Preston (UK Parliament constituency)

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Preston
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Preston in Lancashire.
Outline map
Location of Lancashire within England.
CountyLancashire
Electorate61,025 (December 2010)[1]
Major settlementsPreston
Current constituency
Created1983
Member of parliamentSir Mark Hendrick (Labour Co-op)
Number of membersOne
Created fromPreston North, Preston South
1529–1950
Number of membersTwo
Replaced byPreston North, Preston South
1295–unknown
Overlaps
European Parliament constituencyNorth West England

Preston is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2000 by Sir Mark Hendrick, a member of the Labour Party and Co-operative Party.[n 2]

History[edit]

1295-1950

The seat was created for the Model Parliament and sent members until at least 1331 until a new (possibly confirmatory) grant of two members to Westminster followed. From 1529 extending unusually beyond the 19th century until the 1950 general election the seat had two-member representation. Party divisions tended to run stronger after 1931 before which two different parties' candidates frequently came first and second at elections under the bloc vote system.

In 1929 recently elected Liberal, Sir William Jowitt decided to join the Labour Party and called for a by-election (which implies a single vacancy) to support this change of party which he won to take up for two years the position of Attorney General of England and Wales as part of the Government. He became the highest judge during the Attlee Ministry, the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain and Speaker of the House of Lords under a then hereditary-dominated House leading to a Conservative majority. Consequently, he was selected to be elevated to a peerage as 1st Earl Jowitt. With no sons, he was to be the last Earl and wrote the Dictionary of English Law.

1950-1983

Preston was abolished as a constituency by the House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act 1949 being replaced by Preston North and Preston South constituencies.

1983–present

The representatives since the seat's revival after 33 years of being split between (larger area) North and South seats have all been members of the Labour Party.

The member from 1987-2000 was Audrey Wise, a member of the Socialist Campaign Group and reformer of maternity healthcare in opposition on the Select Committee.

Boundaries[edit]

1983-1997: The Borough of Preston wards of Ashton, Avenham, Brookfield, Central, Deepdale, Fishwick, Ingol, Larches, Moorbrook, Park, Ribbleton, St John's, St Matthew's, and Tulketh.

1997-2010: The Borough of Preston wards of Ashton, Avenham, Brookfield, Central, Deepdale, Fishwick, Larches, Moor Park, Ribbleton, Riversway, St Matthew's, and Tulketh, and the Borough of South Ribble wards of Bamber Bridge Central, Bamber Bridge South, and Walton-le-Dale.

2010–present: The City of Preston wards of Ashton, Brookfield, Deepdale, Fishwick, Ingol, Larches, Moor Park, Ribbleton, Riversway, St George's, St Matthew's, Town Centre, Tulketh, and University.

The composition of the Preston constituency was confirmed in time for the United Kingdom general election, 2010 as part of the Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies. While it previously crossed the River Ribble to include Bamber Bridge and Walton-le-Dale from South Ribble District, the seat now falls within the City boundaries.

History[edit]

In the late 19th Century the boundaries of the two-member Preston constituency were described as comprising:[2]

...[T]he old Borough of Preston, the township of Fishwick, so much of the Municipal Borough as is not included in the Parliamentary Borough, the Local Government District of Fulwood, and so much of the parishes of Lea, Ashton, Ingol, and Cotham {sic}, and Penwortham, as will be added to the Municipal Borough of Preston on June 1st, 1889

In the Representation of the People Act, 1918 the boundaries of the two-member constituency were described as the:

County borough of Preston and urban district of Fulwood:[3]

The single seat of Preston formed from 1918 until 1949 was created by the County Borough of Preston and Urban District of Fulwood. From the general election of 1950 to the 1983 Preston was divided into the constituencies of Preston North and Preston South. In time for the 1983 general election, the boundaries on which the current seat is drawn were confirmed. The northern, Fulwood area, was divided between Fylde and Ribble Valley.

Changes for 2010[edit]

The ward of Lea is within the constituency of Fylde.

