Prime Minister's Questions

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David Cameron at the dispatch box, 2012
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Prime Minister's Questions (often abbreviated to PMQs and officially known as Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, currently held as a single session every Wednesday at noon when the House of Commons is sitting, during which the Prime Minister spends around half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs).[1]


Although prime ministers have answered questions in parliament for centuries, until the 1880s questions to the prime minister were treated the same as questions to other Ministers of the Crown: asked without notice, on days when ministers were available in whatever order MPs rose to ask them.[2] In 1881 fixed time-limits for questions were introduced and questions to the prime minister were moved to the last slot of the day as a courtesy to the 72-year-old prime minister at the time, William Gladstone, so he could come to the Commons later in the day. In 1953, when Winston Churchill was prime minister, it was agreed that questions would be submitted on fixed days (Tuesdays and Thursdays).[2]

A Procedure Committee report in 1959 recommended that questions to the prime minister be taken in two fixed-period, 15-minute slots on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons. The recommendations were put into practice under Harold Macmillan during a successful experiment from 18 July 1961 to the end of the session (4 August).[3] The very first question was delivered by Labour MP Fenner Brockway, asking to which Minister the UK Ambassador to South Africa would be responsible.[4] In response to the Prime Minister's answer, Brockway said "May I express our appreciation of this new arrangement for answering Questions and the hope that it will be convenient for the Prime Minister as well as useful to the House?"[4] PMQs were made permanent in the following parliamentary session, with the first of these on 24 October 1961.[2][5][6]

The style and culture of PMQs has changed gradually over time. According to Speaker Selwyn Lloyd, the now famous disorderly behaviour of MPs during PMQs first arose as a result of the personal animosity between Harold Wilson and Edward Heath; before this PMQs had been lively but comparatively civilised.[2][7] In the past, prime ministers often opted to transfer questions to the relevant minister, and Leaders of the Opposition did not always take their allocated number of questions in some sessions, sometimes opting not to ask any questions at all. This changed during the premiership of Margaret Thatcher, when the prime minister chose not to transfer any questions to other members of her Cabinet, and Labour leader Neil Kinnock began asking more questions than his predecessors. His successor, John Smith, established the precedent of always taking his full allocation of questions.[2]

The chamber is much busier than at most other times.

One of Tony Blair's first acts as prime minister was to replace the two 15-minute sessions with a single 30-minute session on Wednesdays, initially at 3 p.m. but since 2003 at noon.[2] The allocated number of questions in each session for the Leader of the Opposition was doubled from three to six, and the leader of the third-largest party in the Commons was given two questions. The first PMQs to use this new format took place on 21 May 1997.[8]

During the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government from 2010–2015, the leader of the Liberal Democrats, as a member of the government, did not ask questions during PMQs.[9] Instead the leader of the second largest parliamentary opposition party at the time, Nigel Dodds of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), usually asked a single question later in the session followed by at least one MP from another smaller party such as the Scottish National Party or Plaid Cymru.


The Order Paper for Wednesday, 24 June 2009.
"Number One, Mr Speaker": The standard opening of Prime Minister's Questions, from 13 February 2013.

Backbench MPs wishing to ask a question must enter their names on the Order Paper. The names of entrants are then shuffled in a ballot to produce a random order in which they will be called by the Speaker. The Speaker will then call on MPs to put their questions, usually in an alternating fashion: one MP from the government benches is followed by one from the opposition benches. MPs who are not selected may be chosen to ask a supplementary question if they "catch the eye" of the Speaker, which is done by standing and sitting immediately before the prime minister gives an answer.

The Leader of the Opposition usually asks six questions at PMQs, either as a whole block or in two separate groups of three. If the first question is asked by a government backbencher, the Leader of the Opposition is the second MP to ask questions. If the first question is asked by an opposition MP, this will be followed by a question from a government MP and then by the questions from the Leader of the Opposition. The leader of the third largest parliamentary party (the Liberal Party until 1988, the Liberal Democrats from 1988–2010 and the Scottish National Party from 2015) would then ask two questions.

