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Pretty Cure

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Pretty Cure
Precurenewstage3.jpg
Created byIzumi Todo
Toei Animation
Original workFutari wa Pretty Cure
Films and television
Film(s)List of Pretty Cure films, Pretty Cure All Stars
Television seriesSee below
Theatrical presentations
Play(s)Precure Kids
Musical(s)See below
Games
Video game(s)See below
Miscellaneous
ToysS.H. Figuarts

Pretty Cure (プリキュアシリーズ), also known as PreCure (プリキュア, Purikyua) in Japan and Glitter Force outside of Japan, is a Japanese magical girl anime metaseries created by Izumi Todo and produced by Asahi Broadcasting Corporation, Asatsu-DK and Toei Animation. Each series revolves around a group of magical girls known as Pretty Cures who battle against evil forces. Starting in February 2004 with Futari wa Pretty Cure, the franchise has seen many anime series, spanning over 700 episodes to date, as well as spawning movies, manga, toys, and video games. Its most recent iteration, Hugtto! PreCure, began airing in February 2018 as part of TV Asahi's Sunday morning children's television block. To date, three of the series have received English-language dubs.

Overview[edit]

Each of the series focuses on a group of teenage girls, mostly Japanese schoolgirls in their second year of middle school or any of these three years in high school, who are granted special items that allow them to transform into legendary warriors known as the Pretty Cure (or Precure). With the assistance of creatures known as fairies, the Pretty Cure use their magical powers and enhanced strength to fight against evil forces and organizations who create monsters to bring misery to the Earth and further their plans. As these series progress and stronger enemies appear, the Cures gain new magical items, new abilities, and sometimes new allies to help them in their fight against evil.

Main series[edit]

There are currently fifteen anime television series in the franchise, two of which are direct sequels to their previous series. To date, three series: Futari wa Pretty Cure, Smile PreCure!, and DokiDoki! PreCure, have received adapted English-language dubbed releases under the names Pretty Cure, Glitter Force, and Glitter Force Doki Doki respectively. Each series has received a manga adaptation illustrated by Futago Kamikita, which is published in Kodansha's Nakayoshi shoujo magazine alongside the anime.

  1. Futari wa Pretty Cure / Pretty Cure (2004–2005)
  2. Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart (2005–2006)
  3. Futari wa Pretty Cure Splash Star (2006–2007)
  4. Yes! PreCure 5 (2007–2008)
  5. Yes! PreCure 5 GoGo! (2008–2009)
  6. Fresh Pretty Cure! (2009–2010)
  7. HeartCatch PreCure! (2010–2011)
  8. Suite PreCure (2011–2012)
  9. Smile PreCure! / Glitter Force (2012–2013)
  10. DokiDoki! PreCure / Glitter Force Doki Doki (2013–2014)[1][2]
  11. HappinessCharge PreCure! (2014–2015)
  12. Go! Princess PreCure (2015–2016)[3][4]
  13. Maho Girls PreCure! (2016–2017)[5]
  14. Kirakira PreCure a la Mode (2017–2018)[6]
  15. Hugtto! PreCure[7][8] (2018-present)
  16. Star Twinkle PreCure

Films[edit]

Beginning with Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart, each television series has received a theatrical animated film based on the series, with Max Heart receiving two films. Starting in March 2009, crossover films featuring characters from multiple series have been released annually, with Ten crossover films released to date.

TV-to-movie[edit]

