Prime Minister of Malaysia

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Prime Minister of Malaysia
Office-of-Prime-Minister-Of-Malaysia.png
Logo of the Office of the Prime Minister of Malaysia
Najib Razak 2008-08-21.jpg
Incumbent
Najib Razak

since 3 April 2009
Government of Malaysia
Prime Minister's Department
Style Yang Amat Berhormat (The Most Honourable)
Member of Cabinet
Reports to Parliament
Residence Seri Perdana
Seat Central Main Block of Perdana Putra, Putrajaya
Appointer Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Term length While commanding the confidence of the lower house of Parliament
With General Elections held no more than five years apart
Constituting instrument Federal Constitution of Malaysia
Inaugural holder Tunku Abdul Rahman
Formation 31 August 1957; 59 years ago (1957-08-31)
Deputy Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
Salary MYR22,826.65 monthly[1]
Website www.pmo.gov.my
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Malaysia

The Prime Minister of Malaysia (Malay: Perdana Menteri Malaysia) is the chairman of the Cabinet and thus head of government for Malaysia, charged with advising the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution. It is in practice, the most powerful political position in Malaysia. As stated in the federal constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall select as Prime Minister the person most likely to command the confidence of the elected House of Representatives; this individual is typically the leader of the political party that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.

The Prime Minister has always been from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) part of Barisan Nasional (previously Alliance) since independence. Tunku Abdul Rahman was the Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya, restyled to Prime Minister of Malaysia on 16 September 1963 after the formation of Malaysia. Federation of Malaya became independent on 31 August 1957.[2]

The 6th and current prime minister is Najib Razak, who took office on 3 April 2009.

Appointment[edit]

According to the federal constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint as Prime Minister to preside over the Cabinet and requires such Prime Minister to be a member of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives) who in his judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House and must not a Malaysian citizen by naturalisation or by registration. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the Prime Minister's advice shall appoint other Ministers from either Dewan Rakyat or Dewan Negara.

The Prime Minister and his cabinet ministers must take and subscribe in the presence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong the oath of office and allegiance as well as the oath of secrecy before they can exercise the functions of office. The Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to Parliament of Malaysia. The members of the Cabinet shall not hold any office of profit and engage in any trade, business or profession that will cause conflict of interest. The Prime Minister's Department (sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister's Office) is the body and ministry in which the Prime Minister exercises its functions and powers.

If a government cannot get its appropriation (budget) legislation passed by the House of Representatives, or the house passes a vote of "no confidence" in the government, the Prime Minister is bound by convention to resign immediately. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong's choice of replacement prime minister will be dictated by the circumstances. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless the appointment of any Minister shall have been revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister but any Minister may resign his office.

Following a resignation in other circumstances, defeated in an election or the death of a prime minister, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong will generally appoint as Prime Minister the person voted by the governing party as their new leader.

Powers[edit]

The power of the prime minister is subject to a number of limitations. Prime ministers removed as leader of his or her party, or whose government loses a vote of no confidence in the House of Representatives, must advise a new election of the lower house or resign the office or be dismissed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The defeat of a supply bill (one that concerns the spending of money) or unable to pass important policy-related legislation is seen to require the resignation of the government or dissolution of Parliament, much like a non-confidence vote, since a government that cannot spend money is hamstrung, also called loss of supply.

The prime minister's party will normally have a majority in the House of Representatives and party discipline is exceptionally strong in Malaysian politics, so passage of the government's legislation through the House of Representatives is mostly a formality.

Under the Constitution, the Prime Minister’s role includes advising the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on:

  • the appointment of the federal ministers (full members of cabinet);
  • the appointment of the federal deputy ministers, parliamentary secretaries (non-full members of cabinet);
  • the appointment of 44 out of 70 Senators in the Dewan Negara;
  • the summoning and adjournment of sittings of the Dewan Rakyat;
  • the appointment of judges of the superior courts (which are the High Courts, the Court of Appeal and the Federal Court);
  • the appointment of the Attorney-General and the Auditor-General;
  • the appointment of the chairmen and members of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, Election Commission, Police Force Commission, Education Service Commission, National Finance Council and Armed Forces Council; and
  • the appointment of the Governors of Malacca, Penang, Sabah and Sarawak.

Caretaker Prime Minister[edit]

Under Article 55(3) of Constitution of Malaysia, the lower house of Parliament unless sooner dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong with his own discretion on the advice of the prime minister shall continue for five years from the date of its first meeting. Article 55(4) of the Constitution permits a delay of 60 days of general election to be held from the date of dissolution and Parliament shall be summoned to meet on a date not later than 120 days from the date of dissolution. Conventionally, between the dissolution of one Parliament and the convening of the next, the prime minister and the cabinet remain in office in a caretaker capacity.

Acting Prime Minister[edit]

From time to time prime ministers are required to leave the country on business and a deputy is appointed to take their place during that time. In the days before jet aeroplanes, such absences could be for extended periods.

