Press Council of India
The Press Council of India is a statutory, adjudicating organization in India formed in 1966 by its parliament. It is the self-regulatory watchdog of the press, for the press and by the press, that operates under the Press Council Act of 1978. The Council has a chairman – traditionally, a retired Supreme Court judge, and 28 additional members of which 20 are members of media, nominated by the newspapers, television channels and other media outlets operating in India. In the 28 member council, 5 are members of the lower house (Lok Sabha) and upper house (Rajya Sabha) of the Indian parliament.
Code of Ethics
The Press Council of India has issued the "Norms of Journalistic Conduct", which is one of two journalism-related codes in use in India.
The Press Council of India accepts complaints against and by the press in matters relating to a journalist's or media organization's ethical failures. According to Kartik Sharma, the Council can investigate and issue a report. It also can "warn, admonish, censure or disapprove" those it finds at fault, but it has no powers to enforce nor impose any penalty on individual journalists and publications.
The Press Council of India conducted a limited study of the widespread practice of "paid news" in India in 2010. In a report issued in July 2010, it stated that "paid news" is a pervasive, structured and highly organized practice in Indian newspapers and other media outlets, where news space and favorable coverage is exchanged for money. It wrote, "paid news is a complex phenomenon and has acquired different forms over the last six decades [1950–2010]. It ranges from accepting gifts on various occasions, foreign and domestic junkets [trips], various monetary and non-monetary benefits, besides direct payment of money. Another form of paid news that has been brought to the notice of the Press Council of India by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is in the form of “private treaties” between media companies and corporate entities. Private treaty is a formal agreement between the media company and another non-media company in which the latter transfers certain shares of the company to the former in lieu of advertisement space and favorable coverage."
The 2010 investigation was limited to the 2009 elections by the Press Council of India. It found substantial evidence of corrupt practices and collusion between the Indian media, various politicians and political parties. It ruled that newspapers should not carry articles that report "enmity or hatred between people on the ground of religion, race, caste, community or language", refrain from critical statements on "personal character and conduct of a political candidate", refuse financial or indirect forms of compensation for political coverage among other voluntary guidelines.
- Kartik Sharma (2009). Freedom of the Press: Using the Law to Defend Journalists. Socio Legal Information. pp. 46–48. ISBN 978-81-89479-59-6.
- Bardhan, Nilanjana; Sri Ramesh, Krishnamurthy (2006). "Public Relations in India Review of a Programme of Research". Journal of Creative Communications. SAGE Publications. 1 (1): 39–60. doi:10.1177/097325860500100103., Quote: "The Press Council of India is the most prominent official watchdog for the print media protecting newspapers as well as news agencies"
- Press Council of India, Introduction, National Informatics Centre, Government of India (2017)
- Press Council of India reconstituted, The Hindu (May 31 2018)
- "Current Composition". Press Council of India. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- "Previous Chairpersons". Press Council of India. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- Wasserman, Herman; Rao, Shakuntala (2008). "The glocalization of journalism ethics". Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism. SAGE Publications. 9 (2): 163–181. doi:10.1177/1464884907086873.
- Report on Paid News, The Press Council of India (July 30 2010)