The first formal question on the Order Paper, posed by simply saying "Number one, Mr. Speaker", is usually to ask the Prime Minister "if s/he will list his/her engagements for the day". The Prime Minister usually replies:

This morning I had meetings with ministerial colleagues and others. In addition to my duties in the House, I shall have further such meetings later today.[10][11][12][13][14][15]

The reason for such a question is that, historically, the Prime Minister may be questioned only as to those matters for which he or she is directly responsible. Such matters are relatively few in number, because many substantive matters are handled by the other Ministers in the Cabinet. By requiring the Prime Minister to list his or her engagements, the members may then inquire whether the Prime Minister ought to be engaged in some other activity or be taking some other action.[16]

Before listing the day's engagements, the Prime Minister sometimes extends condolences or offers congratulations after significant events. During the Iraq War, Tony Blair introduced the practice of naming any British military personnel who had been killed in service since the last time he addressed the House. This practice was continued by Blair's successors as prime minister. After this, the MP may ask a supplementary question about any subject which might occupy the Prime Minister's time. Most MPs table the same engagements question and so after it has been asked for the first time, any other MPs who have tabled the same question are simply called to ask an untabled question, meaning that the Prime Minister will not know what questions will be asked.[17]

Occasionally the first question tabled is on a specific area of policy, not the engagements question. This, though, is quite rare as it would allow the Prime Minister to prepare a response in advance; the non-descript question allows some chance of catching him or her out with an unexpected supplementary question.[17]

At times of national or personal tragedy or crisis, PMQs have been temporarily suspended. The last such suspension occurred on 25 February 2009 when the Speaker, at the request of Prime Minister Gordon Brown, suspended the Commons until 12:30 p.m. as a mark of respect following the unexpected death of Opposition leader David Cameron's son. Prime Minister's Questions was also suspended after the sudden death of the leader of the Labour Party, John Smith, in 1994.[18]

PMQs has been filmed since 1989, and have been broadcast live since 1990.[19] They are broadcast live in the United Kingdom on the BBC Two and BBC Parliament TV channels. It is also broadcast outside the United Kingdom, most notably on the US cable network C-SPAN[20] and has been spoofed on the American late-night television sketch comedy Saturday Night Live.[21] In a C-SPAN interview in 1991, shortly after the network started to broadcast PMQs, US President George H. W. Bush said, "I count my blessings for the fact I don't have to go into that pit that John Major stands in, nose-to-nose with the opposition, all yelling at each other."[22]

Deputy Prime Minister's Questions[edit]

If the Prime Minister is away on official business when PMQs is scheduled, their role is usually filled by the Deputy Prime Minister.[23] If this office is not occupied or the Deputy Prime Minister is not available, the next most senior member of the Cabinet will receive questions (such as the First Secretary of State or the Deputy Leader of the government party).[24] In the absence of the Leader of the Opposition, the opposition questions will be led by the deputy leader of the opposition.[23]

In Cameron–Clegg coalition, Nick Clegg has answered 15 PMQs and William Hague twice[a].[25] In Second Cameron ministry, George Osborne has answered 3 times.[b][26] In the second May ministry, Damian Green has replied twice[c] and three times for David Lidington[d].[26]

Concerns over noise levels[edit]

On 17 April 2014, Speaker Bercow told the BBC that the "histrionics and cacophony of noise" in PMQs were so bad that a number of female MPs had told him they would stop attending. Bercow described it as being a "real problem" and that "A number of seasoned parliamentarians, who are not shrinking violets, not delicate creatures at all, are saying, 'This is so bad that I am not going to take part, I am not going to come along, I feel embarrassed by it.'"[27] Since becoming Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn has attempted to reform PMQs by using questions submitted by members of the public and attempting to reduce the theatrical element.[28][29] However, YouGov polling of viewers in February 2017 suggested that Corbyn had failed in his attempts at reform, with 77% of respondents agreeing that it consists of 'too much point scoring'.[30][31]

Leaders at the dispatch box since 1961[edit]

The most high-profile contributors at Prime Minister's questions are the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition, who speak opposite each other at the dispatch box. Regular, fixed sessions have taken place since 1961, and the list below outlines the prime ministers since 1961 and Opposition party leaders they faced across the floor of the House of Commons, as well as the secondary opposition leader since 1997 (usually the leader of third largest party within the House of Commons):