The wards of Preston Rural North, Preston Rural East and the Fulwood wards (Cadley, College, Garrison, Greyfriars and Sharoe Green) are within the constituency of Wyre and Preston North. By the end of the review, the newly recommended Preston constituency had the smallest number of voters of an English constituency based on 2006 electorates.[4]

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1295–1640[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1295 Willielmus fil' (filius) Pauli Adam Russel
1298 Adam fil' Radulfi Adam de Biri
1300/1 Willielmus fil' Paulini
1304/5 Robertus fil' Willelmi de Preston Hernricus fil' Willelmi del Tounhende
1306/7 Robertus fil' Rogeri Ricardus Banastre
1307 Henricus del Krykestyle Ricardus Banastre
1326/7 Laurencius Travers Willelmus de Graistok
1327 (Nov) John Stakky Henry Banastre
1328/9 (Feb) Willielmus fil' Paulini Nicholaus de Preston
1330 (Nov) William fitz Paul Henry de Haydock
1331 (Sep) Johannes fil' Galfridi Willielmus fil' Johannis
1331–1529 No returns
1529 Cristoferus Heydock James Walton[5]
1536–1545 No returns
1545 Sir Ralph Sadler John Bourne[5]
1547 George Frevil John Hales[5]
1552/3 (Mar) Anthony Browne Thomas Fleetwood[5]
1553 (Oct) William Gerard Anthony Browne[5]
1554 (Apr) Thomas Ruthall Willielmus Berners[5]
1554 (Nov) Richard Shyrburne John Sylyard[5]
1555 John Arundell John Herle[5]
1557/8 Richard Sherbourne Robert Southwell[5]
1559 (Jan) Robert Aalford Francis Goldsmith, sat for Helston,
repl, by
Richard Cooke[6]
1562/3 Gilbert Moreton James Hodgkinson[6]
1571 Edward Baeshe Reginald Williams[6]
1572 James Hodgkinson George Horsey[6]
1584 (Nov) William Fleetwood Thomas Cromwell[6]
1586 John Brograve Sir Thomas Hesketh[6]
1588 (Oct) Sir Thomas Hesketh Michael Doughty[6]
1593 James Dalton Thomas Bulbeck[6]
1597 (Oct) John Brograve Sir John Stanhope[6]
1601 (Oct) John Brograve William Waad[6]
1604-1611 Sir Vincent Skinner William Holte
1614 Sir Edward Mosley Henry Banister
1621-1622 Sir Edward Mosley Sir William Pooley
1624 Sir Edward Mosley Sir William Pooley, sat for Sudbury,
repl. by
Sir William Hervey
1625 Sir William Hervey Henry Banister
1626 George Garrard Thomas Fanshawe
1628 Robert Carre George Garrard
1629-1640 No Parliaments summoned

MPs 1640–1950[edit]