List of Prime Ministers of Malaysia[edit]

Colour key (for political parties):
  Alliance Party   Barisan Nasional

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Political party[a] Term of office Cabinet Electoral mandates
(Parliaments)
Refs
1 Tunku abd rahman.jpg Tunku Abdul Rahman
(1903–1990)
MLC for Sungei Muda, 1955–1959
MP for Kuala Kedah, 1959–1973
Alliance Party (UMNO) 31 August 1957 22 September 1970 1. Rahman I 1955 (Malaya)
2. Rahman II 1959 (1st) (Malaya)
3. Rahman III 1964 (2nd) (Malaya)
4. Rahman IV 1969 (3rd) (Malaysia)
First Malayan Five-Year Plan; Malayan Emergency; Second Malayan Five-Year Plan; National Education Policy; Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation; Malaysia Agreement; PAP–UMNO relations; Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965; 1966 Sarawak Emergency; First Malaysia Plan; Association of Southeast Asian Nations; Organisation of Islamic Cooperation; 13 May Incident; Served as Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of External Affairs, Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Minister of Youth, Culture and Sports. He is often referred to as Father of Independence (Bapa Kemerdekaan) and Father of Malaysia (Bapa Malaysia).
2 Tun Abdul Razak (MY 2nd PM).jpg Abdul Razak Hussein
(1922–1976)
MLC for Semantan, 1955–1959
MP for Pekan, 1959–1976
Alliance Party (UMNO) 22 September 1970 14 January 1976 5. Razak I – (3rd)
BN (UMNO) 6. Razak II 1974 (4th)
Razak Report; National Operations Council; 1971 constitutional amendments; Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality; National Culture Policy; National Energy Policy; National Petroleum Policy; Second Malaysia Plan; Malaysian New Economic Policy; The youngest to be elected in the office, at the age of 48. Served as Minister of Education, Minister of Defence, Minister of Rural Development, Minister of National and Rural Development, Minister of Lands and Mines, Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Finance. He is referred to as Father of Development (Bapa Pembangunan)
3 Tun Hussein Onn (MY 3rd PM).jpg Hussein Onn
(1922–1990)
MP for Johore Bahru Timor, 1971–1974
MP for Sri Gading, 1974–1981
BN (UMNO) 14 January 1976 16 July 1981 7. Hussein I – (4th)
8. Hussein II 1978 (5th)
Third Malaysia Plan; 1977 Kelantan Emergency; Malaysian Technical Corporation Plan; Fourth Malaysia Plan. Served as Minister of Education, Minister of Commerce and Industry, Minister of Finance, Minister of Coordination of Public Corporations, Minister of Defence, Minister of Federal Territories. He is referred to as Father of Unity (Bapa Perpaduan)
4 Mahathir Mohamad 2007.jpg Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
MP for Kubang Pasu Barat, 1964–1969
MP for Kubang Pasu, 1974–2004
BN (UMNO) 16 July 1981 31 October 2003 9. Mahathir I – (5th)
10. Mahathir II 1982 (6th)
11. Mahathir III 1986 (7th)
12. Mahathir IV 1990 (8th)
13. Mahathir V 1995 (9th)
14. Mahathir VI 1999 (10th)
Clean, Fair and Trustworthy; Look East Policy; Privatisation Policy; Malaysia Incorporated Policy; Buy British Last; Leadership by Example; 70 Million Population Policy; Heavy Industry Policy; Application of Islamic Values Policy; 1983 constitutional amendments; Fifth Malaysia Plan; 1986 Sabah Emergency; Operation Lalang; 1988 constitutional amendments; Vision 2020; Sixth Malaysia Plan; 1993 constitutional amendments; Seventh Malaysia Plan; Eighth Malaysia Plan; He is the longest-serving Prime Minister of Malaysia. He led the BN into 5 consecutive election victories. Served as Minister of Education, Minister of Commerce and Industry, Minister of Defence, Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Finance. He is referred to as Father of Modernisation (Bapa Pemodenan)
5 AB April 2008.jpg Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
(b. 1939)
MP for Kepala Batas, 1978–2013
BN (UMNO) 31 October 2003 3 April 2009 15. Abdullah I – (10th)
16. Abdullah II 2004 (11th)
17. Abdullah III 2008 (12th)
Ninth Malaysia Plan; The oldest to be elected in the office, at the age of 64. Served as Minister without Portfolio, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, Minister of Education, Minister of Defence, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Finance, Minister of Internal Security. He is referred to as Father of Human Capital Development (Bapa Pembangunan Modal Insan)
6 Najib Razak 2008-08-21.jpg Najib Razak
(b. 1953)
MP for Pekan, 1976–1982,
since 1986
BN (UMNO) 3 April 2009 Incumbent 18. Najib I – (12th)
19. Najib II 2013 (13th)
1Malaysia; Tenth Malaysia Plan; Eleventh Malaysia Plan; Prior to his appointment as PM, he served as Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports, Minister of Youth and Sports, Minister of Defence, Minister of Education, Minister of Finance. He is referred to as Father of Transformation (Bapa Transformasi)

Note

  1. ^ This column names only the prime minister's party. The federal government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; those are not listed here.

Living former Prime Ministers[edit]

Prime ministers are usually granted certain privileges after leaving office at government expense. Former prime ministers continue to be important national figures.

Name Term of office Date of birth
Mahathir Mohamad 1981–2003 10 July 1925 (age 91)
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi 2003–2009 26 November 1939 (age 77)

The most recently deceased prime minister was Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903–1990), who died on 6 December 1990.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CPPS Policy Factsheet: Remuneration of Elected Officials in Malaysia" (PDF). Centre for Public Policy Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  2. ^ The UK Statute Law Database: Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 (c. 60)
  3. ^ "Tokoh Negara" (in Malay). Malaysia Merdeka. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Vigneswaran Kannan (11 March 2012). "We should not forget Sambanthan's contributions". The Star. Retrieved 7 September 2012. [dead link]
  5. ^ "Anwar akan menjalankan tugas Presiden UMNO" (PDF). library.perdana.org.my. 10 May 1997. 
  6. ^ "Anwar memangku Presiden UMNO" (PDF). library.perdana.org.my. 11 May 1997. 
  7. ^ Kronologi membawa kepada pelucutan semua jawatan. arkibcmk.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.[unreliable source?]