List of Presidents of the United States

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"Presidents of the United States", "American Presidents", and "U.S. Presidents" redirect here. For the C-SPAN series, see American Presidents: Life Portraits. For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation).
For lists of U.S. Presidents based on other criteria such as age or home state, see Template:Lists of US Presidents and Vice Presidents.
The White House in Washington, D.C. is the president's official residence, the center of the administration, and a prominent symbol of the office.

Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and face of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives, should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1] Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent president, the vice president assumes the office. The president must be at least 35 years of age, has to have lived in the United States for 14 years, and has to be a "natural born" citizen of the United States.

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress.[2] The list does not include any acting presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

There have been 43 people sworn into office, and 44 presidencies, as Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and 24th president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[3] Zachary Taylor,[4] Warren G. Harding,[5] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[6] James A. Garfield,[6][7] William McKinley,[8] and John F. Kennedy) and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[9]

George Washington, the first president, was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office with 32 days in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest with over twelve years, but died shortly into his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. A constitutional amendment, affecting presidents after Harry Truman, was passed to limit the number of times an individual can be elected president. Andrew Jackson, the seventh president, was the first to be elected by white men of all classes in 1828 after most laws barring non-land-owners from voting were repealed. Warren Harding was the first elected after women gained voting rights in 1920. Four presidents – John Q. Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison and George W. Bush – lost the popular vote but assumed office; Bush was subsequently re-elected with a popular majority. John F. Kennedy has been the only president of Roman Catholic faith, and the current president, Barack Obama, is the first president of African descent.[10]

List of presidents

      Independent (1)       Federalist (1)       Democratic-Republican (4)       Democratic (16)       Whig (4)       Republican (18)

No. Portrait President Term of office Party Term
[a]
Previous office Vice President
1 Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg    George Washington
(1732-02-22)February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799(1799-12-14)
(aged 67)

[11][12][13]
April 30, 1789
[b]

March 4, 1797
Non-partisan
[14]
1
(1789)
Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army

(1775–1783)
John Adams
2
(1792)
2 Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg    John Adams
October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826
(aged 90)

[15][16][17]
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
[c]
Federalist 3
(1796)
1st
Vice President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson
3 Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg    Thomas Jefferson
April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826
(aged 83)

[18][19][20]
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Democratic-
Republican
4
(1800)
2nd
Vice President of the United States
Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
5
(1804)
George Clinton
March 4, 1805April 20, 1812
[d]
4 James Madison.jpg    James Madison
March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836
(aged 85)

[21][22][23]
March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
6
(1808)
5th
United States Secretary of State
(1801–1809)
 
Vacant
April 20, 1812March 4, 1813
[e]
7
(1812)
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
[d]
Vacant
November 23, 1814March 4, 1817
[e]
5 James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif    James Monroe
April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831
(aged 73)

[24][25][26]
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Democratic-
Republican
8
(1816)
7th
United States Secretary of State
(1811–1817)
Daniel D. Tompkins
9
(1820)
6 JQA Photo.tif    John Quincy Adams
July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848
(aged 80)

[27][28][29]
March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
[c]
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1824)
8th
United States Secretary of State
(1817–1825)
John C. Calhoun
March 4, 1825December 28, 1832
[f]
7 Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg    Andrew Jackson
March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845
(aged 78)

[30][31][32]
March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Democratic 11
(1828)
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1823–1825)
 
Vacant
December 28, 1832March 4, 1833
[e]
12
(1832)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8 Martin Van Buren by Mathew Brady c1855-58.jpg    Martin Van Buren
December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862
(aged 79)

[33][34][35]
March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
[c][g]
Democratic 13
(1836)
8th
Vice President of the United States
Richard Mentor Johnson
9 William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg    William Henry Harrison
February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841
(aged 68)

[36][37][38]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
[d]
Whig 14
(1840)
United States Minister to Colombia
(1828–1829)
John Tyler
10 Tyler Daguerreotype (restoration).jpg    John Tyler
March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862
(aged 71)

[39][40][41]
April 4, 1841

March 4, 1845
Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
10th
Vice President of the United States
[h]
Vacant
[e]
   Independent
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
[i]
11 Polkpolk.jpg    James K. Polk
November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849
(aged 53)

[42][43][44]
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 15
(1844)
9th
Governor of Tennessee
(1839–1841)
George M. Dallas
12 Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.png    Zachary Taylor
November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850
(aged 65)

[45][46][47]
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
[j][d]
Whig 16
(1848)
Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
(1846–1849)
Millard Fillmore
13 Millard Fillmore-Edit1.jpg    Millard Fillmore
January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874
(aged 74)