Year First member[7] First party Second member[7] Second party
April 1640 Richard Shuttleworth Parliamentarian Thomas Standish Parliamentarian
November 1640
November 1642 Standish died November 1642 - seat vacant
1645 William Langton
December 1648 Shuttleworth excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant Langton not recorded as sitting after Pride's Purge
1653 Preston was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Colonel Richard Shuttleworth Preston had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Colonel Richard Standish
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 Alexander Rigby Richard Standish
August 1660 Edward Rigby Edward Fleetwood
1661 Geoffrey Rishton
1667 John Otway
February 1679 Sir Robert Carr
April 1679 Sir John Otway
1681 Sir Robert Carr Sir Gervase Elwes
April 1685 Sir Thomas Chicheley[8] Edward Fleetwood
June 1685 Hon. Andrew Newport Tory
1689 James Stanley Thomas Patten
March 1690 Lord Willoughby de Eresby Christopher Greenfield
December 1690 Sir Edward Chisenhall
1695 Sir Thomas Stanley Thomas Molyneux
1698 Henry Ashhurst
January 1701 Edward Rigby
December 1701 Thomas Molyneux
1702 Charles Zedenno Stanley Sir Cyril Wyche
1705 Francis Annesley Edward Rigby
1706 Arthur Maynwaring
1708 Henry Fleetwood
1710 Sir Henry Hoghton
1713 Edward Southwell
1715 Sir Henry Hoghton
1722 Daniel Pulteney Thomas Hesketh
1727 Sir Henry Hoghton
1732 Nicholas Fazackerley
1741 James Shuttleworth
1754 Edmund Starkie
1767 Sir Peter Leicester
April 1768[9] Sir Frank Standish
November 1768 Brigadier John Burgoyne[10] Whig Sir Henry Hoghton Tory[11]
1792 William Shawe Non-partisan[11]
1795 Sir Henry Hoghton Whig[11]
1796 Edward Smith-Stanley Whig[11]
1802 John Horrocks Tory[11]
1804 Samuel Horrocks Tory[11]
1812 Edmund Hornby Whig[11]
1826 Hon. Edward Smith-Stanley Whig[11] John Wood Whig[11]
December 1830 Henry Hunt Radical[11]
1832 (Sir) Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood Conservative[11] Hon. Henry Stanley Whig[11]
1837 Whig[11] Robert Townley Parker Conservative[11]
1841 Sir George Strickland Whig[11][12][13][14]
1847 Charles Grenfell Whig[15][16][17]
1852 Robert Townley Parker Conservative[11]
1857 Charles Grenfell Whig[15][16][17] R. A. Cross Conservative
1859 Liberal
1862 by-election Sir Thomas Hesketh[18] Conservative
1865 Hon. Frederick Stanley Conservative
1868 Edward Hermon Conservative
1872 by-election (Sir) John Holker Conservative
1881 by-election William Farrer Ecroyd Conservative
February 1882 by-election Henry Cecil Raikes Conservative
November 1882 by-election (Sir) William Tomlinson[19] Conservative
1885 Robert William Hanbury Conservative
1903 by-election John Kerr Conservative
1906 John Thomas Macpherson Labour Harold Cox Liberal
January 1910 Major the Hon. George Stanley Conservative Alfred Aspinall Tobin Conservative
1915 by-election Urban H. Broughton Conservative
1918 Thomas Shaw Labour
1922 James Philip Hodge Liberal
1924 Alfred Ravenscroft Kennedy Conservative
1929 Sir William Jowitt Liberal
1929 by-election Labour
1931 Adrian Moreing Conservative William Kirkpatrick Conservative
1936 by-election Edward Cobb Conservative
1940 by-election Randolph Churchill Conservative
1945 John William Sunderland Labour Samuel Segal Labour
1946 by-election Edward Shackleton Labour

MPs since 1983[edit]

Election Member[7] Party Notes
1983 Stan Thorne Labour Previously MP for Preston South 1974-1983
1987 Audrey Wise Labour Previously MP for Coventry South West 1974-1979. Died September 2000
2000 by-election Sir Mark Hendrick Labour Became a Knight Bachelor in 2018 New Year Honours

Overview[edit]

Representatives have sat in Parliament for Preston for nearly 800 years, the first recorded names being Willielmus fil' Pauli and Adam Russel. Prior to being reformed as "Preston" in 1983, the former Preston North and Preston South seats were amongst the most marginal in the country - in 1979, Conservative Robert Atkins won Preston North by 29 votes.

With the suburban, middle class former Fulwood Urban District area within Ribble Valley (and from 2010 Wyre and Preston North), the southern portion has awarded MPs with much healthier and secure majorities. Almost all of Preston's representatives from 1915 to 1950, and since its recreation as a single constituency in 1983, have been Labour candidates.

Between 1918 and 1949, the two-seat constituency of Preston was formed by the County Borough of Preston and the Urban District of Fulwood. In 1997, Audrey Wise secured a majority of over 18,000. The collapse of the Conservative vote - 10 percentage points down from 1992 - was firmly with the pattern of the Tory fortunes in that year.

The death of Audrey Wise in 2000 triggered a by-election. At that Preston by-election, Mark Hendrick, former Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Lancashire Central constituency with Preston at its heart, secured a victory with a 4,400 majority. The surprise of the night was the result of the fledgling Socialist Alliance, for whom Terry Cartright saved his deposit.

Less than a year later, the 2001 general election returned Mark Hendrick with a much healthier 12,200 majority, up against South Ribble councillor Graham O'Hare for the Conservatives and the then local Liberal Democrat leader Bill Chadwick. In real terms, all three main parties lost support from 1997 - Labour down by over 8,000 votes, Conservatives reduced by over 2,200 and LibDems 2,300 lower. One notable candidate in 2001 was David Braid, also a candidate in a number of other seats that year, who had been the "Battle for Britain" candidate in the previous year's by-election.

