Prime Minister of Croatia

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President of the Government of Croatia
Predsjednik / Predsjednica Vlade Hrvatske
PM Andrej Plenković (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Andrej Plenković

since 19 October 2016
Style His Excellency[1]
Appointer President of the Republic
Inaugural holder Stjepan Mesić
Formation 30 May 1990
Website www.vlada.hr
Coat of arms
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Croatia
Constitution

The Prime Minister of Croatia (Croatian: Premijer/ Premijerka Hrvatske), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Predsjednik/ Predsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske), is Croatia's head of government, and is the de facto most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Croatian system of government. Following the first-time establishment of the office in 1945, the 1990-2001 semi-presidential period is the only exception where the President of Croatia held de facto authority. In the formal Croatian order of precedence, however, the position of prime minister is the third highest state office, after the President of the Republic and the Speaker of the Parliament.

The Constitution of Croatia prescribes that "Parliament supervises the Government" (Article 81) and that "the President of the Republic ensures the regular and balanced functioning and stability of government" (as a whole; Article 94), while the Government is introduced in Article 108.[2] Since 2000, the prime minister has had various added constitutional powers and is mentioned before the Government itself in the text of the Constitution, in Articles 87, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104.[2] The current Prime Minister of Croatia is Andrej Plenković. The Government of Croatia meets in Banski dvori, a historical building located on the west side of St. Mark's Square in Zagreb.

Name[edit]

The official name of the office, literally translated, is "President of the Government" (Predsjednik Vlade), rather than "Prime Minister" (Prvi Ministar). When the office was first established in 1945, the name "President of the Government" was introduced. The name of the office was changed 8 years later with the Yugoslav constitutional reforms of 1953, into "President of the Executive Council" (Predsjednik Izvršnog vijeća). After another round of constitutional reforms in 1990, the office was renamed back to its original 1945-1953 title of "President of the Government". For all periods, however, the term "Prime Minister" is colloquially used (especially in the media) in English-language usage.

History[edit]

The Royal Government of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (1868-1918) was headed by Ban (Viceroy), who represented the King. The first head of government of Croatia as a constituent republic of Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was Vladimir Bakarić, who assumed the position on 14 April 1945. The position was then, as it is today, the most powerful public office in the state (the only historical exception being the extremely powerful semi-presidential system used from 1990 until 2000, during which the President was by far the most significant figure in the government hierarchy). In post-World War II Socialist Republic of Croatia, a single-party system was in place. During this time there were twelve heads of government (using the title President of the Executive Council), all from the ranks of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), which was reformed and renamed into the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ) in 1952. The federal party was organized into six sub-organizations - the republic parties, one for each of the six federal republics. Croatian politicians and prime ministers of the period were members of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia through their membership in the League of Communists of Croatia (SKH), the Croatian part of the federal party (as was respectively the case with all Yugoslav politicians). The office remained the central post of Croatian politics in spite of the institution of a collective Presidency in 1974 (previously the mostly-nominal function of the head of state belonged to the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament, the Sabor).

After the constitutional amendments that allowed for multi-party elections in Croatia, the Parliament enacted amendments to the constitution (25 July) which eliminated socialist references and adopted new national symbols. The newly elected tricameral Parliament proceeded to change the Constitution of Croatia, and on 22 December 1990, this so-called "Christmas Constitution" fundamentally defined the Republic of Croatia and its governmental structure. From the 1990 constitutional reforms onward Croatia was a semi-presidential republic, which meant the President of Croatia had broad executive powers (further expanded with laws to a point of superpresidentialism), including the appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other officials in the government. During this period, lasting until constitutional amendments in late 2000, Croatia had seven prime ministers. The first Prime Minister of Croatia since the 1990 constitutional reforms was Stjepan Mesić, assuming office on 30 May 1990.[3][4]

Following the May 1991 independence referendum in which 93% of voters approved secession, Croatia formally proclaimed independence from Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991, with Josip Manolić continuing in the role of prime minister as head of government of an independent Croatia. However, the country then signed the July 1991 Brijuni Agreement in which it agreed to postpone further activities towards severing ties with Yugoslavia. Meanwhile, the Croatian War of Independence ensued, and Franjo Gregurić was appointed to lead a Government of National Unity. In October the same year, Croatia formally severed all remaining legal ties with the Yugoslav Federation.

