state control over the Paris Commune and securing the withdrawal of the Imperial German Army from France, he was elected President of the Republic by the National Assembly.

Presidents of the Republic[edit]

Political parties

  Monarchist
  Opportunist Republican
  Democratic Republican Alliance; Democratic Republican Party; Social and Republican Democratic Party; Democratic Alliance
  Radical-Socialist and Radical Republican Party
  Independent

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
2 Adolphe Thiers Nadar 2.JPG Adolphe Thiers
(1797–1877)
31 August 1871 24 May 1873 1 year, 266 days Moderate Monarchist (Orléanist);
Opportunist Republican
[9]
Initially a moderate monarchist, named President of France following the adoption of the Rivet law, establishing provisional republican institutions. He became a supporter of the Third Republic during his term. He resigned in the face of hostility from the National Assembly, largely in favour of a return to the monarchy.
3 Patrice de MacMahon Photograph.jpg Patrice de MacMahon
(1808–1893)
24 May 1873 30 January 1879 5 years, 251 days Monarchist (Legitimist) [10]
A Marshal of France, he was the only monarchist (and only Duke) to serve as President of the Third Republic. He resigned shortly after the republican victory in the January 1879 legislative election, following a previous republican victory in 1877, after his decision to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies. During his term, the Constitutional Laws of 1875 that served as the Constitution of the Third Republic were passed; he therefore became the first President under the constitutional settlement that would last until 1940.
The Government of Jules Armand Dufaure deputises during the interim (30 January 1879).
4 Portrait Jules Grévy (cropped)(3).jpg Jules Grévy
(1807–1891)
30 January 1879 2 December 1887 8 years, 306 days Opportunist Republican [11]
The first President of France to complete a full term, he was easily reelected in December 1885. He was nonetheless forced to resign, following an honours scandal in which his son-in-law was implicated.
The Government of Maurice Rouvier deputises during the interim (2–3 December 1887).
5 Portrait officiel de Sadi Carnot.jpg Sadi Carnot
(1837–1894)
3 December 1887 25 June 1894 6 years, 205 days Opportunist Republican [12]
His term was marked by Boulangist unrest and the Panama scandals, as well as by diplomacy with Russia. Assassinated (stabbed) by Sante Geronimo Caserio a few months before the end of his term, he is interred at the Panthéon.
The Government of Charles Dupuy deputises during the interim (25–27 June 1894).
6 Jean Casimir-Perier(1847-1907) (cropped).jpg Jean Casimir-Perier
(1847–1907)
27 June 1894 16 January 1895 205 days Opportunist Republican [13]
Casimir-Perier's was the shortest presidential term: he resigned after six months and 20 days.
The Government of Charles Dupuy deputises during the interim (16–17 January 1895).
7 President Félix Faure.jpg Félix Faure
(1841–1899)
17 January 1895 16 February 1899 4 years, 30 days Opportunist Republican;
Progressive Republican
[14]
Pursued colonial expansion and ties with Russia. President during the Dreyfus affair. Four years into his term, he died of apoplexy at the Élysée Palace.
The Government of Charles Dupuy deputises during the interim (16–18 February 1899).
8 Émile Loubet.jpg Émile Loubet
(1838–1929)
18 February 1899 18 February 1906 7 years, 0 days Democratic Republican Alliance [15]
During his seven-year term, the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State was adopted; only four Presidents of the Council succeeded to the Hôtel Matignon. He did not seek reelection at the end of his term.
9 Armand Fallières Paris.jpg Armand Fallières
(1841–1931)
18 February 1906 18 February 1913 7 years, 0 days Democratic Republican Alliance;
then Democratic Republican Party
[16]
President during the Agadir Crisis, when French troops first occupied Morocco. He was a party to the Triple Entente, which he strengthened by diplomacy. Like his predecessor, he did not seek reelection.
10 Raymond Poincaré officiel (cropped).jpg Raymond Poincaré
(1860–1934)
18 February 1913 18 February 1920 7 years, 0 days Democratic Republican Party;
then Democratic Republican Alliance
[17]
President during World War I. He subsequently served as President of the Council, 1922–1924 and 1926–1929.
11 Portrait officiel P. Deschanel.jpg Paul Deschanel
(1855–1922)
18 February 1920 21 September 1920 247 days Democratic Republican Alliance;
then Democratic Republican and Social Party
[18]
An intellectual elected to the Académie Française, he overcame the popular Georges Clemenceau, to general surprise, in the January 1920 election. He resigned after eight months due to health problems.
The Government of Alexandre Millerand deputises during the interim (21–23 September 1920).
12 Alexandre Millerand (cropped).jpg Alexandre Millerand
(1859–1943)
23 September 1920 11 June 1924 3 years, 262 days Independent [19]
An "Independent Socialist" increasingly drawn to the right, he resigned after four years following the victory of the Cartel des Gauches in the 1924 legislative election.
The Government of Frédéric François-Marsal deputises during the interim (11–13 June 1924).
13 Gaston Doumergue 1924 crop.jpg Gaston Doumergue
(1863–1937)
13 June 1924 13 June 1931 7 years, 0 days Radical-Socialist and Radical Republican Party [20]
The first Protestant President, he took a firm political stance against Germany and its resurgent nationalism. His seven-year term was marked by ministerial discontinuity.
14 Paul-Doumer (cropped).jpg Paul Doumer
(1857–1932)
13 June 1931 7 May 1932 329 days Independent [21]
Elected in the second round of the 1931 election, having displaced the pacifist Aristide Briand. Assassinated (shot) by the mentally unstable Paul Gorguloff.
The Government of André Tardieu deputises during the interim (7–10 May 1932).
15 Albert Lebrun 1932 (2) (cropped 2).jpg Albert Lebrun
(1871–1950)
10 May 1932 11 July 1940
(de facto)
8 years, 32 days Democratic Alliance [22]
Reelected in 1939, his second term was interrupted de facto by the rise to power of Marshal Philippe Pétain.