The 2005 general election was notable for the changes in share of the vote of the minor parties. The first ever Respect candidate, local councillor Michael Lavalette, firmly saved his deposit with nearly 7% of the vote. The Liberal Democrats had chosen former Conservative County Councillor William Parkinson, and had their best result since 1997. Fiona Bryce for the Conservatives, remained in second place seeing her share of the vote remain stable despite the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) polling over 1,000 votes. Mark Hendrick secured another term as MP, although his vote total was 3,000 less than 2001 and 12,000 less than Audrey Wise in 1997.

Labour continued to represent Preston at the elections of 2010, 2015, and 2017. Whilst Mark Hendrick secured less than 50% of the votes cast in 2010, the first time this has occurred at a Preston election since 1983, subsequent results had much stronger Labour majorities. Second place went back to the Conservative Party, regaining from the Liberal Democrats who took second place for the first time in 2010.

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2017: Preston[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 24,210 68.0 +12.0
Conservative Kevin Beaty 8,487 23.8 +3.9
UKIP Simon Platt 1,348 3.8 -11.6
Liberal Democrat Neil Darby 1,204 3.4 -0.3
Green Anne Power 348 1.0 -3.9
Majority 15,723 44.2 +8.1
Turnout 35,597 61.6 +5.8
Labour Co-op hold Swing +4.0
General Election 2015: Preston[21][22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 18,755 56.0 +7.8
Conservative Richard Holden 6,688 20.0 −1.7
UKIP James Barker 5,139 15.4 +10.9
Green Gemma Christie 1,643 4.9 N/A
Liberal Democrat Jo Barton 1,244 3.7 −20.7
Majority 12,067 36.1 +12.3
Turnout 33,469 55.8 +3.8
Labour Co-op hold Swing +4.75
General Election 2010: Preston[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 15,668 48.2 −2.3
Liberal Democrat Mark Jewell 7,935 24.4 +7.7
Conservative Nerissa Warner-O'Neill 7,060 21.7 −1.2
UKIP Richard Muirhead 1,462 4.5 +1.4
Christian George Ambroze 272 0.8 N/A
Independent Krishna Tayya 108 0.3 N/A
Majority 7,733 23.8
Turnout 32,505 52.0 −1.8
Labour Co-op hold Swing −5.0

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Preston[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 17,210 50.5 −6.5
Conservative Fiona J. Bryce 7,803 22.9 −0.1
Liberal Democrat William R. Parkinson 5,701 16.7 +3.5
Respect Michael Lavalette 2,318 6.8 N/A
UKIP Ellen Boardman 1,049 3.1 N/A
Majority 9,407 27.6
Turnout 34,081 53.8 +4.6
Labour Co-op hold Swing −3.2
General Election 2001: Preston[25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 20,540 57.0 −3.8
Conservative Graham O'Hare 8,272 23.0 +1.0
Liberal Democrat William Chadwick 4,746 13.2 −1.5
Independent Bilal Patel 1,241 3.4 N/A
Green Richard Merrick 1,019 2.8 N/A
Independent David Franklin-Braid 223 0.6 N/A
Majority 12,268 34.0
Turnout 36,041 49.2 −16.6
Labour Co-op hold Swing
Preston by-election, 2000[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Mark Hendrick 9,765 45.7 - 15.1
Conservative Graham O'Hare 5,339 25.0 + 3.1
Liberal Democrat Bill Chadwick 3,454 16.2 + 1.5
Socialist Alliance Terry Cartwright 1,210 5.7 N/A
UKIP Gregg Beaman 458 2.1 N/A
Green Richard Merrick 441 2.1 N/A
Christian Peoples Peter Garrett 416 2.0 N/A
BNP Chris Jackson 229 1.1 N/A
Independent David Franklin-Braid 51 0.2 N/A
Majority 4,426 20.7 -18.2
Turnout 21,363 29.4
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Preston[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Audrey Wise 29,220 60.8 +6.5
Conservative Paul S. Gray 10,540 21.9 −5.9
Liberal Democrat William Chadwick 7,045 14.7 −2.5
Referendum John C. Porter 924 1.9 N/A
Natural Law John Ashforth 345 0.7 +0.0
Majority 18,680 38.9
Turnout 48,074 65.8
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1992: Preston[28][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Audrey Wise 24,983 54.3 +1.8
Conservative Simon G. O'Toole 12,808 27.8 −0.7
Liberal Democrat William Chadwick 7,897 17.2 −1.8
Natural Law Janet Aycliffe 341 0.7 N/A
Majority 12,175 26.5 +2.5
Turnout 46,029 71.7 +0.7
Labour hold Swing +1.3

