Prime Minister of Malaysia

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Prime Minister of Malaysia
Perdana Menteri Malaysia
ڤردان منتري مليسيا
Emblem of the Prime Minister's Office
Incumbent
Anwar Ibrahim
since 24 November 2022
Government of Malaysia
Prime Minister's Department
StylePrime Minister
(informal)
Yang Amat Berhormat
(formal)
The Right Honourable
(within the Commonwealth)
His Excellency
(diplomatic)
Member of
Reports toParliament
ResidenceSeri Perdana, Putrajaya
SeatPerdana Putra, Putrajaya
AppointerYang di-Pertuan Agong
Term lengthFive years, renewable
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Malaysia
Inaugural holderTunku Abdul Rahman
Formation31 August 1957; 66 years ago (1957-08-31)
SalaryRM22,826.65/US$ 5,106 per month[1]
Websitewww.pmo.gov.my

The prime minister of Malaysia (Malay: Perdana Menteri Malaysia; Jawi: ڤردان منتري مليسيا) is the head of government of Malaysia. The prime minister directs the executive branch of the federal government. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the prime minister as a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs. This person is usually the leader of the party winning the most seats in a general election.

After the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, Tunku Abdul Rahman, the chief minister of the Federation of Malaya, became the first prime minister of Malaysia.

Appointment[edit]

The prime minister's office at Perdana Putra, Putrajaya

According to the Federal Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint a prime minister to preside over the Cabinet. The prime minister is to be a member of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives), and who in his majesty's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House. This person must be a Malaysian citizen, but cannot have obtained their citizenship by means of naturalisation or registration. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall appoint other ministers from either the Dewan Rakyat or Dewan Negara (Senate) with the prime minister's advice.

The prime minister and his cabinet ministers must take and subscribe to the oath of office and allegiance as well as the oath of secrecy in the presence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong before they can exercise functions of office. The Cabinet is collectively accountable to the Parliament of Malaysia. The members of the Cabinet shall not hold any office of profit and engage in any trade, business or profession that will cause a conflict of interest. The Prime Minister's Department (sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister's Office) is the body and ministry in which the prime minister exercises his/her functions and powers.

In the case where a government cannot get its appropriation (budget) legislation passed by the House of Representatives, or when the House passes a vote of "no confidence" in the government, the prime minister is bound by convention to resign immediately. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong's choice of replacement prime minister will be dictated by the circumstances. All other ministers shall continue to hold office by the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless if the appointment of any minister is revoked by his majesty upon the advice of the prime minister. Any minister may resign his office.

Following a resignation in other circumstances, defeat in an election, or the death of a prime minister, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong would generally appoint as the new leader of the governing party or coalition as new Prime Minister.

Malaysia uses first-past-the-post-voting system, which means a party or coalition who gets 112 seats in lower house will lead the government.[2]

Powers[edit]

The power of the prime minister is subject to a number of limitations. Prime ministers removed as leader of his or her party, or whose government loses a vote of no confidence in the House of Representatives, must advise a new election of the lower house or resign the office. The defeat of a supply bill (one that concerns the spending of money) or unable to pass important policy-related legislation is seen to require the resignation of the government or dissolution of Parliament, much like a non-confidence vote, since a government that cannot spend money is hamstrung, also called loss of supply.

The prime minister's party will normally have a majority in the House of Representatives and party discipline is exceptionally strong in Malaysian politics, so passage of the government's legislation through the House of Representatives is mostly a formality.

Under the Constitution, the prime minister's role includes advising the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on:

  • the appointment of the federal ministers (full members of cabinet);
  • the appointment of the federal deputy ministers, parliamentary secretaries (non-full members of cabinet);
  • the appointment of 44 out of 70 Senators in the Dewan Negara;
  • the summoning and adjournment of sittings of the Dewan Rakyat;
  • the appointment of judges of the superior courts (which are the High Courts, the Court of Appeal, and the Federal Court);
  • the appointment of the attorney-general and the auditor-general; and
  • the appointment of the chairmen and members of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, Election Commission, Police Force Commission, Education Service Commission, National Finance Council, and Armed Forces Council;

Under Article 39 of the Constitution, executive authority is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, Article 40(1) states that in most cases, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is bound to exercise his powers on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority. Thus, in practice, actual governing authority is vested in the Prime Minister and Cabinet.