Party key Conservative Liberal Democrats
Labour Scottish National Party
Prime Minister Leader of the Opposition Secondary Opposition Leader Years
Harold Macmillan Hugh Gaitskell None 1961–1963
George Brown 1963
Harold Wilson 1963
Alec Douglas-Home 1963–1964
Harold Wilson Alec Douglas-Home 1964–1965
Edward Heath 1965–1970
Edward Heath Harold Wilson 1970–1974
Harold Wilson Edward Heath 1974–1975
Margaret Thatcher 1975–1976
James Callaghan 1976–1979
Margaret Thatcher James Callaghan 1979–1980
Michael Foot 1980–1983
Neil Kinnock 1983–1990
John Major 1990–1992
John Smith 1992–1994
Margaret Beckett 1994
Tony Blair 1994–1997
Tony Blair John Major Paddy Ashdown 1997
William Hague 1997–1999
Charles Kennedy 1999–2001
Iain Duncan Smith 2001–2003
Michael Howard 2003–2005
David Cameron 2005–2006
Menzies Campbell 2006–07
Gordon Brown 2007–2010
Vince Cable 2007
Nick Clegg 2007–2010
David Cameron Harriet Harman None 2010
Ed Miliband 2010–2015
Harriet Harman Angus Robertson 2015
Jeremy Corbyn 2015–2016
Theresa May 2016–2017
Ian Blackford 2017–


  1. ^ 20 June 2012 and 10 September 2014
  2. ^ 17 June 2015, 9 December 2015 and 25 May 2016
  3. ^ 12 July 2017 and 29 November 2017
  4. ^ 7 December 2016, 31 January 2018 and 11 July 2018


  1. ^ "Prime Minister's Questions". BBC News Online. 24 January 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Bercow, John (6 July 2010). "Speech: New Parliament, New Opportunity". House of Commons Library. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  3. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 18 July 1961. col. 1052–1052.
  4. ^ a b "Ambassador to South Africa". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 18 July 1961. col. 1052–1053.
  5. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 24 October 1961. col. 740–747.
  6. ^ "What are Prime Minister's Questions?". 21 January 2004. Archived from the original on 9 September 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  7. ^ Lloyd, Selwyn (1976). Mr. Speaker, sir. ISBN 978-0-224-01318-5.
  8. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 21 May 1997. col. 702–712.
  9. ^ "What is Prime minister's questions?". BBC News. 2 June 2010.
  10. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 1989-11-14. col. 178–179.
  11. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 1990-12-18. col. 150–151.
  12. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 1997-11-19. col. 318–319.
  13. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 2007-10-10. col. 286–287.
  14. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 2010-06-30. col. 852–853.
  15. ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. 2016-10-12. col. 293–294.
  16. ^ Biffen, John (1989) Inside the House of Commons: Behind the Scenes at Westminster. London: Grafton. ISBN 0246134798
  17. ^ a b "Question Time". House of Commons Library. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  18. ^ Andrew Grice (26 February 2009). "Politics put on hold as House mourns death of leader's son". The Independent. Retrieved 2009-02-26.
  19. ^ "Camera crews allowed into Prime Minister's Questions". BBC News Online. 14 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  20. ^ "British House of Commons Prime Minister's Questions". C-SPAN. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  21. ^ "Prime Minister's Questions". The SNL Archives. Retrieved 25 July 2010., describing episodes of 22 March 1997 and 2 May 1998.
  22. ^ "George H. W. Bush on PMQs", C-SPAN, YouTube, 20 December 1991
  23. ^ a b "Prime Minister's Questions: 12 March 2014". UK Parliament. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  24. ^ Williamson, David. "In a PMQs without the PM, William Hague and Harriet Harman join forces to love-bomb the Scots". Wales Online. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  25. ^ "Deputy Prime Minister's Questions". BBC. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  26. ^ a b UK Parliament. YouTube. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  27. ^ "Female MPs shunning PMQs, says John Bercow". 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  28. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn asks David Cameron 'questions from public'". BBC News. BBC. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  29. ^ Guardian staff (16 September 2015). "The Guardian view on Jeremy Corbyn's PMQs debut: a very reasonable start". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  30. ^ Hardman, Isabel (1 March 2017). "How Corbyn failed to transform PMQs | Coffee House". The Spectator. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  31. ^ Deacon, Michael. "PMQs is growing worse by the week. Shall we just abolish it?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 March 2017.

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