The office of President of the French Republic did not exist from 1940 until 1947.

French State (1940–1944)[edit]

Chief of State[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- Pétain - Portrait photographique 1941.jpg Philippe Pétain
(1856–1951)
11 July 1940 19 August 1944 3 years, 351 days Milice
1940
Following the fall of France and the signing of an armistice with Nazi Germany, Petain assumed dictatorial powers and established a collaborationist government. During the liberation of France, Petain's government fled to the Sigmaringen enclave, where they awaited the end of the war.

Free France (1940–1944)[edit]

President of the French National Committee[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- De Gaulle-OWI (cropped)-(d).jpg Charles de Gaulle
(1890–1970)
18 June 1940 3 June 1944 3 years, 351 days Free French Forces
1940
Following the fall of France, he issued the Appeal of 18 June to continue resisting the Nazi occupation of France. On 11 July 1940, he established the Empire Defense Council as the French government in exile, with himself as its President. On 24 September 1941, he replaced the Defense Council with the French National Committee, which had a more constitutional basis. On 3 June 1943, his Committee merged together with Henri Giraud's French Civil and Military High Command, forming the French Committee of National Liberation, with the two acting as co-chairs. Following the Liberation of France, the Committee evolved into a Provisional Government, with de Gaulle as its Chairman.

Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–1946)[edit]

Chairmen of the Provisional Government[edit]

Political parties   Socialist (SFIO)   Centre-right (MRP)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Political party Ref.
- De Gaulle-OWI (cropped)-(d).jpg Charles de Gaulle
(1890–1970)
3 June 1944 26 January 1946 1 year, 237 days Independent
1944
Following the Liberation of France, the Committee of National Liberation evolved into a Provisional Government, with de Gaulle as its Chairman. He resigned abruptly in January 1946, after a failed attempt to centralise executive power.
- Félix Gouin député SFIO 1936.jpg Félix Gouin
(1884–1977)
26 January 1946 24 June 1946 149 days French Section of the Workers International
1945
Promoted from President of the National Assembly to Chairman of the Provisional Government after de Gaulle's resignation.
- Georges Bidault.jpg Georges Bidault
(1899–1983)
24 June 1946 28 November 1946 157 days Popular Republican Movement
1946
Elected as Chairman of the Provisional Government in June 1946, oversaw the passage of the French Constitution of 27 October 1946, then defeated in the subsequent election of November 1946.
- Portrait officiel Vincent Auriol.jpg Vincent Auriol
(1884–1966)
28 November 1946 16 December 1946 171 days French Section of the Workers' International
1946
Elected as Chairman of the Provisional Government in November 1946, overseeing an interim parliamentary government before his accession to President of France.
- Léon Blum.jpg Léon Blum
(1872–1950)
16 December 1946 16 January 1947 31 days French Section of the Workers' International
1946
Oversaw the final interim government before the accession of Vincent Auriol to President.

