Pressure vessels can be dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country.
Design involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature, safety factor, corrosion allowance and minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture). Construction is tested using nondestructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests. Hydrostatic tests use water, but pneumatic tests use air or another gas. Hydrostatic testing is preferred, because it is a safer method, as much less energy is released if a fracture occurs during the test (water does not rapidly increase its volume when rapid depressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, which fail explosively).
In most countries, vessels over a certain size and pressure must be built to a formal code. In the United States that code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). In Europe the code is the Pressure Equipment Directive. Information on this page is mostly valid in ASME only. These vessels also require an authorized inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and each vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel, such as maximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal temperature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (through the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp). The nameplate makes the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
A special application is pressure vessels for human occupancy, for which more stringent safety rules apply.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels was described in 1495 in the book by Leonardo da Vinci, the Codex Madrid I, in which containers of pressurized air were theorized to lift heavy weights underwater. However, vessels resembling those used today did not come about until the 1800s, when steam was generated in boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution. However, with poor material quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occurring on a nearly daily basis in the United States. Local provinces and states in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some particularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a time, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules from one location to another. The first pressure vessel code was developed starting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pressures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel wire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with lengthwise high-tensile rods. The need for high pressure and temperature vessels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined with welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temperatures required) and in the 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptable means of construction; welding is the main means of joining metal vessels today.
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering such as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronger materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding, friction stir welding, advanced theories and means of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as with the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer and more efficiently. Today, vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries, such as Japan, Australia, Canada, Britain, and Europe. Regardless of the country, nearly all recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for standards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of sections of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually employed. A common design is a cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes are frequently either hemispherical or dished (torispherical). More complicated shapes have historically been much harder to analyze for safe operation and are usually far more difficult to construct.
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness, and is the ideal shape to hold internal pressure. However, a spherical shape is difficult to manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylindrical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure vessels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for the shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestructive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pressure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spherical pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded together. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, could be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In addition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of steel with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion resistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound composite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high tensile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much more difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal liner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prevent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. This liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pressure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel. Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size limitations". There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large number of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
The very small vessels used to make liquid butane fueled cigarette lighters are subjected to about 2 bar pressure, depending on ambient temperature. These vessels are often oval (1 x 2 cm ... 1.3 x 2.5 cm) in cross section but sometimes circular. The oval versions generally include one or two internal tension struts which appear to be baffles but which also provide additional cylinder strength.
- Link to image of a carbon-fiber composite gas cylinder, showing construction details
- Link to image of a carbon-fiber composite oxygen cylinder for an industrial breathing set
The typical circular-cylindrical high pressure gas cylinders for permanent gases (that do not liquify at storing pressure, like air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, helium) have been manufactured by hot forging by pressing and rolling to get a seamless steel vessel.
Working pressure of cylinders for use in industry, skilled craft, diving and medicine had a standardized working pressure (WP) of only 150 bars (2,200 psi) in Europe until about 1950. From about 1975 until now, the standard pressure is 200 bars (2,900 psi). Firemen need slim, lightweight cylinders to move in confined spaces; since about 1995 cylinders for 300 bars (4,400 psi) WP were used (first in pure steel).
A demand for reduced weight led to different generations of composite (fiber and matrix, over a liner) cylinders that are more easily damageable by a hit from outside. Therefore, composite cylinders are usually built for 300 bars (4,400 psi).
Hydraulic (filled with water) testing pressure is usually 50% higher than the working pressure.
Until 1990, high pressure cylinders were produced with conical (tapered) threads. Two types of threads have dominated the full metal cylinders in industrial use from 0.2 to 50 litres (0.0071 to 1.7657 cu ft) in volume. Taper thread (17E), with a 12% taper right hand thread, standard Whitworth 55° form with a pitch of 14 threads per inch (5.5 threads per cm) and pitch diameter at the top thread of the cylinder of 18.036 millimetres (0.71 in). These connections are sealed using thread tape and torqued to between 120 and 150 newton metres (89 and 111 lbf⋅ft) on steel cylinders, and between 75 and 140 N⋅m (55 and 103 lbf⋅ft) on aluminium cylinders. To screw in the valve, a high torque of typically 200 N⋅m (150 lbf⋅ft) is necessary for the larger 25E taper thread, and 100 N⋅m (74 lbf⋅ft) for the smaller 17E thread. Until around 1950, hemp was used as a sealant. Later, a thin sheet of lead pressed to a hat with a hole on top was used. Since 2005, PTFE-tape has been used to avoid using lead.[clarification needed]
A tapered thread provides simple assembly, but requires high torque for connecting and leads to high radial forces in the vessel neck. All cylinders built for 300 bar (4,400 psi) working pressure, all diving cylinders, and all composite cylinders use parallel threads.
Parallel threads are made to several standards:
- M25x2 ISO parallel thread, which is sealed by an O-ring and torqued to 100 to 130 N⋅m (74 to 96 lbf⋅ft) on steel, and 95 to 130 N⋅m (70 to 96 lbf⋅ft) on aluminium cylinders;
- M18x1.5 parallel thread, which is sealed by an O-ring, and torqued to 100 to 130 N⋅m (74 to 96 lbf⋅ft) on steel cylinders, and 85 to 100 N⋅m (63 to 74 lbf⋅ft) on aluminium cylinders;
- 3/4"x14 BSP parallel thread, which has a 55° Whitworth thread form, a pitch diameter of 25.279 millimetres (0.9952 in) and a pitch of 14 threads per inch (1.814 mm);
- 3/4"x14 NGS (NPSM) parallel thread, sealed by an O-ring, torqued to 40 to 50 N⋅m (30 to 37 lbf⋅ft) on aluminium cylinders, which has a 60° thread form, a pitch diameter of 0.9820 to 0.9873 in (24.94 to 25.08 mm), and a pitch of 14 threads per inch (5.5 threads per cm);
- 3/4"x16 UNF, sealed by an O-ring, torqued to 40 to 50 N⋅m (30 to 37 lbf⋅ft) on aluminium cylinders.