Elections of the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Preston[30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Audrey Wise 23,341 52.5 +5.8
Conservative Raj Chandran 12,696 28.5 −3.3
Liberal John Wright 8,452 19.0 −2.5
Majority 10,645 24.0 +9.1
Turnout 44,489 71.0 −0.8
Labour hold Swing +4.6
General Election 1983: Preston[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Stan Thorne 21,810 46.7 N/A
Conservative Tom N. Huntley 14,832 31.8 N/A
Social Democratic Michael Connolly 10,039 21.5 N/A
Majority 6,978 14.9 N/A
Turnout 46,681 71.8 N/A
Labour win (new seat)

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

Preston by-election, 1946
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Edward Shackleton 32,189 55.6
Conservative Harmar Nicholls 25,718 44.4
Majority 6,471 11.2
Turnout 57,907
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1945: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Samuel Segal 33,053 24.2
Labour John William Sunderland 32,889 24.1
Conservative Randolph Churchill 29,129 21.4
Conservative Julian Amery 27,885 20.4
Liberal J Maurice Toulmin 8,251 6.1
Communist P.J. Devine 5,168 3.8
Majority 3,760 2.7
Turnout 77.0
Labour hold Swing
Preston by-election September 1940
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Randolph Churchill Unopposed
Conservative hold Swing

For the general election expected to take place in 1939/1940, the following candidates had been selected;

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

Preston by-election, 1936
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Edward Cobb 32,575 48.8
Labour Frank Bowles 30,970 46.4
Independent F. White 3,221 4.8
Majority 1,605 2.4
Turnout 63,746 79.0 −3.6
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1935: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Adrian Moreing 37,219 26.9
Conservative William Kirkpatrick 36,797 26.7
Labour Robert Arthur Lyster 32,225 23.3
Labour Richard Reiss 31,827 23.1
Majority 4,572 3.4
Turnout 81.9
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1931: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Kirkpatrick 46,276 32.5
Conservative Adrian Moreing 45,843 32.2
Labour Tom Shaw 25,710 18.0
Labour Edward Porter 24,660 17.3
Majority 20,133 14.2
Turnout 84.6

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

Preston by-election, 1929
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour William Jowitt 35,608 54.6
Unionist Alfred Howitt 29,168 44.8
Independent Labour S. M. Holden 410 0.6
Majority 6,440 9.8
Turnout 65,186 79.6
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1929: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Tom Shaw 37,705 29.5 +3.2
Liberal William Jowitt 31,277 24.4 -0.2
Unionist Alfred Howitt 29,116 22.8 -2.4
Unionist Charles Emmott 27,754 21.7 -2.2
Independent Labour S. M. Holden 2,111 1.6 n/a
Majority 8,589 6.7 +6.1
Turnout 78.2
Labour hold Swing
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing
General Election 1924: Preston
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Tom Shaw 27,009 26.3
Unionist Alfred Ravenscroft Kennedy 25,887 25.2
Liberal James Philip Hodge 25,327 24.6
Unionist G Barnes 24,577 23.9
Majority 0.6
Turnout 102,800
Labour hold Swing
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing
General Election 1923: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Tom Shaw 25,816 34.4
Liberal James Philip Hodge 25,155 33.6
Unionist William Kirkpatrick 23,953 32.0
Majority 1,854 2.4
Majority 1,193 1.6
Turnout 87.2
Labour hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
General Election 1922: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Tom Shaw 26,259 27.9 +2.1
Liberal James Philip Hodge 24,798 26.4 +1.6
Unionist George Frederick Stanley 22,574 24.0 −1.4
Unionist Alfred Robert MacLean Camm 20,410 21.7 −2.3
Majority 3,685 3.9 +2.9
Labour hold Swing
Majority 2,224 2.4
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing
Turnout 81.1 +16.6
Registered electors 57,953

