Primer-E Primer

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Developer(s) Plymouth Routines in Multivariate Ecology Research
Stable release
Operating system Windows
Type Numerical analysis
License Proprietary

Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research (PRIMER) is a statistical package that is a collection of specialist univariate, multivariate, and graphical routines for analyzing species sampling data for community ecology.[1] Types of data analyzed are typically species abundance, biomass, presence/absence, and percent area cover, among others. It is primarily used in the scientific community for ecological and environmental studies.

Multivariate routines include:

  • grouping (CLUSTER)
  • sorting (MDS)
  • principal component identification (PCA)
  • hypothesis testing (ANOSIM)
  • sample discrimination (SIMPER)
  • trend correlation (BEST)
  • comparisons (RELATE)
  • diversity, dominance, and distribution calculating
  • Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA)[2]

Routines can be resource intensive due to their non-parametric and permutation-based nature. Programmed in the VB.Net environment.


  1. ^ Clarke, K.R.; Gorley, R.N. (2015). "PRIMER v7: User Manual/Tutorial". PRIMER-E. 
  2. ^ Anderson, M.J.; Gorley, R.N.; Clarke, K.R. (2015). "PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: Guide to Software and Statistical Methods". PRIMER-E. 

See also[edit]