Acting prime minister[edit]

From time to time, prime ministers are required to leave the country on business and a deputy is appointed to take their place during that time. In the days before jet aeroplanes, such absences could be for extended periods. However, the position can be fully decided by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the king of Malaysia when the position remains empty following the sudden resignation or death of the prime minister.[citation needed]

Caretaker prime minister[edit]

Under Article 55(3) of Constitution of Malaysia, the lower house of Parliament, unless sooner dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong with his own discretion on the advice of the prime minister, shall continue for five years from the date of its first meeting. Article 55(4) of the Constitution permits a delay of 60 days in the holding of the general election from the date of dissolution and Parliament shall be summoned to meet on a date not later than 120 days from the date of dissolution. Conventionally, between the dissolution of one Parliament and the convening of the next, the prime minister and the cabinet remain in office in a caretaker capacity.[citation needed]

List of prime ministers of Malaysia[edit]

Colour key (for political coalitions/parties):

  Alliance Party (2)   Barisan Nasional (6)   Pakatan Harapan (2)   Perikatan Nasional (1)

# Portrait Prime Minister
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Term of office Mandate[a] Party[b] Government Monarch(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
1 His Highness
Tunku Abdul Rahman
تونکو عبد الرحمن
(1903–1990)
MP for Kuala Kedah
31 August
1957
22 September
1970
13 years, 23 days 1955 Alliance (UMNO) Rahman I Abdul Rahman
Hisamuddin
Putra
Ismail Nasiruddin
Abdul Halim
1959 Rahman II
1964 Rahman III
1969 Rahman IV
2 Tun Haji
Abdul Razak Hussein
عبد الرزاق حسين
(1922–1976)
MP for Pekan
22 September
1970
14 January
1976[c]
5 years, 115 days Alliance (UMNO) Razak I Abdul Halim
Yahya Petra
1974 BN (UMNO) Razak II
3 Tun
Hussein Onn
حسين عون
(1922–1990)
MP for Sri Gading
15 January
1976
16 July
1981
5 years, 183 days BN (UMNO) Hussein I Yahya Petra
Ahmad Shah
1978 Hussein II
4 Tun Dr.
Mahathir Mohamad
محاضير محمد
(b.1925)
MP for Kubang Pasu
16 July
1981
30 October
2003
22 years, 107 days BN (UMNO) Mahathir I Ahmad Shah
Iskandar
Azlan Shah
Ja'afar
Salahuddin
Sirajuddin
1982 Mahathir II
1986 Mahathir III
1990 Mahathir IV
1995 Mahathir V
1999 Mahathir VI
5 Tun
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
عبد الله احمد بدوي
(b.1939)
MP for Kepala Batas
31 October
2003
3 April
2009
5 years, 155 days BN (UMNO) Abdullah I Sirajuddin
Mizan Zainal Abidin
2004 Abdullah II
2008 Abdullah III
6 Dato' Sri Haji
Najib Razak
نجيب رزاق
(b.1953)
MP for Pekan
3 April
2009
9 May
2018
9 years, 37 days BN (UMNO) Najib I Mizan Zainal Abidin
Abdul Halim
Muhammad V
2013 Najib II
7 Tun Dr.
Mahathir Mohamad
محاضير محمد
(b.1925)
MP for Langkawi
10 May
2018
24 February
2020
1 year, 291 days 2018 PH (BERSATU) Mahathir VII Muhammad V
Abdullah
During this interval, the incumbent Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad was the Interim Prime Minister. (24 February–1 March 2020) Abdullah
8 Tan Sri Dato' Haji
Muhyiddin Yassin
محيي الدين ياسين
(b.1947)
MP for Pagoh
1 March
2020
16 August
2021
1 year, 169 days PN (BERSATU) Muhyiddin
During this interval, the incumbent Prime Minister, Muhyiddin Yassin was the Caretaker Prime Minister. (16–21 August 2021)
9 Dato' Sri
Ismail Sabri Yaakob
اسماعيل صبري يعقوب
(b.1960)
MP for Bera
21 August
2021
24 November
2022
1 year, 96 days BN (UMNO) Ismail Sabri
10 Dato' Seri
Anwar Ibrahim
انور ابراهيم‎
(b.1947)
MP for Tambun
24 November
2022
Incumbent 1 year, 93 days (2022) PH (PKR) Anwar Abdullah
Ibrahim Iskandar

Timeline[edit]

Anwar IbrahimIsmail Sabri YaakobMuhyiddin YassinMahathir MohamadMohd Najib Abdul RazakAbdullah Ahmad BadawiMahathir MohamadHussein OnnAbdul Razak HusseinTunku Abdul Rahman

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Legend for mandate portion of column:
    1955
    a year
    indicates a general election won by the government or that led to the formation of a government (the year links to the election's article);
    (2022)
    a parenthesised year
    indicates an election resulting in no single party or coalition winning a parliamentary majority (the year links to the election's article);
    a dash
    indicates the formation of a majority government without an election.
  2. ^ This column names only the Prime Minister's party. The government may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; those are not listed here.
  3. ^ Died in office.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CPPS Policy Factsheet: Remuneration of Elected Officials in Malaysia" (PDF). Centre for Public Policy Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  2. ^ "Malaysia Gelar Pemilu Hari Ini". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 19 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.