Following the January 2000 general election the winning centre-left coalition led by the Social Democratic Party amended the Constitution and effectively stripped the President of most of his executive powers, strengthening the role of the Parliament and the Prime Minister, turning Croatia into a parliamentary republic. The Prime Minister again (as before 1990) became the foremost post in Croatian politics.

To date there have been twelve Prime Ministers who have chaired 14 governments since the first multi-party elections. Nine Prime Ministers were members of the Croatian Democratic Union during their terms of office, two were members of the Social Democratic Party and one was not a member of any political party. Since independence there has been one female Prime Minister (Jadranka Kosor), while Savka Dabčević-Kučar was the first woman (not only in Croatia, but in Europe) to hold an office equivalent to a head of government as Chairman of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (1967-1969).

List of officeholders (1945–present)[edit]

  League of Communists of Yugoslavia   Croatian Democratic Union   Social Democratic Party of Croatia   Independent

Presidents of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (1945–1990)[edit]

No. Name
(Born–Died)
Portrait Term of Office Political party Election Cabinet Cabinet parties
Took Office Left Office Duration
N/A Pavle Gregorić[citation needed]
(1892–1989)
Pavle Gregorić.jpg 7 March 1945 14 April 1945 39 days Communist Party of Yugoslavia Gregorić KPH
1 Vladimir Bakarić
(1912–1983)
Vladimir Bakarić (1).jpg 14 April 1945 18 December 1953 8 years, 7 months, 18 days Communist Party of Yugoslavia
(party renamed in 1952)
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
(party renamed in 1952)
Bakarić
1st Executive Council
KPH
President of the Government of the People's Republic of Croatia from 1945 to 1953. On 6 February 1953 he was elected to the new position of President of the Executive Council. Simultaneously held these positions along with the post of Secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Croatia. Subsequently, became President of the Parliament of the People's Republic of Croatia (1953–1963).
2 Jakov Blažević
(1912–1996)
Jakov Blažević.jpg 18 December 1953 10 July 1962 8 years, 7 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia 2nd Executive Council
3rd Executive Council
SKH
Resigned as President of the Executive Council to take the post of president of the Chamber of Commerce of Yugoslavia.[5] He was replaced by Zvonko Brkić for the remainder of the term of the 3rd Executive Council.
3 Zvonko Brkić
(1912–1977)
No image.png 10 July 1962 June 1963 11 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia 4th Executive Council SKH
Member of the Executive Council from 1953 to 1963. After Jakov Blažević's resignation as President of the Executive Council he served the remainder of his term. He subsequently became Vice President of the Federal Assembly (1963–1967).
4 Mika Špiljak
(1916–2007)
Mika Špiljak.jpg June 1963 11 May 1967 3 years, 11 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia 5th Executive Council SKH
Became President of the Federal Executive Council on 16 May 1967.
5 Savka Dabčević-Kučar
(1923–2009)
Savka Dabcevic Kucar.jpg 11 May 1967 8 May 1969 2 years League of Communists of Yugoslavia 6th Executive Council SKH
After her term expired she was immediately appointed Secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Croatia (1969–1971).
6 Dragutin Haramija
(1923–2012)
No image.png May 1969 28 December 1971 2 years, 7 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia 7th Executive Council SKH
Denounced at the XXI. Meeting of the Presidency of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia held in Karađorđevo on 1 and 2 December 1971 and forced to resign. Subsequently, withdrew from politics.
7 Ivo Perišin
(1925–2008)
Ivo Perisin.jpg 28 December 1971 8 May 1974[6] 2 years, 4 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia 8th Executive Council SKH
Subsequently, served as President of the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (1974–1978).
8 Jakov Sirotković
(1922–2002)
No image.png 8 May 1974 9 May 1978 4 years, 1 month League of Communists of Yugoslavia 9th Executive Council SKH
9 Petar Fleković
(1932–)
No image.png 9 May 1978 May 1982 4 years League of Communists of Yugoslavia 10th Executive Council SKH
Subsequently, named director of INA (1982–1990).
10 Ante Marković
(1924–2011)
No image.png May 1982 20 November 1985 4 years League of Communists of Yugoslavia 11th Executive Council SKH
Elected by Parliament as President of the Presidency of SR Croatia on 10 May 1986.
11 Ema Derossi-Bjelajac
(1926-)
No image.png 20 November 1985 10 May 1986 4 years League of Communists of Yugoslavia 12th Executive Council SKH
Concurrently serving as President of the Presidency of SR Croatia
12 Antun Milović
(1934–2008)
No image.png 10 May 1986 30 May 1990 4 years, 21 days League of Communists of Yugoslavia
(until January 1990)
Social Democratic Party
(from January 1990)
13th Executive Council SKH/SDP