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

  • For all General Elections from 1906 to 1929 the Liberal and Labour parties ran only one candidate each, and these candidates ran in harness.
General Election 1918: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Green tickYTom Shaw 19,213 25.8 +2.8
C Unionist Green tickYGeorge Frederick Stanley 18,970 25.4 −1.4
Liberal John O'Neill 18,485 24.8 +0.9
C Unionist Warwick Brookes 17,928 24.0 −2.3
Majority 728 1.0 N/A
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +2.1
Majority 485 0.6 −1.8
Unionist hold Swing N/A
Turnout 64.5 −24.4
Registered electors 57,795
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.
By-election, 1915: Preston[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Urban H. Broughton Unopposed
Unionist hold

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

Young
General Election December 1910: Preston (2 seats) [33][34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Frederick Stanley 9,184 26.8 −0.3
Conservative Alfred Aspinall Tobin 8,993 26.3 +0.3
Liberal Hilton Young 8,193 23.9 +6.1
Labour William Henry Carr 7,855 23.0 +1.6
Majority 800 2.4 −2.2
Turnout 88.9 −5.5
Registered electors 19,521
Conservative hold Swing −3.2
Conservative hold Swing −0.7
General Election January 1910: Preston (2 seats) [33][34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Frederick Stanley 9,526 27.1 +4.9
Conservative Alfred Aspinall Tobin 9,160 26.0 +5.1
Labour John Thomas Macpherson 7,539 21.4 −9.5
Liberal John Eldon Gorst 6,281 17.8 −8.2
Free Trader Harold Cox* 2,704 7.7 N/A
Majority 1,621 4.6 N/A
Turnout 94.4 −1.8
Registered electors 19,521
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +7.2
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.7

* Cox was replaced as Liberal candidate by Gorst - due to his frequent criticism of Liberal social policy - but chose to run independently.

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Cox
General Election 1906: Preston (2 seats) [33][35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Repr. Cmte. John Thomas Macpherson 10,181 30.9 +8.8
Liberal Harold Cox 8,538 26.0 N/A
Conservative John Kerr 7,303 22.2 −18.8
Conservative William Tomlinson 6,856 20.9 −16.0
Turnout 96.2 +19.8
Registered electors 18,626
Majority 2,878 8.8 N/A
Labour Repr. Cmte. gain from Conservative Swing +13.8
Majority 1,235 3.8 N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A
Hodge
Preston by-election, 1903 [33][35][36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Kerr 8,639 57.1 −20.8
Labour Repr. Cmte. John Hodge 6,490 42.9 +20.8
Majority 2,149 14.2 −0.6
Turnout 15,129 84.2 +7.8
Registered electors 17,973
Conservative hold Swing −20.8
By-election, 1900: Preston[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert William Hanbury Unopposed
Conservative hold
Hardie
General Election 1900: Preston (2 seats) [33][35][37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 8,944 41.0 −0.9
Conservative William Tomlinson 8,067 36.9 +1.2
Labour Repr. Cmte. Keir Hardie 4,834 22.1 N/A
Majority 3,233 14.8 +1.5
Turnout 76.4 +0.1
Registered electors 16,867
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

Tomlinson
General Election 1895: Preston (2 seats)[35][33][38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 8,928 41.9 +5.3
Conservative William Tomlinson 7,622 35.7 +0.4
Ind. Labour Party James Tattersall 4,781 22.4 N/A
Majority 2,841 13.3 +6.1
Turnout 12,508 76.3 −11.4
Registered electors 16,395
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1892: Preston (2 seats)[35][33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 8,070 36.6 +6.9
Conservative William Tomlinson 7,764 35.3 +4.7
Liberal Charles Weld-Blundell 6,182 28.1 −11.6
Majority 1,582 7.2 −2.2
Turnout 14,003 87.7 +3.8
Registered electors 15,959
Conservative hold Swing +6.4
Conservative hold Swing +5.3

