Prime Minister of Georgia

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Prime Minister of Georgia
Greater coat of arms of Georgia.svg
Giorgi Gakharia.jpg
Incumbent
Giorgi Gakharia

since 8 September 2019
Residencenone
AppointerParliament of Georgia
Term lengthnone
Inaugural holderBessarion Gugushvili
Formation23 August 1991
Salary4,250 ₾
Websitehttp://gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=ENG
Greater coat of arms of Georgia.svg
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The Prime Minister of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს პრემიერ-მინისტრი, translit.: sakartvelos p'remier-minist'ri) is the head of government and chief executive of Georgia. The Prime Minister organizes, directs, and controls the functions of the Government and signs the legal acts of the government. They appoint and dismiss ministers in the government. The Prime Minister represents Georgia in foreign relations and concludes international treaties on behalf of Georgia. They are accountable for the activities of the Government before the Parliament of Georgia.[1]

The Prime Minister is nominated by a political party that has secured the best results in the parliamentary election. The nominee must win the confidence vote of the Parliament and then be appointed by the President of Georgia.[2]

History[edit]

The office of Prime Minister under the name of the Chairman of Government was introduced in Georgia upon its declaration of independence in May 1918. It was abolished with the Soviet takeover of the country in February 1921. The newly independent Georgia established the position of Prime Minister in August 1991, only to be abolished de facto in the aftermath of the January 1992 military coup and legally in the 1995 Constitution. The office was reintroduced in the February 2004 constitutional amendment and further modified as a result of series of amendments passed between 2011 and 2018.

Qualifications[edit]

The office of Prime Minister may not be held by a citizen of Georgia who is simultaneously the citizen of a foreign country.[3]

Appointment[edit]

The Prime Minister is nominated by a political party that has secured the best results in the parliamentary election. The nominee for premiership and ministerial candidates selected by them must win the confidence vote of the Parliament and then, within 2 days of a vote of confidence, be appointed by the President of Georgia. If the President does not appoint the Prime Minister within the established time frame, the Prime Minister is considered appointed. If the parliamentary vote of confidence is not passed within the established time frame, the President dissolves the Parliament no earlier than two weeks and no later than three weeks after the respective time frame has expired, and calls extraordinary parliamentary election.[2]

Functions[edit]

The Prime Minister of Georgia is the head of the Government, responsible for government activities and appointment and dismissal of ministers. They are accountable before the parliament. Prime Minister signs the legal acts of the government[1] and countersigns some of the acts issued by the President of Georgia.[4]

The Prime Minister also has the right to make decision on the use of the Defense Forces during martial law without the Parliament's approval.[5] During the martial law, the Prime Minister becomes a member of the National Defense Council, a consultative body chaired by the President of Georgia.[6]

List of Heads of Government of Georgia (1918–present)[edit]

Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)[edit]

Prime Ministers
No. Picture Name
(Birth–Death)
Began office Left office Party Title(s)
1 Noeramishvilipic.jpg Noe Ramishvili
(1881–1930)
26 May 1918 24 June 1918 Social Democratic Party of Georgia Chairman of Government
2 Noe Schordania.jpg Noe Zhordania
(1868–1953)
24 June 1918 18 March 1921 Social Democratic Party of Georgia Chairman of Government

Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1921–1991)[edit]

No. Picture Name
(Birth–Death)
Began office Left office Party Title(s)
1 Polikarp Mdivani.jpg Polikarp Mdivani
(1887–1937)
7 March 1922 April 1922 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
2 Sergey Kavtaradze
(1885–1971)
April 1922 January 1923 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
3 Shalva Eliava - 2.jpg Shalva Eliava
(1883–1937)
January 1923 June 1927 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
4 L I Lavrentiev Kartvelishvili.jpg Lavrenty Kartvelishvili
(1890–1938)
June 1927 June 1929 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
5 Filipp Makharadze.jpg Filipp Makharadze
(1886–1941)
June 1929 January 1931 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
6 No image.png Levan Sukhishvili January 1931 22 September 1931 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
7 Вручение орденов ЦИК СССР.jpg German Mgaloblishvili
(?–1937)
22 September 1931 9 July 1937 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
8 No image.png Valerian Bakradze
(1901–1971)
9 July 1937 15 April 1946 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
15 April 1946 December 1946 Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
9 No image.png Zakhary Chkhubianishvili
(1903–?)
December 1946 6 April 1952 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
10 No image.png Zakhary Ketskhoveli
(1902–1970)
6 April 1952 16 April 1953 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
11 No image.png Valerian Bakradze
(1901–1971)
16 April 1953 20 September 1953 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
12 No image.png Givi Javakhishvili
(1912–1985)
21 September 1953 17 December 1975 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
13 No image.png Zurab Pataridze
(1928–1982)
17 December 1975 5 June 1982 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
14 No image.png Dmitry Kartvelishvili
(1927–)
2 July 1982 12 April 1986 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 No image.png Otar Cherkezia
(1933–)
12 April 1986 29 March 1989 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
16 No image.png Zurab Chkheidze
(1930–)
29 March 1989 14 April 1989 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
17 No image.png Nodari Chitanava
(1935–)
14 April 1989 15 November 1990 Communist Party of Georgia Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
18 Tengiz Sigua
(1934–)
15 November 1990 18 August 1991 Independent Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