Prime Ministers of the Republic of Croatia (1990–present)[edit]

(*) While Stjepan Mesić formally held the post of President of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia and not of Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia during his term in office (May-August 1990), he is considered by the Government of Croatia to have been the first Prime Minister of modern-day Croatia as the head of the first Croatian government cabinet (in fact the 14th Executive Council of SR Croatia) following the first multi-party elections in 1990 and the constituting of the first multi-party Sabor. When Josip Manolić took the title of Prime Minister in August 1990, Croatia was still legally within the Yugoslav federation and declared independence on 25 June 1991, which was followed by the severing of all remaining legal ties with Yugoslavia on 8 October 1991, during the term of Franjo Gregurić, the third Prime Minister since the 1990 elections. Thus, it is as of 2016 officially considered that there have been 12 Prime Ministers of the Republic of Croatia to date and that the office of Prime Minister is not a direct continuation of or a successor to the post of President of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, which was formally and legally one of six constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (a federal country), and was thus not an independent nation. Namely, the Presidents of the republic's Executive Council, though formally being heads of government, held a sub-national office most similar to modern-day First Ministers in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland or Minister-presidents in German states, and were subordinate to the Federal Executive Council in Belgrade. It is thus legally and technically correct to consider Josip Manolić the first Croatian Prime Minister and head of government in general after independence was achieved in June 1991.

  Denotes pre-independence Prime Ministers
No. Name
(Born–Died)
Portrait Term of Office Political party Election Cabinet Cabinet parties Assembly
-
Confidence
Designated
Took Office
Confidence
Resignation
Left Office
Duration
(13)*
1
Stjepan Mesić
(1934–)
Mesic crop.jpg 30 May 1990 24 August 1990 86 days Croatian Democratic Union 1990 Mesić
(formally 14th Executive Council)*
HDZ 1st Assembly
14*
Josip Manolić
(1920–)
Josip Manolic crop1.jpg 24 August 1990[a] 25 June 1991 327 days Croatian Democratic Union Manolić HDZ 1st Assembly
2
25 June 1991 17 July 1991
3
Franjo Gregurić
(1939–)
17 July 1991[a] 12 August 1992 392 days Croatian Democratic Union Gregurić HDZ-SDP
-HSLS-HKDS
(National unity government)
1st Assembly
4
Hrvoje Šarinić
(1935–2017)
Hrvoje Šarinić.jpg 12 August 1992[a]
8 September 1992
3 April 1993 234 days Croatian Democratic Union 1992 Šarinić HDZ 2nd Assembly
5
Nikica Valentić
(1950–)
Nikica Valentic table crop.jpg 29 March 1993
3 April 1993[a]
7 November 1995 948 days Croatian Democratic Union Valentić HDZ 2nd Assembly
6
Zlatko Mateša
(1949–)
Zlatko Mateša.jpg 4 November 1995
7 November 1995[a]
28 November 1995[7]
27 January 2000 1542 days Croatian Democratic Union 1995 Mateša HDZ 3rd Assembly
-
77/127 MPs
7
Ivica Račan
(1944–2007)
Ivica Račan, facingright.jpg 22 January 2000
27 January 2000[a]
2 February 2000
5 July 2002 (Resigned)
30 July 2002
1426 days Social Democratic Party 2000[8] Račan I SDP-HSLS-HNS
-HSS-IDS-LS
4th Assembly
-
122[9]/151 MPs
(Račan I)
-
84/151 MPs (Račan II)
11 June 2002
30 July 2002
23 December 2003 Račan II SDP-HNS-HSS
-LS-Libra
8
Ivo Sanader
(1953–)
Ivo Sanader table crop.jpg 9 December 2003
23 December 2003
12 January 2008 2022 days Croatian Democratic Union 2003 Sanader I HDZ-DC 5th Assembly
-
88/151 MPs (Sanader I)