  1. Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart the Movie (映画 ふたりはプリキュア マックスハート, Eiga Futari wa Purikyua Makkusu Hāto) (2005)
  2. Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart the Movie 2: Friends of the Snow-Laden Sky (映画 ふたりはプリキュア Max Heart 2 雪空のともだち, Eiga Futari wa Purikyua Makkusu Hāto 2: Yukizora no Tomodachi) (2005)
  3. Futari wa Pretty Cure Splash Star: Tick-Tock Crisis Hanging by a Thin Thread! (映画 ふたりはプリキュア スプラッシュ☆スター チクタク危機一髪!, Eiga Futari wa Purikyua Supurashu Sutā Tiku Taku Kiki Ippatsu!) (2006)
  4. Yes! Precure 5 the Movie: Great Miraculous Adventure in the Mirror Kingdom! (映画 Yes!プリキュア5 鏡の国のミラクル大冒険!, Eiga Iesu! Purikyua Faibu: Kagami no Kuni no Mirakuru Daibōken!) (2007)
  5. Yes! Precure 5 GoGo! the Movie: Happy Birthday in the Sweets Kingdom (映画 Yes! プリキュア5 Go Go! お菓子の国のハッピーバースディ♪, Eiga Iesu! Purikyua Faibu GōGō! Okashi no Kuni no Happī Bāsudi♪) (2008)
  6. Fresh Pretty Cure! the Movie: The Kingdom of Toys has Lots of Secrets!? (映画 フレッシュプリキュア! おもちゃの国は秘密がいっぱい!?, Eiga Furesshu Purikyua! Omocha no Kuni wa Himitsu ga Ippai!?) (2009)
  7. HeartCatch PreCure! the Movie: Fashion Show in the Flower Capital... Really?! (映画 ハートキャッチプリキュア!花の都でファッションショー···ですか!?, Eiga HātoKyatchi Purikyua! Hana no Miyako de Fasshon Shō...Desu ka!?) (2010)
  8. Suite PreCure the Movie: Take it back! The Miraculous Melody that Connects Hearts (映画 スイートプリキュア♪ とりもどせ! 心がつなぐ奇跡のメロディ♪, Eiga Suīto Purikyua♪: Torimodose! Kokoro ga Tsunagu Kiseki no Merodi!) (2011)
  9. Smile Precure! the Movie: Big Mismatch in a Picture Book! (映画 スマイルプリキュア! 絵本の中はみんなチグハグ!, Eiga Sumairu Purikyua!: Ehon no Naka wa Minna Chiguhagu!) (2012)
  10. DokiDoki! Precure the Movie: Mana's Getting Married!!? The Dress of Hope that Connects to the Future (映画 ドキドキ!プリキュア マナ結婚!!?未来につなぐ希望のドレス, Eiga Dokidoki! Purikyua: Mana Kekkon!!? Mirai ni Tsunagu Kibō no Doresu) (2013)[9]
  11. HappinessCharge PreCure! the Movie: The Ballerina of the Land of Dolls (映画 ハピネスチャージプリキュア!人形の国のバレリーナ, Eiga HapinesuChāji Purikyua! Ningyō no Kuni no Barerīna) (2014)[10]
  12. Go! Princess Precure the Movie: Go! Go!! Splendid Triple Feature!!! (映画 Go!プリンセスプリキュア Go! Go!! 豪華3本立て!!!, Eiga Gō! Purinsesu Purikyua: Gō! Gō!! Gōka San-bon Date!!!) (2015)
  13. Maho Girls PreCure! the Movie: The Miraculous Transformation! Cure Mofurun! (映画 魔法つかいプリキュア! 奇跡の変身!キュアモフルン!, Eiga Mahōtsukai Purikyua!: Kiseki no Henshin! Kyua Mofurun!) (2016)
  14. KiraKira☆PreCure à la Mode the Movie: Crisply! The Memory of Mille-feuille! (映画 キラキラ☆プリキュアアラモード パリッと!想い出のミルフィーユ!, Eiga Kirakira ☆ Purikyua Ara Mōdo: Paritto! Omoide no Mirufīyu!) (2017)

Crossover films[edit]