- 7/8"x14 UNF, sealed by an O-ring.
The 3/4"NGS and 3/4"BSP are very similar, having the same pitch and a pitch diameter that only differs by about 0.2 mm (0.008 in), but they are not compatible, as the thread forms are different.
All parallel thread valves are sealed using an elastomer O-ring at top of the neck thread which seals in a chamfer or step in the cylinder neck and against the flange of the valve.
Development of composite vessels
To classify the different making principles of composite cylinders 4 types are defined.
- Type 1 – Full Metal: Cylinder is fully made from metal.
- Type 2 – Hoop Wrap: Metal cylinder, reinforced by a belt-like hoop wrap with fibre-material. The spherical bottom and head of a cylindrical cylinder withstand by geometrical reasons twice the pressure as the cylindrical shell (uniform metal wall thickness assumed).
- Type 3 – Fully Wrapped, over Metal Liner: Diagonally wrapped fibres build up the pressure resisting wall even at the bottom and around the metal neck. The metal liner is thin and makes the vessel gas tight.
- Type 4 – Fully Wrapped, over Non-Metal Liner: A typical lightweight thermoplast liner builds up the (very) gas tight barrier, and the (somewhat inflated) bobbin to wrap fibres and matrix (polyester or epoxy resin) around. Only the neck and its anchor fitting to the liner is still made of metal, lightweight aluminium or sturdy stainless steel.
Type 2 and 3 cylinders came up around 1995. Type 4 cylinders are commercially available at least from 2016 on.
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and reducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the operating pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either require pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not shown to be leak before burst.
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide quick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration systems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel. A commonly used access hole shape is elliptical, which allows the closure to be passed through the opening, and rotated into the working position, and is held in place by a bar on the outside, secured by a central bolt. The internal pressure prevents it from being inadvertently opened under load.
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receivers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactors, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and petrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats, pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrake reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquified gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner: the outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressurization loads.
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure vessels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where the following may be used:
- Gravity-controlled systems which typically consist of an unpressurized water tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of water head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typically around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
- Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the strength to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as strength increases).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile forces within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inversely proportional to the thickness of the walls. Therefore, pressure vessels are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pressure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stress of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies with the tank shape but depends on the density, ρ, and maximum allowable stress σ of the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See below for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
- is mass, (kg)
- is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pressure), (Pa)
- is volume,
- is the density of the pressure vessel material, (kg/m^3)
- is the maximum working stress that material can tolerate. (Pa)
Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can approach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
- R is the radius (m)
- W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R (m)
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pressurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at a given temperature, thus
- . (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to stored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressure, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a pressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape constant, carbon fiber for best possible , and very cold helium for best possible .
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
where is hoop stress, or stress in the circumferential direction, is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 10 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
- is hoop stress, or stress in the circumferential direction
- is stress in the longitudinal direction
- p is internal gauge pressure
- r is the inner radius of the cylinder
- t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two formulas with additional empirical terms to account for variation of stresses across thickness, quality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances. All formulae mentioned above assume uniform distribution of membrane stresses across thickness of shell but in reality, that is not the case. Deeper analysis is given by Lame's theory. The formulae of pressure vessel design standards are extension of Lame's theory by putting some limit on ratio of inner radius and thickness.
Spherical shells: Thickness has to be less than 0.356 times inner radius
Cylindrical shells: Thickness has to be less than 0.5 times inner radius
where E is the joint efficiency, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving for pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential direction to the longitudinal.
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (PED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd, Det Norske Veritas, Société Générale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd’s Register Energy Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any incompressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to the potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible part such as gas is used.
List of standards
- EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
- ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels.
- BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but retained under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
- AD Merkblätter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive.
- EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air tanks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
- BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics.
- ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
- CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
- AS/NZS 1200: Australian and New Zealand Standard for the requirements of Pressure equipment including Pressure Vessels, boilers and pressure piping.
- AS 1210: Australian Standard for the design and construction of Pressure Vessels
- AS/NZS 3788: Australian and New Zealand Standard for the inspection of pressure vessels 
- API 510.
- ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders
- IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
- FRP tanks and vessels.
- AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
- AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs).
- ECSS-E-ST-32-02C Rev.1: Space engineering - Structural design and verification of pressurized hardware
- B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
- HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
- Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as RToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
- Tube tool
- American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
- Bottled gas – Substances which are gaseous at standard temperature and pressure and have been compressed and stored in gas cylinders
- Composite overwrapped pressure vessel – A vessel consisting of a thin, non-structural liner wrapped with a structural fiber composite, designed to hold a fluid under pressure
- Compressed air energy storage
- Compressed natural gas
- Fire-tube boiler
- Gas cylinder – Cylindrical container for storing pressurised gas
- Gasket – Type of mechanical seal
- Head (vessel) – End cap on a cylindrically shaped pressure vessel
- Minimum design metal temperature (MDMT)
- Vapor–liquid separator or Knock-out drum
- Scholander pressure bomb – a device for measuring leaf water potentials
- Rainwater harvesting – Accumulation of rainwater for reuse
- Relief valve
- Safety valve – Device for releasing excess pressure in a system
- Shell and tube heat exchanger
- Vortex breaker
- Water well
- Water-tube boiler
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- ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components, §5.1
- Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
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- For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2σ, where r is the radius of the tank. The volume of the spherical surface then is 4πr2d = 4πr3P/2σ. The mass is determined by multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spherical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4πr3)/3. Combining these equations give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in a similar manner
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