6th Assembly
-
82/153 MPs (Sanader II)
15 December 2007
12 January 2008
1 July 2009
(Resigned)

6 July 2009
2007 Sanader II HDZ-HSLS-HSS
-SDSS
9
Jadranka Kosor
(1953–)
Jadranka Kosor Prime Minister.jpg 3 July 2009
6 July 2009
23 December 2011 900 days Croatian Democratic Union Kosor HDZ-HSLS-HSS
-SDSS
6th Assembly
-
83/153 MPs
10
Zoran Milanović
(1966–)
16 obljetnica vojnoredarstvene operacije Oluja 04082011 Zoran Milanovic 38.jpg 14 December 2011
23 December 2011
22 January 2016 1491 days Social Democratic Party 2011 Milanović SDP-HNS
-IDS
7th Assembly
-
89/151 MPs
11
Tihomir Orešković
(1966–)
TihomirOreskovic.jpg 23 December 2015
22 January 2016
16 June 2016
(No confidence)

19 October 2016
271 days Independent 2015 Orešković HDZ-MOST 8th Assembly
-
83/151 MPs
12
Andrej Plenković
(1970–)
Andrej Plenković 2015 (cropped).jpg 10 October 2016
19 October 2016
Incumbent 277 days Croatian Democratic Union 2016 Plenković HDZ-MOST
(until 28 April 2017)
-
HDZ
(from 28 April to 9 June 2017)
-
HDZ-HNS
(from 9 June 2017)
9th Assembly
-
91/151 MPs

Statistics[edit]

# Prime Minister Date of birth Age at ascension
(first term)
Time in office
(total)
Age at retirement
(last term)
Date of death Longevity
1 Mesić, StjepanStjepan Mesić 19341224December 24, 1934(December 24, 1934) 55 15755 years, 157 days 00 0860 years, 86 days 55 24355 years, 243 days Living 30,16282 years, 211 days (Living)
2 Manolić, JosipJosip Manolić 19200322March 22, 1920(March 22, 1920) 70 15570 years, 155 days 00 3270 years, 327 days 71 11771 years, 117 days Living 35,55297 years, 123 days (Living)
3 Gregurić, FranjoFranjo Gregurić 19391012October 12, 1939(October 12, 1939) 51 27851 years, 278 days 01 0261 year, 26 days 52 30552 years, 305 days Living 28,40977 years, 284 days (Living)
4 Szarinić, HrvojeHrvoje Šarinić 19350217February 17, 1935(February 17, 1935) 57 17757 years, 177 days 00 2340 years, 234 days 58 04558 years, 45 days 20170721July 21, 2017 30,10582 years, 154 days
5 Valentić, NikicaNikica Valentić 19501124November 24, 1950(November 24, 1950) 42 13042 years, 130 days 02 2182 years, 218 days 44 34844 years, 348 days Living 24,34866 years, 241 days (Living)
6 Matesza, ZlatkoZlatko Mateša 19490617June 17, 1949(June 17, 1949) 46 14346 years, 143 days 04 0814 years, 81 days 50 22450 years, 224 days Living 24,87368 years, 36 days (Living)
7 Raczan, IvicaIvica Račan 19440224February 24, 1944(February 24, 1944) 55 33755 years, 337 days 03 3303 years, 330 days 59 30259 years, 302 days 20070429April 29, 2007 23,07563 years, 64 days
8 Sanader, IvoIvo Sanader 19530608June 8, 1953(June 8, 1953) 50 19850 years, 198 days 05 1955 years, 195 days 56 02856 years, 28 days Living 23,42164 years, 45 days (Living)
9 Kosor, JadrankaJadranka Kosor 19530701July 1, 1953(July 1, 1953) 56 00556 years, 5 days 02 1702 years, 170 days 58 17558 years, 175 days Living 23,39864 years, 22 days (Living)
10 Milanović, ZoranZoran Milanović 19661030October 30, 1966(October 30, 1966) 45 05445 years, 54 days 04 0304 years, 30 days 49 08449 years, 84 days Living 18,52950 years, 266 days (Living)
11 Orešković, TihomirTihomir Orešković 19660101January 1, 1966(January 1, 1966) 50 02150 years, 21 days 00 2710 years, 271 days 50 29350 years, 292 days Living 18,83151 years, 203 days (Living)
12 Plenković, AndrejAndrej Plenković 19660101April 8, 1970(April 8, 1970) 46 years, 195 days 277 days (Ongoing) Incumbent Living 17,27347 years, 106 days (Living)