French Fourth Republic (1946–1958)[edit]

Presidents[edit]

Political parties

  Socialist (SFIO)   Centre-right (CNIP)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office;
Electoral mandates
Time in office Political party Ref.
16 Portrait officiel Vincent Auriol.jpg Vincent Auriol
(1884–1966)
16 January 1947 16 January 1954 7 years, 0 days French Section of the Workers' International [23]
1947
First President of the Fourth Republic; his term was marked by the First Indochina War.
17 René Coty - 1954.jpg René Coty
(1882–1962)
16 January 1954 8 January 1959 4 years, 357 days National Centre of Independents and Peasants [24]
1953
Presidency marked by the Algerian War; appealed to Charles de Gaulle to resolve the May 1958 crisis. Following the promulgation of the Fifth Republic, he resigned after five years as President of France, giving way to De Gaulle.

French Fifth Republic (1958–present)[edit]

Presidents[edit]

Political parties:   Centre-left (PS) (2)   Centrist (RE) (1)   Centre-right (CD; RI; PR; UDF) (1)   Gaullist (UNR; UDR) (2)   Neo-Gaullist (RPR; UMP; LR) (2)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office;
Electoral mandates
Time in office Political party Ref.
18 Charles de Gaulle-1963.jpg Charles de Gaulle
(1890–1970)
8 January 1959 28 April 1969 10 years, 110 days Union for the New Republic
(renamed Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic in 1967)
[25]
1958, 1965
Leader of the Free French Forces, 1940–1944. President of the Provisional Government, 1944–1946. Appointed President of the Council by René Coty in May 1958, to resolve the crisis of the Algerian War. Supported by referendum, he adopted a new Constitution of France, thus founding the Fifth Republic. Easily elected to the presidency in the 1958 election by electoral college, he took office the following month; having modified the presidential election procedure in the 1962 referendum, he was reelected by universal suffrage in the 1965 election. Launched the Force de dissuasion in 1961. He signed the Élysée Treaty in 1963, building Franco-German cooperation, a key to European integration. In 1966, he withdrew France from NATO integrated military command and had American military personnel stationed on French soil sent home. Supported Quebec sovereignty. Faced the May 68 civil unrest. Resigned following the failure of the 1969 referendum on regionalisation.
Alain Poher 1969.jpg Alain Poher
Acting
(1909–1996)
28 April 1969 20 June 1969 53 days Democratic Centre [26]
Interim President of France, as President of the Senate. Stood in the 1969 election but was defeated in the second round by Georges Pompidou.
19 Portrait officiel de Georges Pompidou (cropped) (2).jpg Georges Pompidou
(1911–1974)
20 June 1969 2 April 1974 4 years, 286 days Union of Democrats for the Republic [27]
1969
Prime Minister under Charles de Gaulle, 1962–1968. Elected to the presidency in the 1969 election against centrist Alain Poher. Favoured European integration. Supported economic modernisation and industrialisation, most notably through the TGV high-speed rail project. Faced the 1973 oil crisis. Died in office of Waldenström macroglobulinemia, two years before the end of his term.
Alain Poher 1969.jpg Alain Poher
Acting
(1909–1996)
2 April 1974 27 May 1974 55 days Democratic Centre [26]
Interim President of France again, as President of the Senate. Did not stand in the 1974 election.
20 Valéry Giscard d’Estaing 1978.jpg Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
(1926–2020)
27 May 1974 21 May 1981 6 years, 359 days Independent Republicans (renamed Republican Party in 1977)
(within the Union for French Democracy from 1978)
[28]
1974
Founder of the Independent Republicans and later the Union for French Democracy in his efforts to unify the centre-right, he served in several Gaullist governments. Narrowly elected in the 1974 election, he instigated numerous reforms, including the lowering of the age of civil majority from 21 to 18 and legalisation of abortion. He soon faced a global economic crisis and rising unemployment. Although the polls initially gave him a lead, he was defeated in the 1981 election by François Mitterrand, partly due to disunion within the right.
21 François Mitterrand avril 1981.jpg François Mitterrand
(1916–1996)
21 May 1981 17 May 1995 13 years, 361 days Socialist Party [29]
1981, 1988