  1. Pretty Cure All Stars DX: Everyone's Friends - the Collection of Miracles! (映画 プリキュアオールスターズDX みんなともだちっ☆奇跡の全員大集合!, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu Dirakkusu: Minna Tomodachi— Kiseki no Zenin Daishūgō!) (2009)
  2. Pretty Cure All Stars DX2: Light of Hope - Protect the Rainbow Jewel! (映画 プリキュアオールスターズDX2 希望の光☆レインボージュエルを守れ!, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu Dirakkusu Tsu: Kibou no Hikari Reinbō Jueru wo Mamore!) (2010)
  3. Pretty Cure All Stars DX3: Deliver the Future! The Rainbow-Colored Flower That Connects the World! (映画 プリキュアオールスターズDX3 未来に届け!世界をつなぐ☆虹色の花, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu Dirakkusu Surī: Mirai ni Todoke! Sekai wo Tsunagu Niji-Iro no Hana!) (2011)
  4. Pretty Cure All Stars New Stage: Friends of the Future (映画 プリキュアオールスターズNewStage みらいのともだち, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu Nyū Sutēji: Mirai no Tomodachi) (2012)
  5. Pretty Cure All Stars New Stage 2: Friends of the Heart (映画 プリキュアオールスターズ New Stage 2 こころのともだち, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu Nyū Sutēji Tsū: Kokoro no Tomodachi) (2013)
  6. Pretty Cure All Stars New Stage 3: Forever Friends (映画 プリキュアオールスターズ New Stage 3 永遠のともだち, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu Nyū Sutēji Surī: Eien no Tomodachi) (2014)
  7. Pretty Cure All Stars: Carnival of Spring♪ (映画 プリキュアオールスターズ 春のカーニバル♪, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu: Haru no Kānibaru♪) (2015)
  8. Pretty Cure All Stars: Singing with Everyone♪ Miraculous Magic! (映画 プリキュアオールスターズ みんなで歌う♪奇跡の魔法!, Eiga Purikyua Ōru Sutāzu: Minna de Utau♪ Kiseki no Mahō!) (2016)
  9. Pretty Cure Dream Stars! (映画 プリキュアドリームスターズ!, Eiga Purikyua Dorīmu Sutāzu!) (2017) [11]
  10. Pretty Cure Super Stars! (映画 プリキュアスーパースターズ!, Eiga Purikyua Sūpā Sutāzu!) (2018)
  11. Hugtto! PreCure ♡ Futari wa Pretty Cure: All Stars Memories (映画 HUGっと!プリキュア♡ふたりはプリキュア オールスターズメモリーズ, Eiga Hagutto! Purikyua Futari wa Purikyua: Ōru Sutāzu Memorīzu) (2018)

Live-action drama[edit]

A live-action series, Koe Girl! (声ガール!, Koe Gāru!), began airing in Japan in April 2018, celebrating the franchise's 15th anniversary. The series follows a group of aspiring voice actresses and stars Haruka Fukuhara, who voiced Himari Arisugawa/Cure Custard in Kirakira PreCure a la Mode.[12]

Musicals[edit]

Musicals are on stages since around the time Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart began airing on February 2005, and they are very popular. They don't usually have special names like the movies or games, and they are performed in theatres, or live stages. The main idea is that the singers (or sometimes just some random people) dress into Cures (they have their clothes on, while they have a large head on too, so no one can actually see their faces) and they perform their character songs or/and they perform short stories. These musicals are often made for children between the age of 5-9, and they sold merchandise on these musicals too. The musicals are often 2 or 3 hours long, depending the series and/or the songs'/stories' length.

Video games[edit]

Several video games have been produced by Bandai for video game systems and educational consoles, as well as ongoing Data Carddass arcade machines.

Console video games
  • Futari wa Pretty Cure: Arienai! Yume no En wa Daimeikyu (ふたりはプリキュア ありえな~い!夢の園は大迷宮, Pretty Cure: Unbelievable! The Dream Park is a Labryinth) (2004, Game Boy Advance)
  • Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart: Maji? Maji!? Fight de IN Janai (ふたりはプリキュアマックスハート マジ?マジ?!ファイト de INじゃない, Pretty Cure Max Heart! : Really? Really!? A Fight is Okay, Isn't It?) (2005, Game Boy Advance)
  • Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart: Danzen! DS de Precure - Chikara wo Awasete Dai Battle (ふたりはプリキュアマックスハート DANZEN!DSでプリキュア力をあわせて大バトル!!, Pretty Cure Max Heart: - Absolutely! Pretty Cure on DS - The Great Battle Where Power Gathers) (2005, Nintendo DS)
  • Futari wa Pretty Cure Splash Star: Panpaka Game de Zekkōchō! (ふたりはプリキュア Splash Star パンパカゲームでぜっこうちょう!, Pretty Cure Splash Star - In Top Condition for the PanPaka Game!) (2006, Nintendo DS)
  • Yes! PreCure 5 (Yes!プリキュア5) (2007, Nintendo DS)
  • Yes! PreCure 5 GoGo!: Zenin Shu Go! Dream Festival (Yes!プリキュア5GoGo! 全員しゅーGo!ドリームフェスティバル, Yes! PreCure 5 GoGo!: All Assembled! Dream Festival) (2008, Nintendo DS)
  • Fresh Pretty Cure: Asobi Collection (フレッシュプリキュア!あそびコレクション, Fresh Pretty Cure: Play Collection) (2009, Nintendo DS)
  • HeartCatch PreCure! Oshare Collection (ハートキャッチプリキュア!おしゃれコレクション, HeartCatch PreCure! Fashion Collection) (2010, Nintendo DS)
  • Koe de Asobō! HeartCatch PreCure! (こえであそぼう!ハートキャッチプリキュア!, Let's Play With Voices! HeartCatch PreCure!) (2010, Nintendo DS)
  • Suite PreCure♪: Melody Collection (スイートプリキュア♪ メロディコレクション) (2011, Nintendo DS)
  • Smile PreCure! Let's Go! Märchen World (スマイルプリキュア! レッツゴー!メルヘンワールド) (2012, Nintendo 3DS)
  • PreCure All Stars: Zenin Shūgō☆Let's Dance! (プリキュアオールスターズ ぜんいんしゅうごう☆レッツダンス!, PreCure All Stars: All Together☆Let's Dance!) (2013, Wii)
  • DokiDoki! PreCure: Narikiri Life! (ドキドキ!プリキュア なりきりライフ!, DokiDoki! Precure: Impersonator Life!) (2013, Nintendo 3DS)
  • HappinessCharge PreCure! Kawarun Collection (ハピネスチャージプリキュア! カワルン☆コレクション, HappinessCharge PreCure! Sparking Collection) (2014, Nintendo 3DS)
  • Go! Princess PreCure: Sugar Ōkoku to Rokunin no Princess (Go!プリンセスプリキュア シュガー王国と6人のプリンセス, Go! Princess PreCure: The Sugar Kingdom and the 6 Princesses) (2015, Nintendo 3DS)
  • PreCure Tsunagaru Puzzlun (プリキュアつながるぱずるん, PreCure Connecting Puzzlun) (2017, iOS, Android)
Arcade game
  • PreCure All Stars Data Carddass series (プリキュアデータカードダスシリーズ) (2007–Ongoing)
Educational titles
  • Futari wa Pretty Cure (ふたりはプリキュア) (2004, Sega Pico)
  • Futari wa Pretty Cure: Max Heart (ふたりはプリキュアMax Heart) (2005, Beena)
  • Futari wa Pretty Cure Splash Star (ふたりはプリキュアスプラッシュスター) (2006, Beena)
  • Yes! Pretty Cure 5 Go Go: Love Love Hiragana Lesson (Yes!プリキュア5GoGo!lovelove☆ひらがなレッスン) (2008, Beena)
  • Isshoni Henshin Fresh Pretty Cure (いっしょにへんしん♥フレッシュプリキュア!) (2009, Beena)
  • Oshare ni Henshin HeartCatch PreCure! (おしゃれにへんしん ハートキャッチプリキュア!) (2010, Beena)
  • Suite PreCure♪: Happy Oshare Harmony☆ (スイートプリキュア♪ハッピーおしゃれハーモニー☆) (2011, Beena)

Bandai Namco's net income from Pretty Cure video game sales was ¥3.6 billion ($45.12 million) from April 2008 to March 2012, ¥1 billion ($10.25 million) from April 2012 to March 2013, ¥700 million ($7 million) from April 2013 to March 2014, and ¥500 million ($5 million) from April 2014 to March 2016, adding up to ¥26.9 billion ($67.4 million) net sales revenue for Bandai Namco.[13]

List of series characters[edit]