Spouses of Prime Ministers[edit]

Name Relation to Prime Minister
Milka Mesić (née Dudundić) wife of Prime Minister Stjepan Mesić
Marija Eker Manolić wife of Prime Minister Josip Manolić
Jozefina Gregurić (née Abramović) wife of Prime Minister Franjo Gregurić
Erika Šarinić wife of Prime Minister Hrvoje Šarinić
Antonela Valentić wife of Prime Minister Nikica Valentić
Sanja Gregurić-Mateša wife of Prime Minister Zlatko Mateša
Dijana Pleština wife of Prime Minister Ivica Račan
Mirjana Sanader (née Šarić) wife of Prime Minister Ivo Sanader
Jadranka Kosor divorced before becoming Prime Minister
Sanja Musić Milanović wife of Prime Minister Zoran Milanović
Sanja Dujmović Orešković wife of Prime Minister Tihomir Orešković
Ana Maslać Plenković wife of Prime Minister Andrej Plenković

Living former Heads of government of Croatia[edit]

There are eleven living former Heads of government (3 former Presidents of the Executive Council of SR Croatia and 8 former Prime Ministers of Croatia). The last former head of government to die was Hrvoje Šarinić (1992-1993)

Presidents of the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (until 1990):

Prime Ministers of the Republic of Croatia (1990–present):

Facts and records of Croatian Prime Ministers (since 30 May 1990)[edit]

Age at appointment[edit]

Age at retirement[edit]

Oldest and youngest living prime ministers[edit]

  • Oldest living prime minister: Josip Manolić (97 years, 123 days)
  • Youngest living prime minister: Andrej Plenković (47 years, 106 days)

Longest and shortest lived prime ministers[edit]

  • Longest-lived prime minister: Josip Manolić (97 years, 123 days)
  • Shortest-lived prime minister: Andrej Plenković (47 years, 106 days)

Longest and shortest retirements[edit]

  • Living prime minister with the longest period lived after leaving office: Stjepan Mesić (26 years, 333 days)
  • Living prime minister with the shortest period lived after leaving office: Tihomir Orešković (277 days)
  • Deceased prime minister with the longest period lived after leaving office: Hrvoje Šarinić (24 years, 109 days)
  • Deceased prime minister with the shortest period lived after leaving office: Ivica Račan (3 years, 127 days)

Age difference between incoming and outgoing officeholders[edit]

  • Largest age difference between an incoming and outgoing prime minister: Franjo Gregurić (born 12 October 1939) was 19 years, 204 days younger than Josip Manolić (born 22 March 1920) whom he succeeded in 1991.
  • Smallest age difference between an incoming and outgoing prime minister: Jadranka Kosor (born 1 July 1953) was 23 days younger than Ivo Sanader (born 8 June 1953) whom she succeeded in 2009.