Candidate of a united left-wing ticket in the 1965 election, he founded the Socialist Party in 1971. Having narrowly lost in 1974, he was finally elected in 1981. Mitterrand supervised a series of Great Works, the best known of which is the Louvre Pyramid. He instigated the abolition of the death penalty. After the right-wing victory in the 1986 legislative election, he named Jacques Chirac as Prime Minister, thus beginning the first cohabitation. Reelected in the 1988 election against Chirac, he was again forced to cohabit with Édouard Balladur following the 1993 legislative election. He retired in 1995 after the conclusion of his second term. He was the first left-wing President of the Fifth Republic; his presidential tenure was the longest of any French Republic.
22 Jacques Chirac 2.jpg Jacques Chirac
(1932–2019)
17 May 1995 16 May 2007 11 years, 364 days Rally for the Republic (until 2002)
Union for a Popular Movement (from 2002)
[30]
1995, 2002
Prime Minister, 1974–1976; upon resignation, founded the Rally for the Republic. Eliminated in the first round of the 1981 election, he again served as Prime Minister, 1986–1988. Defeated in the 1988 election, he was elected in 1995. He engaged in social reforms to counter "social fracture". In 1997, he dissolved the National Assembly; a left-wing victory in the 1997 legislative election forced him to name Lionel Jospin Prime Minister for a five-year cohabitation. Presidential terms reduced from seven to five years after approval by referendum. In 2002, he was easily reelected against Jean-Marie Le Pen. Sent troops to Afghanistan, but opposed the Iraq War. Declined to seek a third term in 2007 and retired from political life.
23 Nicolas Sarkozy in 2010.jpg Nicolas Sarkozy
(born 1955)
16 May 2007 15 May 2012 4 years, 365 days Union for a Popular Movement [31]
2007
Served in numerous ministerial posts, 1993–1995 and 2002–2007. Easily elected to the leadership of the Union for a Popular Movement in 2004. Elected to the presidency in 2007, defeating Socialist Ségolène Royal. Soon after taking office, he introduced a new fiscal package and other laws to counter illegal immigration and recidivism. President of the Council of the EU in 2008, he defended the Treaty of Lisbon and mediated in the Russo-Georgian War; reintroduced France to NATO integrated military command; President of the G8 and G-20 in 2011. At national level, he had to deal with a financial crisis and its consequences. Following the 2008 constitutional reform, he became the first President of France since Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte to address the Versailles Congress on 22 June 2009. He introduced education and pension reforms. Sent troops to Libya (Operation Harmattan) in 2011. Narrowly defeated in the runoff of the 2012 election.
24 Francois Hollande 2015.jpeg François Hollande
(born 1954)
15 May 2012 15 May 2017 5 years, 0 days Socialist Party [32]
2012
Served as First Secretary of the Socialist Party, 1997–2008 and President of the General Council of Corrèze, 2008–2012. Elected in 2012, defeating Nicolas Sarkozy. Legalised same-sex marriage and restricted dual mandates. Militarily intervened in Mali (Operation Serval), in the Central African Republic (Operation Sangaris) and in Iraq and Syria (Operation Chammal). Paris suffered Islamic terrorist attacks in January 2015 and November 2015, as well as Nice in July 2016. Hosted the 2015 UN Climate Change Conference. Did not seek reelection in the 2017 election, for which polls suggested his defeat in the first round.
25 Зустріч Президента України з президентами Франції та Румунії, а також головами урядів Німеччини та Італії 76 (cropped).jpg Emmanuel Macron
(born 1977)
15 May 2017 Incumbent
(term expires May 2027)
5 years, 200 days Renaissance[a] [33]
2017, 2022
Served as Élysée Deputy Secretary-General, 2012–2014 and Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs, 2014–2016. Easily defeated Marine Le Pen in the 2017 election in which he ran as a centrist. Youngest President in the history of France. Encountered massive demonstrations, most notably the yellow vests protests, since 2018 over his policy orientations and style of governance. Hosted the 2019 G7 summit. Has faced the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2022, he was reelected with a reduced majority against Le Pen in a rematch.