Republic of Georgia (1991–1995)[edit]

Prime Ministers
No. Name
(Born–Died)
Picture Took Office Left Office Party
Murman Omanidze
(1938–)
(acting)
No image.png 18 August 1991 23 August 1991 Independent
1 Besarion Gugushvili
(1945–)
No image.png 23 August 1991 6 January 1992[7] Round Table — Free Georgia
2 Tengiz Sigua
(1934–)
6 January 1992 6 August 1993 Independent
Eduard Shevardnadze
(1928–2014)
(acting)
Eduard shevardnadze.jpg 6 August 1993 20 August 1993 Independent
3 Otar Patsatsia
(1929–)
No image.png 20 August 1993 5 October 1995 Independent

Georgia (1995–present)[edit]

State Ministers
No. Name
(Born–Died)
Picture Took Office Left Office Party
1 Niko Lekishvili
(1947–)
No image.png 8 December 1995 26 July 1998 Union of Citizens of Georgia
2 Vazha Lortkipanidze
(1949–)
No image.png 31 July 1998 11 May 2000 Union of Citizens of Georgia
3 Giorgi Arsenishvili
(1942–2010)
No image.png 11 May 2000 21 December 2001 Union of Citizens of Georgia
4 Avtandil Jorbenadze
(1951–)
No image.png 21 December 2001 27 November 2003 Union of Citizens of Georgia
5 Zurab Zhvania
(1963–2005)
Surab Schwania.jpg 27 November 2003 17 February 2004 United National Movement
Prime Ministers
No. Name
(Born–Died)
Picture Took Office Left Office Party
4 Zurab Zhvania
(1963–2005)
Surab Schwania.jpg 17 February 2004 3 February 2005 United National Movement
Mikheil Saakashvili
(1967–)
(acting)[8]
President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili in Tbilisi, March 22, 2008.jpg 3 February 2005 17 February 2005 United National Movement
5 Zurab Noghaideli
(1964–)
Zurab Nogaideli.jpg 17 February 2005 16 November 2007 United National Movement
Giorgi Baramidze
(1968–)
(acting)[9]
Giorgi baramidze.jpg 16 November 2007 22 November 2007 United National Movement
6 Lado Gurgenidze
(1970–)
Lado Gurgenidze (August 25, 2008).jpg 22 November 2007 1 November 2008 Independent
7 Grigol Mgaloblishvili
(1973–)
Grigol Mgaloblishvili (November 20, 2008) (A).jpg 1 November 2008 6 February 2009 Independent
8 Nika Gilauri
(1975–)
Nika Gilauri (Thailand, 21 April 2010).jpg 6 February 2009 4 July 2012 Independent
9 Vano Merabishvili
(1968–)
Ivane Merabishvili.jpg 4 July 2012 25 October 2012 United National Movement
10 Bidzina Ivanishvili
(1956–)
Bidzina Ivanishvili 2013-07-19.jpg 25 October 2012 20 November 2013 Georgian Dream
11 Irakli Garibashvili
(1982–)
Irakli Garibashvili 2013. 2 (cropped).jpg 20 November 2013 30 December 2015 Georgian Dream
12 Giorgi Kvirikashvili
(1967–)
Giorgi kvirikashvili.jpg 30 December 2015 13 June 2018 Georgian Dream
13 Mamuka Bakhtadze
(1982–)
Mamuka Bakhtadze.png 20 June 2018 2 September 2019 Georgian Dream
14 Giorgi Gakharia
(1975–)
Giorgi Gakharia.jpg 8 September 2019 Incumbent Georgian Dream

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Article 55, Section 1–5 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  2. ^ a b Article 56, Section 1–5 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  3. ^ Article 25, Section 2 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  4. ^ Article 53, Section 2 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  5. ^ Article 72, Section 1 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  6. ^ Article 73, Section 1 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  7. ^ Prime Minister of the rebel government at Zugdidi 24 September—6 November 1993
  8. ^ Saakashvili took responsibilities as Prime minister (in Russian)
  9. ^ Acting Prime minister of Georgia criticized peacekeepers, CIS and Russia (in Russian) Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine