Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

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Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
Премијер Југославије
Premijer Jugoslavije
Standard of the Prime Minister of SFR Yugoslavia.svg
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg
Longest serving
Josip Broz Tito

2 November 1944 – 29 June 1963
Government of Yugoslavia
Member ofParliament of Yugoslavia
Reports toKing of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) (1918–1945)
President of Yugoslavia (1945–1974)
Presidency of Yugoslavia (1974–1992)
SeatBelgrade, Serbia
NominatorKing of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) (1918–1945)
Communist Party of Yugoslavia Central Committee (1945–1992)
AppointerParliament of Yugoslavia
PrecursorPrime Minister of Serbia
President of the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Formation1 December 1918 (1 December 1918)
First holderStojan Protić
Final holderAnte Marković
Abolished14 July 1992 (14 July 1992)
SuccessionPM of Bosnia and Herzegovina
PM of Croatia
PM of Macedonia
PM of Serbia and Montenegro
PM of Slovenia
DeputyDeputy Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

The Prime Minister of Yugoslavia was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

History[edit]

Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo and Metohija, Baranya, Syrmia, Banat, Bačka and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) on 1 December 1918.

Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship). He renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929, and although introduced the 1931 Constitution, he continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied after the German invasion on 17 April 1941. The monarchy was formally abolished on 29 November 1945.

In 1945 there were ten living former prime ministers. Out of these, Nikola Uzunović, Dušan Simović, Miloš Trifunović and Ivan Šubašić lived in the Democratic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia while Petar Živković, Bogoljub Jevtić, Milan Stojadinović, Dragiša Cvetković, Slobodan Jovanović and Božidar Purić remained in exile.

SFR Yugoslavia[edit]

After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Partisan resistance in occupied Yugoslavia formed a deliberative council, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 the AVNOJ proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and appointed the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ), led by Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito, as its government. Josip Broz Tito was quickly recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, and the royalist government-in-exile in London was pressured into agreeing on a merge with the NKOJ. In order to facilitate this, Ivan Šubašić was appointed by the King to head the London government.

For a period, Yugoslavia had two recognized prime ministers and governments (which both agreed to formally merge as soon as possible): Josip Broz Tito leading the NKOJ in occupied Yugoslavia, and Ivan Šubašić leading the King's government-in-exile in London. With the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in 1944, the two prime ministers agreed that the new joint government would be led by Tito. After the liberation of Yugoslavia's capital Belgrade in October 1944, the joint government was officially formed on 2 November 1944, with Josip Broz Tito as the prime minister.

After the war, elections were held ending in an overwhelming victory for Tito's People's Front. The new parliament deposed King Peter II on 29 November 1945, and declared a Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (in 1963, the state was renamed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The government was first headed by a prime minister up to 14 January 1953, when major decentralization reforms reorganized the government into the Federal Executive Council chaired by a President, who was still usually called "Prime Minister" in non-Yugoslav sources. Josip Broz Tito held the post from 1944 to 1963; from 1953 onward, he was also President of the Republic.

Five out of nine heads of government of Yugoslavia in this period were of Croatian ethnicity. Three were from Croatia itself (Josip Broz Tito, Mika Špiljak, and Milka Planinc), while two were Bosnian Croats (Branko Mikulić and Ante Marković). Ante Marković however, though a Croat from Bosnia and Herzegovina by birth, was a politician of Croatia like Špiljak and Planinc, serving (at different times) as both prime minister and president of the presidency of that federal unit.

List[edit]

  People's Radical Party   Democratic Party   Slovene People's Party   Yugoslav National Party   Yugoslav Radical Union   Croatian Peasant Party   League of Communists   Union of Reform Forces   Socialist Party of Serbia   Independent

No. Portrait Name
(Lifespan)
Ethnicity Term of office Political party Election Cabinet Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Nikola Pašić
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Acting
Serb1 December 191822 December 191821 daysNRSPašić XIIActing prime minister, as the last prime minister of Serbia.
1
Stojan Protić
Stojan Protić
(1857–1923)
Serb22 December 191816 August 1919237 daysNRSProtić IFirst Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (that will be renamed to "Yugoslavia").
2
Ljubomir Davidović
Ljubomir Davidović
(1863–1940)
Serb16 August 191919 February 1920187 daysDSDavidović I.
(1)
Stojan Protić
Stojan Protić
(1857–1923)
Serb19 February 192016 May 192087 daysNRSProtić II.
3
Milenko Vesnić
Milenko Vesnić
(1863–1921)
Serb16 May 19201 January 1921230 daysNRS1920Vesnić.
4
Nikola Pašić
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Serb1 January 192128 July 19243 years, 209 daysNRS1923Pašić XIII–XIV–XV–XVI–XVII–XVIII–XIXSecond term.
Vidovdan Constitution adopted on June 28, 1921.
(2)
Ljubomir Davidović
Ljubomir Davidović
(1863–1940)
Serb28 July 19246 November 1924101 daysDSDavidović IISecond term
(4)
Nikola Pašić
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Serb6 November 19248 April 19261 year, 153 daysNRS1925Pašić XX–XXI–XXIIThird term
5
Nikola Uzunović
Nikola Uzunović
(1873–1954)
Serb8 April 192617 April 19271 year, 9 daysNRSUzunović I–II.
6
Velimir Vukićević
Velimir Vukićević
(1871–1930)
Serb17 April 192728 July 19281 year, 102 daysNRS1927Vukićević I–IIResigned after the assassination attempt on opposition leader Stjepan Radić in the Parliament.
7
Anton Korošec
Anton Korošec
(1872–1940)
Slovene28 July 19287 January 1929163 daysSLSKorošecAppointed after the assassination attempt on Stjepan Radić, until the 6 January Dictatorship.
8
Petar Živković
Petar Živković
(1879–1947)
Serb7 January 19294 April 19323 years, 88 daysJRSD1931ŽivkovićPrime Minister during the 6 January Dictatorship.
Sentenced to death in absentia in 1946.
9
Vojislav Marinković
Vojislav Marinković
(1876–1935)
Serb4 April 19323 July 193290 daysJRSDMarinkovićPreviously a (founding) member of the Democratic Party.
10
Milan Srškić
Milan Srškić
(1880–1937)
Serb3 July 193227 January 19341 year, 208 daysJRSDSrškić I–II.
(5)
Nikola Uzunović
Nikola Uzunović
(1873–1954)
Serb27 January 193422 December 1934329 daysJNSUzunović IIIThe Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy party was renamed into the Yugoslav National Party.
11
Bogoljub Jevtić
Bogoljub Jevtić
(1886–1960)
Serb22 December 193424 June 1935184 daysJRZ
JNS
1935Jevtić.
12
Milan Stojadinović
Milan Stojadinović
(1888–1961)
Serb24 June 19355 February 19393 years, 226 daysJRZ1938Stojadinović I–II–III.
13
Dragiša Cvetković
Dragiša Cvetković
(1893–1969)
Serb5 February 193927 March 19412 years, 50 daysJRZCvetković I–IISentenced in absentia in 1945.[1]
In the Yugoslav government-in-exile
14
Dušan Simović
Dušan Simović
(1882–1962)
Serb27 March 194112 June 19421 year, 77 daysIndependentSimovićChief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army. Took power by military coup d'état. He led the government into exile in London.
15
Slobodan Jovanović
Slobodan Jovanović
(1869–1958)
Serb12 June 194226 June 19431 year, 14 daysIndependentJovanović I-IIHeaded government-in-exile.
Found guilty of treason in absentia in 1946.
16
Miloš Trifunović
Miloš Trifunović
(1871–1957)
Serb26 June 194310 August 194345 daysNRSTrifunovićHeaded government-in-exile
17
Božidar Purić
Božidar Purić
(1891–1977)
Serb10 August 19438 July 1944333 daysIndependentPurićHeaded government-in-exile
18
Ivan Šubašić
Ivan Šubašić
(1892–1955)
Croat8 July 19442 November 1944117 daysHSSŠubašićHeaded government-in-exile.
Merged into coalition government on November 2, 1944, with Josip Broz Tito presiding.[2][3]
In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
19
(1)
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
(1892–1980)
Croat2 November 194429 June 196318 years, 239 daysKPJ
SKJ
1945
1950
1953
1958
1963
Tito I–II–III–IV–V–VIHeld post simultaneously (as head of the NKOJ) first with Božidar Purić, then Ivan Šubašić. Headed joint coalition government.
20
(2)
Petar Stambolić
Petar Stambolić
(1912–2007)
Serb29 June 196316 May 19673 years, 321 daysSKJStambolić.
21
(3)
Mika Špiljak
Mika Špiljak
(1916–2007)
Croat16 May 196718 May 19692 years, 2 daysSKJŠpiljak.
22
(4)
Mitja Ribičič
Mitja Ribičič
(1919–2013)
Slovene18 May 196930 July 19712 years, 73 daysSKJ1969Ribičič.
23
(5)
Džemal Bijedić
Džemal Bijedić
(1917–1977)
Bosniak30 July 197118 January 1977 †5 years, 172 daysSKJ1974BijedićKilled in a plane crash.
24
(6)
Veselin Đuranović
Veselin Đuranović
(1925–1997)
Montenegrin18 January 197716 May 19825 years, 118 daysSKJ1978Đuranović.
25
(7)
Milka Planinc
Milka Planinc
(1924–2010)
Croat16 May 198215 May 19863 years, 364 daysSKJ1982PlanincFirst female head of the government.
26
(8)
Branko Mikulić
Branko Mikulić
(1928–1995)
Croat15 May 198616 March 19892 years, 305 daysSKJ1986MikulićResigned on 30 December 1988, amid widespread protests.
27
(9)
Ante Marković
Ante Marković
(1924–2011)
Croat16 March 198920 December 19912 years, 279 daysSRSJ
SKJ
1990MarkovićLast prime minister of Yugoslavia.
League of Communists was dissolved in 1990, Marković formed his own party.
Aleksandar Mitrović
Aleksandar Mitrović
(1933–2012)
Acting
Serb20 December 199114 July 1992207 daysSPSMarkovićActing Prime Minister, installed by Serbia and Montenegro.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rehabilitovan Dragiša Cvetković
  2. ^ Lampe, John R.; Yugoslavia as history: twice there was a country; Cambridge University Press, 2000 ISBN 0-521-77401-2
  3. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P.; The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005; Indiana University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-253-34656-8