Prime Minister of Indonesia
|Prime Minister of Indonesia|
|Formation||14 November 1945|
|First holder||Sutan Sjahrir|
|Final holder||Raden Djuanda Kartawidjaja (official)
|Abolished||9 July 1959 (Constitutional basis revoked)
25 July 1966 (Resignation of Sukarno)
Indonesia, in its various incarnations, had the position of Prime Minister (Indonesian: Perdana Menteri Republik Indonesia) from 1945 until 1966. During this period, the Prime Minister was in charge of the Cabinet of Indonesia, one of the three branches of government along with the Central Indonesian National Committee and the President. Following his 1959 decree, President Sukarno assumed the role and powers of Prime Minister until his resignation in 1966.
The 1945 Constitution of Indonesia states that Indonesia is built around a presidential system; as such, there were no constitutional provisions for a Prime Minister. Nevertheless, beginning in 1945 a Prime Minister was chosen to head the Cabinet. The position of Prime Minister was subsequently guaranteed by Article 52 of the Provisional Constitution of 1950.
In practice, the Prime Minister was responsible to the Working Body of the Central Indonesian National Committee (Indonesian: Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat, or KNIP) and had to consult the President before making any major decisions. If the Prime Minister came into conflict with the KNIP or President, another could be chosen.
Due to the instability of the coalition Cabinets, Prime Ministers often faced votes of no confidence. Every major policy change had a chance to be opposed, either by the government or opposition. As such, some Cabinets lasted only a few months.
On 5 July 1959, Sukarno issued a Presidential Decree declaring that, due to the inability of the Konstituante to reach a two-thirds majority, the 1945 Constitution would be reinstated; this removed the constitutional foundation for the office of Prime Minister. However, on 9 July of that same year, Sukarno took on the title of Prime Minister in addition to the Presidency; later using the phrase "I am President and Prime Minister" as a dominant message in his speeches. After the abortive coup against the government in 1965 and the release of a document transferring all political power to Suharto, Sukarno lost the title of Prime Minister together with the Presidency.
List of Prime Ministers of Indonesia
|Term of Office||Political Party||President(s)|
|14 November 1945||3 July 1947||Socialist Party||Sukarno|
|3 July 1947||29 January 1948||Socialist Party|
|3||Dr. Mohammad Hatta
|29 January 1948||5 September 1950||Non-partisan|
|29 January 1948||16 January 1950||Non-partisan|
|16 January 1950||5 September 1950||Non-partisan|
|5 September 1950||26 April 1951||Masyumi Party|
|26 April 1951||1 April 1952||Masyumi Party|
|1 April 1952||30 July 1953||Indonesian National Party|
|30 July 1953||11 August 1955||Indonesian National Party|
|11 August 1955||20 March 1956||Masyumi Party|
|20 March 1956||9 April 1957||Indonesian National Party|
|9 April 1957||9 July 1959||Non-partisan|
|9 July 1959||25 July 1966||Non-partisan|
- List of Presidents of Indonesia
- List of Vice Presidents of Indonesia
- Elections in Indonesia
- Politics of Indonesia
- Abdullah 2009, p. 129
- "Undang-Undang Republik Serikat Nomor 7 Tahun 1950 tentang Perubahan Konstitusi Sementara Republik Indonesia Serika Mendjadi Undang-Undang Dasar Sementara Republik Indonesia" [Law of the United Republic Number 7 of the Year 1950 regarding the Change of the Provisional Constitution of the United Republic of Indonesia to Become the Basic Laws of the Indonesian Republic] (PDF) (in Indonesian). Government of Indonesia. 15 August 1950. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Abdullah 2009, p. 130
- Abudllah 2009, p. 245
- Ricklefs 2001, p. 322
- Abdullah 2009, p. 347
- Ricklefs 2001, p. 351
- Dutch prisoner from 19 December 1948 to 13 July 1949
- President, self-appointed as Prime Minister
- Abdullah, Taufik (2009). Indonesia: Towards Democracy. Singapore: Institute of South-East Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-365-0. OCLC 646982290. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Ricklefs, M. C. (2001). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200 (3rd ed.). Hampshire, England: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-24380-3. OCLC 49030264. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
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