Primary elections in Italy

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Primary elections were first introduced in Italy by Lega Nord in 1995,[1] but were seldom used until before the 2005 regional elections. In that occasion the centre-left The Union coalition held open primaries in order to select candidates for President of Apulia and Calabria.

A more politically significant primary was held on 16 October 2005, when The Union asked its voters to decide the candidate for Prime Minister in the 2006 general election: 4,300,000 voters showed up and Romano Prodi won hands down. Two years later, on 14 October 2007, voters of the Democratic Party were called to choose the party leader among a list of six, their representatives to the Constituent Assembly and the local leaders. The primary was a success, involving more than 3,500,000 people across Italy, and gave to the winner Walter Veltroni momentum in a difficult period for the government and the centre-left coalition.

The centre-right (see House of Freedoms, The People of Freedom, centre-right coalition and Forza Italia) has never held a primary at the national level, but held some experiments at the very local level. If confirmed, the primary election to be held in Sicily on 2 April 2017 will be the most important centre-right primary so far.

Regulatory rules[edit]

There are no laws at the national level to govern the conduct of any primary election.

In 2004 Tuscany introduced a regional law[2] regulating primaries, but parties are not mandated to hold primaries. As of today, these rules were used in occasion of the 2005 regional election by the Democrats of the Left and Future Tuscany,[3] and in the 2010 regional election by the Democratic Party and Left Ecology Freedom.[4]

Most relevant primary elections[edit]

The list includes the results of primary elections for prime minister, president of region, mayor of a city with 150,000 inhabitants, deputies, senators, MEPs, and leader of major party. All the following primaries were funded and ran by parties, with the sole exception of those for the Regional Council of Tuscany.

2004–2010[edit]

Primary date(s) Party/Coalition Type of primary Position(s) Winner Article
28 November 2004 The Union Convention President of Calabria Agazio Loiero
16 January 2005 The Union Open primary President of Apulia Nichi Vendola
16 October 2005 The Union Open primary Prime Minister of Italy Romano Prodi link
4 December 2005 The Union Open primary President of Sicily Rita Borsellino
29 January 2005 The Union Open primary Mayor of Milan Bruno Ferrante
4 February 2007 The Union Open primary Mayor of Genoa Marta Vincenzi
4 February 2007 The Union Open primary Mayor of Palermo Leoluca Orlando
14 October 2007 Democratic Party Open primary Party leader Walter Veltroni link
14 December 2008 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Bologna Flavio Delbono
14 February 2009 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Florence Matteo Renzi
25 October 2009 Democratic Party Open primary Party leader Pier Luigi Bersani link
24 January 2010 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Apulia Nichi Vendola[5]
24 January 2010 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Venice Giorgio Orsoni[6]
7 February 2010 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Umbria Catiuscia Marini[7]
14 February 2010 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Calabria Agazio Loiero[8]
14 November 2010 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Milan Giuliano Pisapia link
12 December 2010 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Trieste Roberto Cosolini[9]

2011–2015[edit]

Primary date(s) Party/Coalition Type of primary Position(s) Winner Article
23 January 2011 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Bologna Virginio Merola
23 January 2011 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Naples Andrea Cozzolino*
30 January 2011 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Cagliari Massimo Zedda
27 February 2011 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Turin Piero Fassino
4 December 2011 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Verona Michele Bertucco[10]
29 January 2012 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Parma Vincenzo Bernazzoli[11]
12 February 2012 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Genoa Marco Doria[12]
4 March 2012 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Palermo Fabrizio Ferrandelli[13]
25 November 2012 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Prime Minister of Italy Pier Luigi Bersani[14] link
3–6 December 2012 Five Star Movement Closed primary Deputies and senators several winners
15 December 2012 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Lombardy Umberto Ambrosoli[15]
29–30 December 2012 Democratic Party Closed primary Deputies and senators several winners[16]
29–30 December 2012 Left Ecology Freedom Closed primary Deputies and senators several winners
6 January 2013 South Tyrolean People's Party Closed primary Deputies and senators several winners[17]
24 March 2013 Valdostan Union Closed primary Regional councillors, Aosta Valley several winners[18][19]
7 April 2013 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Rome Ignazio Marino[20]
14 April 2013 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Brescia Emilio Del Bono[21]
21 April 2013 South Tyrolean People's Party Closed primary Governor of South Tyrol Arno Kompatscher[22]
13 July 2013 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Trentino Ugo Rossi[23]
22 September 2013 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Basilicata Marcello Pittella[24]
29 September 2013 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Sardinia Francesca Barracciu[25]*
7 December 2013 Lega Nord Closed primary Party leader Matteo Salvini[26] link
8 December 2013 Democratic Party Open primary Party leader Matteo Renzi[27] link
2 February 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Padua Ivo Rossi[28]
23 February 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Bari Antonio Decaro[29]
23 February 2014 Brothers of Italy Open primary Party leader Giorgia Meloni[30]
2 March 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Modena Gian Carlo Muzzarelli[31]
2 March 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Reggio Emilia Luca Vecchi[32]
9 March 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Foggia Augusto Marasco[33]
16 March 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Livorno Marco Ruggeri[34]
23 March 2014 Democratic Party Open primary Mayor of Florence Dario Nardella[35]
31 March 2014
3 April 2014
Five Star Movement Closed primary MEPs several winners
28 September 2014 Democratic Party Open primary President of Emilia-Romagna Stefano Bonaccini[36]
5 October 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Calabria Mario Oliverio[37]
30 November 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Veneto Alessandra Moretti[38]
30 November 2014 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Apulia Michele Emiliano[39]
11 January 2015 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Liguria Raffaella Paita[40]
1 March 2015 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Marche Luca Ceriscioli[41]
1 March 2015 Democratic Party and allies Open primary President of Campania Vincenzo De Luca[42]
16 March 2015 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Venice Felice Casson[43]
10 November 2015 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Milan Patrizia Bedori[44]*
10 November 2015 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Turin Chiara Appendino[45]
15 December 2015 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Ravenna Michela Guerra[46]*

*Candidate who was replaced by another candidate without a primary vote in the run-up of the general election.

2016–present[edit]

Primary date(s) Party/Coalition Type of primary Position(s) Winner Article
7 February 2016 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Milan Giuseppe Sala[47] link
18 February 2016
23 February 2016
Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Rome Virginia Raggi[48]
23 February 2016 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Trieste Paolo Menis[49]
6 March 2016 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Naples Valeria Valente[50]
6 March 2016 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Rome Roberto Giachetti[50]
6 March 2016 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Trieste Roberto Cosolini[51]
9 March 2016
15 March 2016
Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Naples Matteo Brambilla[52]
15 March 2016 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Cagliari Maria Antonietta Martinez[53]
18 January 2017 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Palermo Ugo Forello[54]
25 January 2017 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Verona Alessandro Gennari[55]
5 March 2017 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Parma Paolo Scarpa[56]
14 March 2007 Five Star Movement Closed primary Mayor of Genoa Marika Cassimatis[57]*
2 April 2017 Democratic Party and allies Open primary Mayor of Verona TBD[58]
2 April 2017 Forza Italia and allies Closed primary President of Sicily TBD[59]

*Candidate who was replaced by another candidate without a primary vote in the run-up of the general election.

References[edit]

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