Series Transformation cures Debut episode Transformer Voiced Partner fairy Makeover Item
Futari wa Pretty Cure
Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart
Cure Black
(キュアブラック)
"No Mark"
1
Nagisa Misumi
(美墨 なぎさ/みすみ なぎさ)
Yōko Honna Mepple Precure Card
Card Commune
Heartful Commune
Cure White
(キュアホワイト)
Honoka Yukishiro
(雪城 ほのか/ゆきしろ ほのか)
Yukana Mipple
Shiny Luminous
(シャイニールミナス)
"Max Heart"
5
Hikari Kujo
(九条 ひかり/くじょう ひかり)
Rie Tanaka Porun
Lulun
Touch Commune
Futari wa Pretty Cure Splash Star Cure Bloom
(キュアブルーム)
1 Saki Hyuuga
(日向 咲/ひゅうが さき)
Orie Kimoto Flappy
Moof
Pretty Cure Diamond
Mixed Commune
Crystal Commune
Cure Bright
(キュアブライト)
30
Cure Egret
(キュアイーグレット)
1 Mai Mishou
(美翔 舞/みしょう まい)
Atsuko Enomoto Choppy
Foof
Cure Windy
(キュアウィンディ)
30
Yes! PreCure 5
Yes! PreCure 5GoGo!
Cure Dream
(キュアドリーム)
"5"
1
Nozomi Yumehara Yūko Sanpei
Cure Rouge
(キュアルージュ)
"5"
2
Rin Natsuki Junko Takeuchi
Cure Lemonade
(キュアレモネード)
"5"
3
Urara Kasugano Mariya Ise
Cure Mint
(キュアミント)
"5"
4
Komachi Akimoto Ai Nagano
Cure Aqua
(キュアアクア)
"5"
6
Karen Minazuki Ai Maeda
Milky Rose
(ミルキィローズ)
"GoGo!"
10
Kurumi Mimino / Milk Eri Sendai
Fresh Pretty Cure! Cure Peach
(キュアピーチ)
1 Love Momozono Kanae Oki
Cure Berry
(キュアベリー)
2 Miki Aono Eri Kitamura
Cure Pine
(キュアパイン)
3 Inori Yamabuki Akiko Nakagawa
Cure Passion
(キュアパッション)
23 Setsuna Higashi Yuka Komatsu
HeartCatch PreCure! Cure Blossom
(キュアブロッサム)
1 Tsubomi Hanasaki Nana Mizuki
Cure Marine
(キュアマリン)
3 Erika Kurumi Fumie Mizusawa
Cure Sunshine
(キュアサンシャイン)
23 Itsuki Myoudouin Houko Kuwashima
Cure Moonlight
(キュアムーンライト)
33 Yuri Tsukikage Aya Hisakawa
Suite PreCure Cure Melody 1 Hibiki Hojo Ami Koshimizu
Cure Rhythm Kanade Minamino Fumiko Orikasa
Cure Beat 21 Eren Kurokawa / Siren Megumi Toyoguchi
Cure Muse 35 Ako Shirabe Rumi Ōkubo
Smile PreCure! Cure Happy 1 Miyuki Hoshizora Misato Fukuen
Cure Sunny 2 Akane Hino Asami Tano
Cure Peace 3 Yayoi Kise Hisako Kanemoto
Cure March 4 Nao Midorikawa Marina Inoue
Cure Beauty 5 Reika Aoki Chinami Nishimura
DokiDoki! PreCure Cure Heart 1 Mana Aida Hitomi Nabatame
Cure Diamond 3 Rikka Hishikawa Minako Kotobuki
Cure Rosetta 4 Alice Yotsuba Mai Fuchigami
Cure Sword 1 Makoto Kenzaki Kanako Miyamoto
Cure Ace 22 Aguri Madoka Rie Kugimiya
HappinessCharge PreCure! Cure Lovely 1 Megumi Aino Megumi Nakajima
Cure Princess Hime Shirayuki Megumi Han
Cure Honey 9 Yuuko Omori Rina Kitagawa
Cure Fortune 1 Iona Hikawa Haruka Tomatsu
Go! Princess PreCure Cure Flora 1 Haruka Haruno Yū Shimamura
Cure Mermaid 2 Minami Kaido Masumi Asano
Cure Twinkle 4 Kirara Amanogawa Hibiku Yamamura
Cure Scarlet 22 Towa Akagi Miyuki Sawashiro
Maho Girls PreCure! Cure Miracle 1 Mirai Asahina Rie Takahashi
Cure Magical Riko Izayoi Yui Horie
Cure Felice 22 Kotoha Hanami / Ha-chan Saori Hayami
Kirakira PreCure a la Mode[14] Cure Whip 1 Ichika Usami Karen Miyama
Cure Custard 2 Himari Arisugawa Haruka Fukuhara
Cure Gelato 3 Aoi Tategami Tomo Muranaka
Cure Macaron 5 Yukari Kotozume Saki Fujita
Cure Chocolat 6 Akira Kenjou Nanako Mori
Cure Parfait 23 Ciel Kirahoshi / Kirarin Inori Minase
Hugtto! PreCure Cure Yell 1 Hana Nono Rie Hikisaka
Cure Ange 2 Saaya Yakushiji Rina Hon'izumi
Cure Etoile 5 Homare Kagayaki Yui Ogura
Cure Macherie 20 Emiru Aisaki Nao Tamura
Cure Amour Ruru Amour Yukari Tamura