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1886: Preston (2 seats)[35][33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Tomlinson 7,497 30.6 -7.9
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 7,296 29.7 -6.7
Liberal John Ormerod Pilkington 4,982 20.3 −4.8
Lib-Lab George Potter 4,771 19.4 N/A
Majority 2,314 9.4 −1.9
Turnout 12,473 (est) 83.9 -7.2
Registered electors 14,876
Conservative hold Swing −2.8
Conservative hold Swing −1.7
Russell
General Election 1885: Preston (2 seats)[35][33][39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Tomlinson 8,459 38.5 +5.8
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 7,971 36.4 +0.2
Liberal Thomas Russell 5,491 25.1 −6.0
Majority 2,480 11.3 +9.6
Turnout 13,550 (est) 91.1 −4.7 (est)
Registered electors 14,876
Conservative hold Swing +4.4
Conservative hold Swing +1.6
By-election, 25 Nov 1882: Preston (1 seat)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Tomlinson 6,351 60.4 N/A
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 4,167 39.6 N/A
Majority 2,184 20.8 N/A
Turnout 10,518 81.0 −14.8 (est)
Registered electors 12,978
Conservative hold Swing N/A
By-election, 4 Feb 1882: Preston (1 seat)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Henry Cecil Raikes 6,045 58.9 −10.0
Lib-Lab William Simpson[41] 4,212 41.1 +10.0
Majority 1,833 17.9 +16.2
Turnout 10,257 79.0 -16.8 (est)
Registered electors 12,978
Conservative hold Swing −10.0
Preston by-election, 1881 (1 seat)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Farrer Ecroyd 6,004 58.0 -10.9
Liberal Henry Yates Thompson[42] 4,340 42.0 +10.9
Majority 1,664 16.1 +14.4
Turnout 10,344 88.0 -7.8 (est)
Registered electors 11,748
Conservative hold Swing -10.9
  • Caused by Hermon's death.
General Election 1880: Preston (2 seats)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Edward Hermon 6,239 36.2 −5.9
Conservative John Holker 5,641 32.7 −1.0
Liberal George William Bahr[43] 5,355 31.1 +6.8
Majority 286 1.7 -7.7
Turnout 11,594 (est) 95.8 (est) +16.1
Registered electors 12,108
Conservative hold Swing -4.7
Conservative hold Swing -2.2

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

By-election, 24 Apr 1874: Preston (1 seat)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Holker Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1874: Preston (2 seats)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Edward Hermon 6,512 42.1 +14.3
Conservative John Holker 5,211 33.7 +6.4
Lib-Lab Thomas Mottershead 3,756 24.3 −20.7
Majority 1,455 9.4 +4.8
Turnout 9,618 (est) 79.7 (est) −17.4
Registered electors 12,073
Conservative hold Swing +12.3
Conservative hold Swing +8.4
By-election, 16 Sep 1872: Preston (1 seat)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Holker 4,542 54.3 −0.8
Liberal James German[44] 3,824 45.7 +0.7
Majority 718 8.6 +4.0
Turnout 8,366 81.9 −15.2
Registered electors 10,214
Conservative hold Swing −0.8
  • Caused by Hesketh's death.

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1868: Preston (2 seats)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Edward Hermon 5,803 27.8 N/A
Conservative Thomas Fermor-Hesketh 5,700 27.3 N/A
Liberal Joseph Leese 4,741 22.7 N/A
Liberal Edward Fitzalan-Howard 4,663 22.3 N/A
Majority 959 4.6 N/A
Turnout 10,454 (est) 97.1 (est) N/A
Registered electors 10,763
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1865: Preston (2 seats)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Hesketh Unopposed
Conservative Frederick Stanley Unopposed
Registered electors 2,562
Conservative hold
Conservative gain from Liberal
By-election, 4 April 1862: Preston [40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Hesketh 1,527 60.1 −9.1
Liberal George Melly 1,014 39.9 +9.1
Majority 513 20.2 +11.6
Turnout 2,541 91.6 +17.9
Registered electors 2,773
Conservative hold Swing −9.1
  • Caused by Cross' resignation.

