Intermittent mandatory ventilation

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Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (IMV) refers to any mode of mechanical ventilation where a regular series of breaths are scheduled but the ventilator senses patient effort and reschedules mandatory breaths based on the calculated need of the patient. Similar to continuous mandatory ventilation in parameters set for the patients pressures and volumes but distinct in its ability to support a patient by either supporting their own effort or providing support when patient effort is not sensed. IMV is frequently paired with additional strategies to improve weaning from ventilator support or to improve cardiovascular stability in patients who may need full life support.

Synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation (SIMV)[edit]

Synchronized Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation is a variation of IMV, in which the ventilator breaths are synchronized with patient inspiratory effort.[1][2] SIMV, with and without pressure support has not been shown to have any advantages over continuous mandatory ventilation (CMV) in terms of mortality[3] or weaning success,[4] and has been shown to result in longer weaning times when compared to t-piece trials or gradual reductions in pressure support.[5][6][7] Some studies have shown an increase in patient work of breathing when switched from CMV to SIMV,[8][9] and others[10] have demonstrated potential detrimental effects of SIMV on respiratory muscles and respiratory drive.

Mandatory minute ventilation (MMV)[edit]

Mandatory minute ventilation is a mode which requires the operator to determine what the appropriate minute ventilation for the patient should be, and the ventilator then monitors the patient's ability to generate this volume every 7.5 seconds. If the calculation suggests the volume target will not be met, SIMV breaths are delivered at the targeted volume to achieve the desired minute ventilation.[11] Allows spontaneous breathing with automatic adjustments of mandatory ventilation to the meet the patient’s preset minimum minute volume requirement. If the patient maintains the minute volume settings for VT x f, no mandatory breaths are delivered. If the patient's minute volume is insufficient, mandatory delivery of the preset tidal volume will occur until the minute volume is achieved. The method for monitoring whether or not the patient is meeting the required minute ventilation (VE) is different per ventilator brand and model, but generally there is a window of time being monitored and a smaller window being checked against that larger window (i.e., in the Dräger Evita® line of mechanical ventilators there is a moving 20-second window and every 7 seconds the current tidal volume and rate are measured against to make a decision for if a mechanical breath is needed to maintain the minute ventilation). MMV is the most optimal mode for weaning in neonatal and pediatric populations and has been shown to reduce long term complications related to mechanical ventilation.[11]

Proportional assist ventilation (PAV)[edit]

Proportional assist ventilation is a mode in which the ventilator guarantees the percentage of work regardless of changes in pulmonary compliance and resistance.[12] The ventilator varies the tidal volume and pressure based on the patients work of breathing, the amount it delivers is proportional to the percentage of assistance it is set to give.

Adaptive support ventilation (ASV)[edit]

Adaptive Support Ventilation is a positive pressure mode of mechanical ventilation that is closed-loop controlled. In this mode, the frequency and tidal volume of breaths of a patient on the ventilator are automatically adjusted based on the patient’s requirements. The lung mechanics data are used to adjust the depth and rate of breaths to minimize the work rate of breathing. In the ASV mode, every breath is synchronized with patient effort if such an effort exists, and otherwise, full mechanical ventilation is provided to the patient.

ASV is a patented technology originally described as one of the embodiments of US Patent No. 4986268.[13] In this invention, the control algorithm computes the optimal rate of respiration to minimize the work rate of breathing. The rationale is to make the patient's breathing pattern comfortable and natural within safe limits, and thereby stimulate spontaneous breathing and reduce the weaning time.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sassoon CS, Del Rosario N, Fei R, et al. Influence of pressure- and flow-triggered synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation on inspiratory muscle work. Crit Care Med 1994; 22:1933.
  2. ^ Christopher KL, Neff TA, Bowman JL, et al. Demand and continuous flow intermittent mandatory ventilation systems" Chest 1985; 87:625.
  3. ^ Ortiz, G; Frutos-Vivar, F; Ferguson, ND; Esteban, A; Raymondos, K; Apezteguía, C; Hurtado, J; González, M; Tomicic, V; Elizalde, J; Abroug, F; Arabi, Y; Pelosi, P; Anzueto, A; Ventila Group (Jun 2010). "Outcomes of patients ventilated with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with pressure support: a comparative propensity score study.". Chest. 137 (6): 1265–77. doi:10.1378/chest.09-2131. PMID 20022967. 
  4. ^ Jounieaux, V; Duran, A; Levi-Valensi, P (Apr 1994). "Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with and without pressure support ventilation in weaning patients with COPD from mechanical ventilation.". Chest. 105 (4): 1204–10. doi:10.1378/chest.105.4.1204. PMID 8162750. 
  5. ^ Boles, JM; Bion, J; Connors, A; Herridge, M; Marsh, B; Melot, C; Pearl, R; Silverman, H; Stanchina, M; Vieillard-Baron, A; Welte, T (May 2007). "Weaning from mechanical ventilation.". The European Respiratory Journal. 29 (5): 1033–56. doi:10.1183/09031936.00010206. PMID 17470624. 
  6. ^ Brochard, L; L Brochard; A Rauss; S Benito; G Conti; J Mancebo; N Rekik; A Gasparetto; F Lemaire (1 October 1994). "Comparison of three methods of gradual withdrawal from ventilatory support during weaning from mechanical ventilation.". Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 150 (4): 896–903. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.150.4.7921460. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  7. ^ Esteban, A; Frutos, F; Tobin, MJ; Alía, I; Solsona, JF; Valverdú, I; Fernández, R; de la Cal, MA; Benito, S; Tomás, R (Feb 9, 1995). "A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group.". The New England Journal of Medicine. 332 (6): 345–50. doi:10.1056/NEJM199502093320601. PMID 7823995. 
  8. ^ Marini, JJ; Smith, TC; Lamb, VJ (Nov 1988). "External work output and force generation during synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation. Effect of machine assistance on breathing effort.". The American review of respiratory disease. 138 (5): 1169–79. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/138.5.1169. PMID 3202477. 
  9. ^ Imsand, C; Feihl, F; Perret, C; Fitting, JW (Jan 1994). "Regulation of inspiratory neuromuscular output during synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation.". Anesthesiology. 80 (1): 13–22. doi:10.1097/00000542-199401000-00006. PMID 8291702. 
  10. ^ Leung, P; Jubran, A; Tobin, MJ (Jun 1997). "Comparison of assisted ventilator modes on triggering, patient effort, and dyspnea.". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 155 (6): 1940–8. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.155.6.9196100. PMID 9196100. 
  11. ^ a b Scott O. Guthrie; Chris Lynn; Bonnie J. Lafleur; Steven M. Donn; William F. Walsh (October 2005). "A crossover analysis of mandatory minute ventilation compared to synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates". Journal of perinatology. 25 (10): 643–646. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211371. PMID 16079905. 
  12. ^ Younes M. Proportional assist ventilation, a new approach to ventilatory support. Theory. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145(1):114-120.
  13. ^ Tehrani, Fleur T., "Method and Apparatus for Controlling an Artificial Resirator," US Patent No. 4986268, issued Jan. 22, 1991.