Primož Jakopin

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Primož Jakopin
Jakopin in Ljubljana, 2015
Born (1949-06-30) 30 June 1949 (age 74)
Alma materUniversity of Ljubljana
University of Zagreb
Scientific career
FieldsComputational linguistics
InstitutionsUniversity of Ljubljana
Institute of Slovenian language SAZU
University of Nova Gorica

Primož Jakopin (pron. Premozh Yacopeen), born 30 June 1949 is a Slovenian computer scientist, known for his work in the field of language technology and his contribution to speleology.[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Jakopin was born in 1949 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The family lived in the village of Leskovec pri Krškem, Dolenjska region and in 1956 moved to Ljubljana.[2]

After a degree in technical mathematics (Numerično računanje singularnih integralov / Numerical Computation of Singular Integrals) at the University of Ljubljana in 1972,[3] he obtained a master's degree in information sciences with the thesis Entropija imena i prezimena u Sloveniji / On entropy of first names and last names in Slovenia[4] at the University of Zagreb in 1981 and in 1999 a Ph.D. with the thesis Zgornja meja entropije pri leposlovnih besedilih v slovenskem jeziku / Upper Bound of Entropy in Slovenian Literary Texts,[5] again at the University of Ljubljana.

Computational linguistics[edit]

He was a senior lecturer at the Department of Comparative and General Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. His subjects of instruction are language technologies with stress on Lemmatisation.[6] From 2001 to 2012 he was the Head of the Corpus Laboratory at the Fran Ramovš Institute of Slovenian Language (within the Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts).[7] He participated in a number of European projects on language resources.[8]

His major pieces of software: IBIS for the Digital DEC 10 mainframe computer, 1981, INES for the ZX Spectrum microcomputer, 1985,[9][10] STEVE (ATARI ST, 1987-1992),[11] EVA for DOS, 1992- and Microsoft Windows family of operating systems, 1996-,[12] NEVA - Windows server search engine, 1999-. From 1992 to 1994 he supervised the transfer of the Standard Slovenian Dictionary (SSKJ) from printed to electronic version (EVA OCR, DOS version). In 1997 he wrote the first part-of-speech tagger for Slovenian texts. In 1999 he started an Internet text corpus, with a concordance service and linked wordform and reversed wordform frequency dictionaries. It is available as Nova beseda (New word).


3D Model of the Main Gallery in Skednena jama Cave

In high school, he read the book Kraški svet in njegovi pojavi / Karst world and its phenomena by Pavel Kunaver[13] and especially because of its photographs by Bogumil Brinšek, Jakopin became interested in speleology. In 1966 he joined Ljubljana Cave Exploration Society (DZRJL) to learn more about caves and to participate in exploration of new caves.[14] As a mathematician he was particularly interested in the principal cave size parameters, calculated from the cave survey, length and depth. They are closely related to the definition of a cave as a hollow underground formation, large enough for human exploration,[15][16][17] and are used to compare and classify caves, for instance in the List of longest caves and in the List of deepest caves. Whereas the cave depth is well defined as the difference between the highest point and the lowest point of the cave, its length, usually given as the sum of distances between the survey stations on the cave floor, involves considerable arbitrariness.[18] In cave science it was long known that the cave length does not represent the cave size properly as caves are 3D objects with volume as their main and most noticeable feature, yet volume was less used because of the lack of a suitable measurement method.[19][20] In 1972, at the 6th Yugoslavian congress of speleology, Jakopin proposed volume as the main cave parameter in the paper O numeričnem vrednotenju kraških objektov ("Numerical Valuation of Objects on Karst"), measured from a computer-based cave model.[21]

In 1974 he made a 3D model for approximation of cave space, based on a series of connected polygonal cross sections and used it to make a 3D survey of Skednena jama cave, a fossil ponor at the northern rim of the Planinsko polje karst field in Slovenia. By 1979 he developed a computer program to support the 3D model, to compute its vertex coordinates and to calculate the model (and cave) parameters: length, surface and volume. In 1981 Jakopin published the results for Skednena jama cave in the paper Macrostereological Evaluation of Cave Space. The model had 305 vertices, 51 cross sections, total length was 205 m, surface area 8900 m2 and volume 6,500 m3 with error estimated at below 5%.[22]