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1859: Preston (2 seats)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative R. A. Cross 1,542 39.4 +3.8
Liberal Charles Grenfell 1,208 30.8 −6.5
Conservative John Talbot Clifton[45] 1,168 29.8 +2.7
Turnout 1,959 (est) 73.7 (est) +1.6
Registered electors 2,657
Majority 334 8.6 +0.2
Conservative hold Swing +3.5
Majority 40 1.0 −0.7
Liberal hold Swing −6.5
General Election 1857: Preston (2 seats)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Grenfell 1,503 37.3 +11.7
Conservative R. A. Cross 1,433 35.6 +5.3
Whig George Strickland 1,094 27.1 −1.3
Turnout 2,015 (est) 72.1 (est) −5.1
Registered electors 2,793
Majority 70 1.7 −11.0
Whig hold Swing +4.5
Majority 339 8.4 +6.5
Conservative hold Swing +0.1
General Election 1852: Preston (2 seats)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert Townley Parker 1,335 30.3
Whig George Strickland 1,253 28.4
Whig Charles Grenfell 1,127 25.6
Radical James German[46] 692 15.7
Turnout 2,204 (est) 77.2 (est)
Registered electors 2,854
Majority 82 1.9 N/A
Conservative gain from Whig Swing
Majority 561 12.7
Whig hold Swing

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General Election 1847: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig George Strickland 1,404
Whig Charles Grenfell 1,361
Conservative Robert T Parker 1,378
General Election 1841: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood 1,655
Whig George Strickland 1,629
Conservative Robert T Parker 1,270
Conservative Charles Swainson 1,255

Elections in the 1810s[edit]

General Election 1818: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Samuel Horrocks 1,694
Whig Edmund Hornby 1,598
Reformer Peter Crompton 1,245
General Election 1812: Preston (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Samuel Horrocks 1,379
Whig Edmund Hornby 1,368
Independent Edward Hanson 727

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  2. ^ Debretts House of Commons 1886 Debretts House of Commons 1886, Page 222, "Counties, Divisions, Boroughs, etc
  3. ^ RotPA 1918 Archive.org
  4. ^ Boundary Commission for England, fifth periodic review, p195 Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-25.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-25.
  7. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 2)
  8. ^ Chicheley was also elected for Cambridge, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Preston
  9. ^ On petition, Leicester and Standish were adjudged not to have been duly elected and their opponents, Burgoyne and Hoghton, were declared to have been duly elected in their place
  10. ^ Major-General from 1772, Lieutenant-General from 1777
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S., ed. The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 185–187. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
  12. ^ Casey, Martin (2009). "STRICKLAND, George (1782–1874), of Hildenley and Boyton, Yorks. and Parliament Street, Mdx". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  13. ^ Ward, J. T. (1962). The Factory Movement, 1830-1855 (eBook). London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-349-81759-7. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  14. ^ "Seats Gained by the Whigs". Bell's Weekly Messenger. 5 July 1841. p. 5. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  15. ^ a b Taylor, H. A. (15 September 1955). "Politics in Famine-Stricken Preston: An Examination of Liberal Party Management, 1861–65" (PDF). The Historic Society of Lancashire & Cheshire. p. 121. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  16. ^ a b Aspinall, A.; Smith, E. Anthony, eds. (1996) [1959]. English Historical Documents 1783–1832 (eBook). London: Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 0-203-19915-4. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  17. ^ a b Rothbard, Murray N. (2006) [1995]. Economic Thought Before Adam Smith: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought, Volume I. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 223. ISBN 0-945466-48-X. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  18. ^ Later adopted the surname Fermor-Hesketh
  19. ^ Created a baronet, 1902
  20. ^ General Election Preston City Council
  21. ^ "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  22. ^ "Preston". BBC News Online. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  23. ^ "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  24. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  25. ^ "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  26. ^ Boothroyd, David. "Results of Byelections in the 1997-2002 Parliament". United Kingdom Election Results. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  27. ^ "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  28. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  29. ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  30. ^ "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  31. ^ "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  32. ^ Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  34. ^ a b Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  35. ^ a b c d e f g The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  36. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  37. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  38. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  39. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  41. ^ "Preston Election- A Liberal Candidate". Dundee Evening Telegraph. 28 January 1882. p. 4. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  42. ^ "Preston Liberals". Western Daily Press. 12 May 1881. p. 8. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  43. ^ "George William Bahr". The Illustrated London News. 29 May 1880. p. 22. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  44. ^ "The Representation of Preston". Manchester Evening News. 30 August 1872. p. 3. Retrieved 17 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  45. ^ "Mr. Clifton's Candidature". Preston Chronicle. 23 April 1859. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  46. ^ "The Elections". Preston Chronicle. 10 July 1852. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).

Sources[edit]

  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 (Glasgow: Political Reference Publications, 1969)
  • Maija Jansson (ed.), Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 (House of Commons) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988)
  • J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)