Merchandise[edit]

Pretty Cure has had numerous licensed merchandise sold in Japan. Between 2004 and 2007, Pretty Cure licensed merchandise sold ¥162.13 billion in Japan, where it became the sixth highest-grossing franchise annually by 2005.[15] Pretty Cure licensed merchandise in Japan later sold ¥49,915.44 million in 2008,[16] ¥62,449.2 million in 2009,[17] and ¥76,646 million in 2010, becoming Japan's fifth highest-grossing franchise annually.[18] Pretty Cure licensed merchandise later sold ¥63.12 billion in 2011,[15] ¥63,508 million in 2012,[19] ¥61,701 million in 2013,[20] ¥45,461 million in 2014,[21] ¥45.64 billion in 2015,[22] and ¥49.76 billion in 2016.[23] Combined, Pretty Cure licensed merchandise sold ¥617.274 billion ($7.14 billion) in Japan up until 2016. Films are seventh highest-grossing anime films.[24]

Bandai Namco's net income from their Pretty Cure toy sales was ¥10.6 billion ($161 million) from April 2017 to June 2018.[13] In total, Pretty Cure has generated at least ¥627.874 billion ($7.301 billion) in merchandise sales as of June 2018.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dokidoki! Precure Trademark Filed in Japan". Anime News Network. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-11-01.
  2. ^ "Dokidoki! Precure Revealed as New Precure With Logo - News". Anime News Network. 2013-02-06. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  3. ^ "'Go! Princess Precure' Trademark Filed". 30 October 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  4. ^ "Next PreCure Series will be "Go! Princess PreCure"?". 30 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  5. ^ "'Mahō Tsukai Precure' Trademark Filed". AnimeNewsNetwork.com. 19 October 2015.
  6. ^ "'Kirakira PreCure a la Mode' Trademark Filed - News". Anime News Network. 2016-10-25.
  7. ^ "'Hugtto! Precure' Trademark Filed". Anime News Network. 2017-10-16.
  8. ^ "Toei Confirms Hugtto! Precure TV Anime for 2018". Anime News Network. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  9. ^ "映画ドキドキ!プリキュア マナ結婚!!?未来につなぐ希望のドレス". 2013-06-19. Archived from the original on 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  10. ^ "映画『ハピネスチャージプリキュア! 人形の国のバレリーナ』 10月11日公開!". 2014-06-14. Archived from the original on 2014-06-16. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
  11. ^ "映画プリキュアドリームスターズ!". Precure-dreamstars.com. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  12. ^ https://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2018-02-14/precure-anime-inspires-live-action-show-about-aspiring-voice-actresses/.127759
  13. ^ a b "Financial Statements". IR Library (in Japanese). Bandai Namco Holdings. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  14. ^ "'Kirakira PreCure a la Mode' Trademark Filed - News". Anime News Network. 2016-10-25.
  15. ^ a b "在日本,地位最高的动漫是哆啦a梦么?". Taojinjubao. Character Databank (CharaBiz). 2018-01-06.
  16. ^ "Japan's Character Products Market in 2008". Licensing Industry Merchandiser's Association. Character Databank (CharaBiz). 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  17. ^ "09年国内キャラ市場1兆5770億円 CharaBiz DATA調 – アニメ!アニメ!ビズ". AnimeAnime.biz (in Japanese). May 29, 2010.
  18. ^ コンテンツ2次利用市場(ライセンス市場)に係る 競争環境及び海外市場動向実態調査 (PDF). Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2011. pp. 22–23.
  19. ^ "慶應義塾大学学術情報リポジトリ(KOARA)". KeiO Associated Repository of Academic resources (in Japanese). Keio University: 8–9. 2015.
  20. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2014(13) (in Japanese). Character Databank, Ltd. 2014.
  21. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2015⑭ (in Japanese). Character Databank, Ltd. 2015.
  22. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2016⑮ (in Japanese). Character Databank, Ltd. 2016.
  23. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2017(16) (in Japanese). Character Databank, Ltd. 2017.
  24. ^ "Box Office Gross, TV Anime Adaptations". Someanithing. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]