Jakopin in Mačkovica, 1981
In Lp2 Cave, 2017

Early in 1981 a larger cave, Mačkovica, located in the same area as Skednena jama cave, was surveyed. Here the model consisted of 106 cross sections and 709 vertices for a length of 650 m and volume of 38,800 m3. Volume error was estimated at below 2%.[23]

After microcomputers became widely available in the early 1980s, Jakopin developed a different method of volume calculation which could be performed with much less computing power. Instead of computing cave model segment parameters by cutting it iteratively into ever thinner parallel slices[22] it was based on breaking up every segment into a series of tetrahedrons, the parameters of which can be computed directly.[24] He implemented the updated model on a Sinclair ZX Spectrum personal home computer.[24] In 1982 a team, led by Jakopin, made the survey of a 450 m long section of Postojnska jama cave, from the Concert Hall to the end of the Great Mountain, and the model yielded a volume of 313,000 m3[25] In 1984 Daniel Rojšek and his team measured a 54 m long segment of the Martel's Hall at the end of Škocjanske jame caves with a volume of 220,000 m3,[26] one tenth of the entire hall volume (2,200,000 m3), computed in 2018.[27] It is comparable in size to other large underground chambers.[20]

In 2019 and in 2020 Jakopin wrote articles about three people who devoted most of their life to deep caves, to achieve depths greater than 2,000 meters: Pavel Demidov in Verëvkina Cave, Jurij Kasjan in Voronja Cave and Aleksandr Višnjevskij in Boybuloq.[28][29]

The Temple in the Putik Hall of Najdena jama cave, by Primož Jakopin, 2004


His father Franc Jakopin was a Slovenian slavist, lexicographer and onomatologist,[30] his mother Gitica Jakopin was a translator, writer and a poet,[2] his brother Japec Jakopin is a yacht concept designer and his brother Jernej Jakopin is a naval architect.


  • CORTES - a text corpus of Slovenian. In publication: Digital resources for the humanities: Conference abstracts (University of Sheffield, 10–13 September 2000). - Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 2000. - p. 70-72. COBISS 16309805
  • EVA - an Internet tool for textual and lexical resources. In publication: Linguistics and language studies / 32nd Annual Meeting, Ljubljana, 8–11 July 1999. - Ljubljana: University, Faculty of Arts: Societas Linguistica Europaea, 1999. - p. 98. COBISS 19620397
  • The feasibility of a complete text corpus. LREC 2002: proceedings. COBISS 21865773
  • On text corpora, word lengths, and word frequencies in Slovenian. In publication: Contributions to the science of text and language / edited by Peter Grzybek. - Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. (Text, speech and language technology; vol. 31). - ISBN 1-4020-4067-9. - p. 171-185. COBISS 24779309
  • Query-driven dictionary enhancement. Co-author: Birte Lönneker. In publication: Proceedings of the Eleventh EURALEX International Congress, EURALEX 2004, Lorient, France, July 6–10, 2004 / Geoffrey Williams and Sandra Vessier (eds.). - Lorient: Université de Bretagne-Sud, cop. 2004-. - p. 273-284. COBISS 22533677
  • Slovenian texts on the internet. In publication: Zapiski: Chronicle of the American Slovene Congress. Issue 7 (May 2000), p. 4-7. COBISS 15997485
  • Words and nonwords as basic units of a newspaper text corpus. In publication: COMPLEX 2001 / 6th Conference on Computational Lexicography and Corpus Research "Computational Lexicography and New EU Languages", Mason Hall, Birmingham, 28 June-1 July 2001. - Birmingham: Centre for Corpus Linguistics, Department of English, University of Birmingham, 2001. - p. 49-65. COBISS 16206690
  • Entropija v slovenskih leposlovnih besedilih (Upper Bound of Entropy in Slovenian Literary Texts), Založba ZRC, Ljubljana 2002. COBISS 121042688
  • O oblikoslovnem označevanju slovenskega besedila (Morphological tagging of Slovenian texts) (co-author A. Bizjak), Slavistična revija 1997.
  • Odzadnji slovar slovenskega jezika (Inverse Dictionary of Slovenian language) (co-author M. Hajnšek-Holz), Ljubljana 1996. COBISS 62839552