[48][49][50]
July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853
[g]
Whig 12th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
[e]
14 Mathew Brady - Franklin Pierce - alternate crop.jpg    Franklin Pierce
November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869
(aged 64)

[51][52][53]
March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Democratic 17
(1852)
Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
(1847–1848)
William R. King
March 4, 1853April 18, 1853
[d][j]
Vacant
April 18, 1853March 4, 1857
[e]
15 James Buchanan.jpg    James Buchanan
April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868
(aged 77)

[54][55][56]
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 18
(1856)
United States Minister to the
Court of St James's
(1853–1856)
John C. Breckinridge
16 Abraham Lincoln November 1863.jpg    Abraham Lincoln
February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865
(aged 56)

[57][58][59]
March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
[j][k]
Republican 19
(1860)
U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th
(1847–1849)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
Republican
National Union
[l]
20
(1864)
Andrew Johnson
March 4, 1865April 15, 1865
17 Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg    Andrew Johnson
December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875
(aged 66)

[60][61][62]
April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
Democratic
National Union
Not Affiliated
[l][m]
16th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
[e]
18 Ulysses Grant 1870-1880.jpg    Ulysses S. Grant
April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885
(aged 63)

[63][64][65]
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Republican 21
(1868)
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1864–1869)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
22
(1872)
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
[d][j]
Vacant
November 22, 1875March 4, 1877
[e]
19 President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg    Rutherford B. Hayes
October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893
(aged 70)

[66][67][68]
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 23
(1876)
32nd
Governor of Ohio
(1868–1872, 1876–1877)
William A. Wheeler
20 James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg    James A. Garfield
November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881
(aged 49)

[69][70][71]
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
[j][k]
Republican 24
(1880)
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th
(1863–1881)
Chester A. Arthur
21 Chester Alan Arthur.jpg    Chester A. Arthur
October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886
(aged 57)

[72][73][74]
September 19, 1881

March 4, 1885
Republican 20th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
[e]
22 StephenGroverCleveland.png    Grover Cleveland
March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908
(aged 71)

[75][76]
March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
[c]
Democratic 25
(1884)
28th
Governor of New York
(1883–1885)
Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4, 1885November 25, 1885
[d][j]
Vacant
November 25, 1885March 4, 1889
[e]
23 Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg    Benjamin Harrison
August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901
(aged 67)

[77][78][79]
March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
[c]
Republican 26
(1888)
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1881–1887)
Levi P. Morton
24 Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139.jpg    Grover Cleveland
March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908
(aged 71)

[75][76]
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 27
(1892)
22nd
President of the United States
(1885–1889)
Adlai Stevenson
25 William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg    William McKinley
January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901
(aged 58)

[80][81][82]
March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
[j][k]
Republican 28
(1896)
39th
Governor of Ohio
(1892–1896)
Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
[d]
Vacant
November 21, 1899March 4, 1901
[e]
29
(1900)
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4, 1901September 14, 1901
26 T Roosevelt.jpg    Theodore Roosevelt
October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919
(aged 60)

[83][84][85]
September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
[g]
Republican 25th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
[e]
30
(1904)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27 William Howard Taft 1909.jpg    William Howard Taft
September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930
(aged 72)

[86][87][88]
March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
[c]
Republican 31
(1908)
42nd
United States Secretary of War
(1904–1908)
James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
[d][j]
Vacant
October 30, 1912March 4, 1913
[e]
28 President Wilson 1919.jpg    Woodrow Wilson
December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924
(aged 67)

[89][90][91]
March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 32
(1912)
34th
Governor of New Jersey
(1911–1913)
Thomas R. Marshall
33
(1916)
29 Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg    Warren G. Harding
November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923
(aged 57)

[92][93][94]
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
[j][d]
Republican 34
(1920)
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–1921)
Calvin Coolidge
30 Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg    Calvin Coolidge
July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933
(aged 60)

[95][96][97]
August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929
Republican 29th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
[e]
35
(1924)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31 President Hoover portrait.tif    Herbert Hoover
August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964
(aged 90)

[98][99][100]
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
[c]
Republican 36
(1928)
3rd
United States Secretary of Commerce

(1921–1928)
Charles Curtis
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt - NARA - 535943.jpg    Franklin D. Roosevelt
January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945
(aged 63)

[101][102][103]
March 4, 1933 (1933-03-04)

April 12, 1945 (1945-04-12)
[j][d]
Democratic 37
(1932)
[n]
44th
Governor of New York
(1929–1932)
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
38
(1936)
39
(1940)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
40
(1944)
Harry S. Truman
January 20, 1945April 12, 1945
33 Harry S. Truman - NARA - 530677.tif    Harry S. Truman
May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972
(aged 88)