Timeline[edit]

Emmanuel MacronFrançois HollandeNicolas SarkozyJacques ChiracFrançois MitterrandValéry Giscard d'EstaingGeorges PompidouRené CotyLéon BlumVincent AuriolGeorges BidaultFélix GouinCharles de GaullePhilippe PétainAlbert LebrunPaul DoumerGaston DoumergueAlexandre MillerandPaul DeschanelRaymond PoincaréArmand FallièresÉmile LoubetFélix FaureJean Casimir-PerierSadi Carnot (statesman)Jules GrévyPatrice de MacMahonAdolphe ThiersNapoleon III

Notes:
1 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was proclaimed Emperor on 2 December 1852, ending the French Second Republic, and his presidency.[citation needed]
2 Adolphe Thiers previously served in the executive position of Chief of the Executive Power from 17 February 1871 until 30 August 1871, his presidency then beginning the following day on 31 August 1871.[citation needed]
3 Philippe Pétain used the title Chief of the French State as opposed to President of France.[citation needed]
4-6 The heads of state of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944-1946), with the exception of Léon Blum and Vincent Auriol, used the title Chairman rather than President. De Gaulle would later assume the title President as the head of state of the French Fifth Republic.[citation needed]
7-8 Vincent Auriol served as the constituent head of state of France as President of the National Assembly from 31 January 1946 until 21 January 1947, but the title was superseded in its executive authority by that of Léon Blum as President of the Provisional Government on 16 December 1946. Auriol was soon after elected President of France himself on 16 January 1947.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cheynet, Pierre-Dominique (2013). "France: Presidents of the Executive Directory: 1795-1799". Archontology.org. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  2. ^ Lefebvre & Soboul, p. 199.
  3. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Dupont de l'Eure, Jacques Charles". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 688.
  4. ^ Robertson, Priscilla Smith (1952). Revolutions of 1848: A Social History. Princeton University Press. pp. 79–93. ISBN 0-691-00756-X. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  5. ^ Agulhon, Maurice (1983). The Republican Experiment, 1848–1852. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60–71. ISBN 0521289882.
  6. ^ "Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (1808–1873)" (in French). Official website of the French Presidency. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  7. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Trochu, Louis Jules". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 298.
  8. ^ Guiral, Pierre (1986). Adolphe Thiers ou De la nécessité en politique (in French). Paris: Fayard. pp. 334–375. ISBN 2213018251.
  9. ^ "Adolphe Thiers (1797–1877)" (in French). Official website of the French Presidency. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  10. ^ "Patrice de Mac-Mahon (1808–1893)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Jules Grévy (1807–1891)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  12. ^ "Marie-François-Sadi Carnot (1837–1894)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  13. ^ "Jean Casimir-Perier (1847–1907)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  14. ^ "Félix Faure (1841–1899)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  15. ^ "Emile Loubet (1836–1929)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  16. ^ "Armand Fallières (1841–1931)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  17. ^ "Raymond Poincaré (1860–1934)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  18. ^ "Paul Deschanel (1855–1922)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  19. ^ "Alexandre Millerand (1859–1943)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  20. ^ "Gaston Doumergue (1863–1937)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  21. ^ "Paul Doumer (1857–1932)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  22. ^ "Albert Lebrun (1871–1950)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  23. ^ "Vincent Auriol (1884–1966)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  24. ^ "René Coty (1882–1962)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  25. ^ "Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  26. ^ a b "Alain Poher (1909–1996)" (in French). Official website of the French Presidency. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  27. ^ "Georges Pompidou (1911–1974)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  28. ^ "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (1926)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  29. ^ "François Mitterrand (1916–1996)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  30. ^ "Jacques Chirac (1932)". Official website of the French Presidency. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  31. ^ "Nicolas Sarkozy (1955)". Official website of the French Presidency. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  32. ^ "Biographie officielle de François Hollande" [Official biography of François Hollande]. Official website of the French Presidency. 22 November 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  33. ^ "Biographie officielle de Emmanuel Macron" [Official biography of Emmanuel Macron]. Official website of the French Presidency. 22 November 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2022.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Known as La République En Marche! from 6 April 2016 to 17 September 2022.