  1. ^ "Primož Jakopin / Personal Bibliography". Co-operative Online Bibliographic System & Services. Maribor, Slovenia. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b Černelič Krošelj, Alenka (2012). "Na kratko o izbranih znamenitih Krčanih / A Brief Overview of the Selected Famous People of Krško" (PDF). In Volfand, Jože; Čanji, Vanesa (eds.). Krško. Celje, Slovenia: Fit media. pp. 170–173. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  3. ^ Jakopin, Primož (1972). Numerično računanje singularnih integralov: diplomsko delo [Numerical Computation of Singular Integrals] (Diploma thesis) (in Slovenian). University of Ljubljana. p. 68. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  4. ^ Jakopin, Primož (1981). Entropija imena i prezimena u Sloveniji: magistarski rad [On entropy of first names and last names in Slovenia] (M.Sc. thesis) (in Slovenian). University of Zagreb. p. 123. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  5. ^ Jakopin, Primož (1999). Zgornja meja entropije pri leposlovnih besedilih v slovenskem jeziku [Upper Bound of Entropy in Slovenian Literary Texts] (Ph.D.) (in Slovenian). University of Ljubljana. p. 205. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  6. ^ "Primož Jakopin". Department of Comparative and General Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. Ljubljana, Slovenia. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  7. ^ "Assistant Prof. Primož Jakopin, PhD, Senior Research Fellow". Fran Ramovš Institute of the Slovenian Language / Members. Ljubljana, Slovenia. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  8. ^ Heike Rettig, ed. (1995). Language Resources for Language Technology. Tihany, Hungary. ISBN 9789638461995. Retrieved 24 June 2016. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  9. ^ Kanič, Ivan (June 1984). "INES, sistem za obdelavo besedil, slik in majhnih podatkovnih zbirk" [INES, a System for Processing Text, Pictures and Small Data Collections]. Moj mikro (in Slovenian). Vol. 1, no. 1. Ljubljana: ČGP Delo. p. 10. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  10. ^ Jakopin, Primož (1985). "INES: Urejevalnik Podatkov, Slik in Besedil" [INES: Data, Picture and Text Editor]. Sinclair Infoseek. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  11. ^ Jakopin, Primož; Vučkovič, Andrej (1989). STEVE reference manual: text, graphics, data base, DTP and CAI on Atari ST. OCLC 439913120 – via OCLC WorldCat.
  12. ^ "EVA - A Textual Data Processing Tool". Proceedings of the TELRI (Trans-European Language Resources Infrastructure), 1st European Seminar, September 15–16, 1995. Tihany, Hungary. 1995. pp. 169–171. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  13. ^ Kunaver, Pavel (1922). Kraški svet in njegovi pojavi [Karst world and its phenomena]. Dom in svet (in Slovenian). Vol. 35. Ljubljana: Učiteljska tiskarna v Ljubljani. p. 104.
  14. ^ Podpac, Ljubo; Lindič, Jernej (1975). "Seznam članov društva za raziskovanje jam Ljubljana - 1974" [List of members of the Ljubljana Cave Exploration Society (DZRJL) - 1974]. Glas podzemlja / Voice of the Underground (in Slovenian). No. II. Ljubljana: DZRJL. pp. 18–22. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  15. ^ Curl, Rane L. (1964). "On the Definition of a Cave" (PDF). Bulletin of the National Speleological Society. 26 (1): 1–6. ISSN 0146-9517. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  16. ^ Jakopin, Primož (1979). "O nekaterih pojmih v zvezi z jamskim prostorom" [Some Terms Related to Cave Space]. Glas podzemlja / Voice of the Underground (in Slovenian). Ljubljana: DZRJL. pp. 17–18. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  17. ^ White, William B.; Culver, David C. (2012). "Cave, Definition of". In White, William B.; Culver, David C. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Caves. Encyclopedia of Caves (Second Edition). Richmond Hill, Ontario: Academic Press. pp. 103–107. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-383832-2.00016-5. ISBN 9780123838339. S2CID 127680254.