Length of service[edit]

Terms of office and number of cabinets[edit]

Size of cabinet[edit]

  • Prime minister of cabinet with largest number of members during its duration (including removed or deceased members): Franjo Gregurić (45 members including the Government secretary)
  • Prime Minister of cabinet with smallest number of members during its duration (including removed or deceased members): Ivo Sanader (19 members in First Sanader cabinet)
  • Prime Minister of cabinet with largest number of members on date of formation: Josip Manolić (27 members named on 17 July 1990)
  • Prime Minister of cabinet with smallest number of members on date of formation: Stjepan Mesić (5 members named on 30 May 1990. Another 15 named on 31 May 1990)
  • Prime Minister of cabinet with largest number of members on date of dissolution (excluding removed or deceased members): Franjo Gregurić (30 members on 12 August 1992)
  • Prime Minister of cabinet with smallest number of members on date of dissolution (excluding removed or deceased members): Ivo Sanader (14 members on 12 January 2008 upon dissolution of First Sanader Cabinet)

Number of political parties in cabinet[edit]

  • Prime Ministers of cabinets with largest number of political parties represented in them during their total duration (including removed or deceased members on date of dissolution): Franjo Gregurić and Ivica Račan (First and Second cabinets) (each prime minister had 5 parties represented in their cabinet)
  • Prime Ministers of cabinets with the smallest number of political parties represented in them during their total duration (including removed or deceased members): Stjepan Mesić, Josip Manolić, Hrvoje Šarinić and Zlatko Mateša (each prime minister had only 1 party (the HDZ) represented in their cabinet)
  • Prime Minister of cabinet with the largest number of parties represented in it on the date of its formation: Ivica Račan (5 parties had representation in his First cabinet on 27 January 2000)
  • Prime ministers of cabinets with the smallest number of parties represented in them on the date of their formation: Stjepan Mesić, Josip Manolić, Hrvoje Šarinić and Zlatko Mateša (each prime minister had only 1 party (the HDZ) represented in their cabinet on the date it was formed)
  • Prime Minister of the cabinet with the largest number of political parties represented in it on the date of its dissolution: Ivica Račan (5 parties were represented in his Second cabinet on 23 December 2003)
  • Prime Ministers of cabinets with the smallest number of political parties represented in them on the date of their dissolution: Stjepan Mesić, Josip Manolić, Franjo Gregurić, Hrvoje Šarinić, Nikica Valentić, Zlatko Mateša and Ivo Sanader (First cabinet) (each prime minister had only 1 party (the HDZ) represented in their cabinet on the date it was dissolved)

Female prime ministers[edit]

Other national and international offices held after retirement[edit]

Foreign-born prime ministers[edit]

Prime Ministers born in predecessor states of modern Croatia (before 1991)[edit]

Period lived before Croatian independence was declared (25 June 1991)[edit]

  • Oldest (future or previous) prime minister on date of Croatia's declaration of independence: Josip Manolić (71 years, 95 days)
  • Youngest (future or previous) prime minister on date of Croatia's declaration of independence: Andrej Plenković (21 years, 78 days)

Service under the most heads of state[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^a From 1990 until the constitutional changes in November 2000 (which replaced a powerful semi-presidential system with an incomplete parliamentary system), the term of the Prime Minister began when he was appointed by the President of the Republic, and not from the point when he received a vote of confidence in Parliament.

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1], Protocol and Liaison Service, United Nations.
  2. ^ a b "The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (consolidated text)". Croatian Parliament. Retrieved 2011-02-16. 
  3. ^ "Chronology of Croatian governments" (in Croatian). Croatian Information-Documentation Referral Agency. Retrieved 2011-05-13. 
  4. ^ "Prethodne Vlade RH" [Former Governments of the Republic of Croatia] (in Croatian). Croatian Government. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  5. ^ Bukvić, Nenad (2012). "Izvršno vijeće Sabora Narodne Republike Hrvatske : ustroj i djelovanje (1953–1963)". Arhivski vjesnik (in Croatian). 55: 9–46. 
  6. ^ Bukvić, Nenad (2013). "Izvršno vijeće Sabora Socijalističke Republike Hrvatske: ustroj i djelovanje (1963–1974)". Arhivski vjesnik (in Croatian). 56: 50. 
  7. ^ file:///C:/Users/h.r/Downloads/HS_1995-1999_ZD_1_ocr.pdf
  8. ^ After the changes to the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia the country moved from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system, making the Prime Minister the most powerful office in the country.
  9. ^ file:///C:/Users/h.r/Downloads/Zapisnik_01_sjednice_Zastupnickog_doma_Hrvatskog_drzavnog_sabora.pdf