[104][105][106]
April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
Democratic 34th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
[e]
41
(1948)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34 President Eisenhower Portrait 1959.tif    Dwight D. Eisenhower
October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969
(aged 78)

[107][108][109]
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
[o]
Republican 42
(1952)
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
Richard Nixon
43
(1956)
35 John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg    John F. Kennedy
May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963
(aged 46)

[110][111][112]
January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
[j][k]
Democratic 44
(1960)
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
Lyndon B. Johnson
36 Lyndon B. Johnson Oval Office Portrait.tif    Lyndon B. Johnson
August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973
(aged 64)

[113][114]
November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
Democratic 37th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
[e]
45
(1964)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37 Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.tif    Richard Nixon
January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994
(aged 81)

[115][116][117]
January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
[f]
Republican 46
(1968)
36th
Vice President of the United States
(1953–1961)
Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
[f]
47
(1972)
 
Vacant
October 10, 1973December 6, 1973
[e]
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
38 Gerald Ford - NARA - 530680.tif    Gerald Ford
July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006
(aged 93)

[118][119][120]
August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
[c][p]
Republican 40th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
August 9, 1974December 19, 1974
[e]
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39 JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg    Jimmy Carter
Born: (1924-10-01) October 1, 1924 (age 91)
[121][122][123]
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
[c]
Democratic 48
(1976)
76th
Governor of Georgia
(1971–1975)
Walter Mondale
40 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg    Ronald Reagan
February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004
(aged 93)

[124][125][126]
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Republican 49
(1980)
33rd
Governor of California
(1967–1975)
George H. W. Bush
50
(1984)
41 George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg    George H. W. Bush
Born: (1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 92)
[127][128][129]
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
[c]
Republican 51
(1988)
43rd
Vice President of the United States
Dan Quayle
42 Bill Clinton.jpg    Bill Clinton
Born: (1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 69)
[130][131][132]
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 52
(1992)
40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981, 1983–1992)
Al Gore
53
(1996)
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg    George W. Bush
Born: (1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 70)
[133][134]
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
Republican 54
(2000)
46th
Governor of Texas
(1995–2000)
Dick Cheney
55
(2004)
44 President Barack Obama.jpg    Barack Obama
Born: (1961-08-04) August 4, 1961 (age 54)
[135][136]
January 20, 2009

Incumbent
Democratic 56
(2008)
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(2005–2008)
Joe Biden
57
(2012)

Living former presidents

Currently, there are four living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (1974–77) on December 26, 2006, aged 93 years, 165 days. The most recently serving president to die was Ronald Reagan (1981–89) on June 5, 2004, aged 93 years, 120 days. Living former U.S. Presidents (in order of service) are:

(From Left:) President Obama with former presidents George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Center at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas in April 2013

Timeline

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ Instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, George Washington's first-term inaugural was postponed 57 days (1 month and 27 days) to April 30, 1789, because the U.S. Congress had not yet achieved a quorum.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Unseated (lost re-election).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office of natural causes.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no mechanism by which a vacancy in the Vice Presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  6. ^ a b c Resigned.
  7. ^ a b c Later sought election or re-election to a non-consecutive term.
  8. ^ Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "acting president", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  9. ^ Former Democrat who ran for vice president on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office
  11. ^ a b c d Assassinated.
  12. ^ a b Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  13. ^ Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.
  14. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect in 1933, moving the 1937 inauguration day from March 4 to January 20, and shortening this term by 43 days.
  15. ^ Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution from seeking a third term.
  16. ^ Sought an election for a full term, but was unsuccessful

References

  1. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  2. ^ "Excerpts from "Forgotten Presidents" – The Patriots Handbook, by George Grant". Harrold.org. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  3. ^ Cleaves, Freeman (1939). Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 152. 
  4. ^ Ingersoll, Jared. "Death of the President". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  5. ^ Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove – Warren G. Harding in His Times. Easton Press. p. 591. ISBN 0070543380. 
  6. ^ a b Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard", Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  7. ^ Donald (1996), p. 597.
  8. ^ "Big Ben Parker and President McKinley's Assassination". Math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  10. ^ "Obama wins historic US election". BBC. November 5, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  11. ^ The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  12. ^ "George Washington – no Political Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  13. ^ "Life Portrait of George Washington". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  14. ^ "George Washington's views on political parties in America | Washington Times Communities". Communities.washingtontimes.com. 2012-03-09. Retrieved January 2, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  16. ^ "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  18. ^ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  20. ^ "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  21. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  22. ^ "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Life Portrait of James Madison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  24. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  25. ^ "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Life Portrait of James Monroe". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  27. ^ "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  28. ^ "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Life Portrait of John Quincy Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  30. ^ "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Life Portrait of Andrew Jackson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  33. ^ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  36. ^ "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  37. ^ "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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