  18. ^ Curl, Rane L. (September 1966). "Caves as a Measure of Karst" (PDF). The Journal of Geology. 74 (5): 798–830. Bibcode:1966JG.....74..798C. doi:10.1086/627212. ISSN 0022-1376. S2CID 140605709. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  19. ^ Corbel, Jean (12–26 September 1965). "Notes sur les plus grandes grottes du monde" [Notes on the Biggest Caves of the World]. Written at Postojna, Ljubljana, Dubrovnik. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Speleology in Yugoslavia. 4th International Congress of Speleology in Yugoslavia. Vol. 6. Ljubljana: Fédération Yougoslave de Spéléologie / Speleological Society of Yugoslavia (published 1971). pp. 19–24.
  20. ^ a b Gulden, Bob. "The Largest Underground Chambers by Volume". Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  21. ^ Jakopin, Primož (10–15 October 1972). O numeričnem vrednotenju kraških objektov [Numerical Valuation of Objects on Karst]. 6th Yugoslavian congress of speleology (in Slovenian). Lipica. pp. 41–42.
  22. ^ a b Jakopin, Primož (22–27 June 1981). Macrostereological Evaluation of Cave Space. 3rd European symposium for stereology. Proceedings of the European Symposium for Stereology. Ljubljana: Stereological Section of the Yugoslavian Association of Anatomists / Jožef Stefan Institute / "Edvard Kardelj University (published 1981). pp. 621–628. ISSN 0350-3062. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  23. ^ Jakopin, Primož (18–24 July 1981). On Measuring Caves by Volume. 8th international congress of speleology. Bowling Green, KY: Department of Geology, Georgia Southwestern College, Americus (published 1981). pp. 270–272. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  24. ^ a b Jakopin, Primož (24–28 October 1983). Antonin Jančařik (ed.). Caves, Volume and the Z80. Nove směri ve speleologii / New trends in speleology. Dobřihovice (published 1983). pp. 24–27.
  25. ^ Jakopin, Primož (2009). "Mačkovica: O merjenjih in raziskavah" [Mačkovica Cave: Surveys and Exploration]. Jamar / Caver (in Slovenian). Vol. 4, no. 12. Ljubljana: Jamarska zveza Slovenije / Speleological Association of Slovenia. pp. 30–33. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  26. ^ Rojšek, Daniel (11–14 September 1987). "Natural Heritage of the Classical Karst (Kras)" (PDF). In Jurij Kunaver (ed.). Karst and Man: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Influence in Karst. International Symposium on Human Influence in Karst. Postojna: Department of Geography, Philosophical Faculty, Ljubljana University. pp. 255–265. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  27. ^ Biščak, Luka (2018). "Plezanje v Martelovi dvorani na koncu kanjona Škocjanskih jam" [Climbing in the Martel Hall at the End of Škocjanske jame Cave Canyon]. Glasnik Občine Divača / Divača Municipality Herald (in Slovenian). No. 2. pp. 47–48. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  28. ^ Jakopin, Primož (December 2019). "The Man from the Deepest Cave on Earth, Part I". Descent (271). Wild Places Publishing: 36–38. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  29. ^ Jakopin, Primož (February 2020). "The Man from the Deepest Cave on Earth, Part II". Descent (272). Wild Places Publishing: 19–24. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  30. ^ Reindl, Donald (19 June 2002). "Obituary: Franc Jakopin 1921-2002". The LINGUIST List: International Linguistics Community Online. Retrieved 13 December 2017.

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