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Приморский край (Russian)
|— Krai —|
|Federal district||Far Eastern|
|Economic region||Far Eastern|
|Established||October 20, 1938|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|• Governor||Vladimir Miklushevsky|
|• Legislature||Legislative Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|• Total||165,900 km2 (64,100 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Density||11.79/km2 (30.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||VLAT (UTC+10:00)|
Primorsky Krai (Russian: Примо́рский край, tr. Primorsky kray; IPA: [prʲɪˈmorskʲɪj kraj]), informally known as Primorye (Примо́рье, IPA: [prʲɪˈmorʲjɪ]), is the Russian name for a province of Russia. Primorsky means "maritime" in Russian, so in English translation it is known as the Maritime Province or Maritime Territory. Its administrative center is in the city of Vladivostok. The region's population is 1,956,497 (2010 Census). Today, Primorsky Krai has the largest economy in the Russian Far East.
- Borders length — over 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi), including 1,350 kilometers (840 mi) of the sea borders.
- Highest peak — Anik Mountain, 1,933 meters (6,342 ft)
- Railroads length — 1,628 kilometers (1,012 mi) (of which 345 kilometers (214 mi) are electrified).
- Automobile roads length — 12,633 kilometers (7,850 mi)
Primorsky Krai, bordered by China, North Korea, and the relatively warm—although freezing in winter—waters of the Sea of Japan, is the southeasternmost region of Russia, located between the 42° and 48° north latitude and 130° and 139° east longitude. It is stretched in the meridianal direction, the distance from its extreme northern point to its most southerly point being about 900 kilometers (560 mi).
Highlands dominate the territory of the krai. Most of the territory is mountainous, and almost 80% of it is forested. The average elevation is about 500 meters (1,600 ft). Sikhote-Alin is a mountainous formation, extending for the most part of the Krai. It consists of a number of parallel ranges: the Partizansky (Partisan), the Siny (Blue), the Kholodny (Cold), and others. There are many karst caves in the South of Primorye. The relatively accessible Spyashchaya Krasavitsa cave (the Sleeping Beauty) in the Ussuriysky Nature Preserve could be recommended for tourists. There are comparatively well-preserved fragments of the ancient volcanoes in the area.
The ranges are cut by the picturesque narrow and deep valleys of the rivers and by large brooks, such as the Partizanskaya, the Kiyevka, the Zerkalnaya, the Cheryomukhovaya, the Yedinka, the Samarga, the Bikin, and the Bolshaya Ussurka. Most rivers in the Krai have rocky bottoms and limpid water. The largest among them is the Ussuri, with a length of 903 kilometers (561 mi). The head of the Ussuri River originates 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the East of Oblachnaya Mountain. The vast Khanka Lowlands extends into the West and the South-West of Primorye, carpeted by coniferous-deciduous forests. A part of the Lowland surrounding the largest lake in the Russian Far East, Khanka Lake, is occupied by a forest-steppe.
Flora and fauna
The geographic location of Primorye accounts for the variety of its flora. There are mountainous tundra areas, conifers and coniferous-deciduous forests, and forest-steppe, which is sometimes called the Far Eastern Prairie, where many ancient plant species have been preserved, including ferns, lotus, and the Chosenia willow.
The fauna of Primorye is also diverse. The following animals are found in the Krai: Ussuri black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Amur tiger, Amur leopard, lynx, wild boar, Manchurian deer (Cervus elaphus xanthopygos), Siberian roe deer, musk deer, long-tailed goral (Naemorhedus caudatus), sika deer, sable, Blakiston's fish owl, mandarinka duck (Aix galericulata), black stork (Ciconia nigra), scaly goosander (Mergus squamatus), chestnut-cheeked starling (Sturnia philippensis), black griffon (Aegypius monachus), large-winged cuckoo (Cuculidae family), and others. Among 690 species of birds inhabiting the territory of the former USSR, 350 are found in Primorye. Rich fisheries of salmon, Hucho taimen, lenok and marine fisheries of crab, pollock and other species make the aquatic and maritime environment a valuable resource for the region. However, the rich diversity of wildlife in Primorye is threatened by poaching and the illegal wildlife trade. Wildlife Conservation Society, World Wildlife Fund, Wild Salmon Center, and Russian NGOs including Phoenix Fund are active in the region's wildlife and habitat conservation.
- Average annual temperature — near +1 °C (34 °F) in the north of the krai; +5.5 °C (41.9 °F) on the southern coast.
- Average annual precipitation — 600–850 mm.
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The acquisition of Siberia by the Tsardom of Russia and the subsequent Russian expansion to the Far East brought the Russians into direct contact with China. The Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689 demarcating the borders of the two states gave all lands lying south of the Stanovoy Mountains, including Primorye, to the Qing Empire. However, with the weakening of the Qing Empire[further explanation needed] in the second half of the 19th century, Russia began its expansion into the area. In 1858, the towns of Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk were founded. In 1858, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky signed the Aigun Treaty with China, followed by the Beijing Treaty two years later. As a result of the two treaties, the Sino–Russian border shifted south to the Amur and Ussuri Rivers; granting Russia full control of Primorye.
Primorskaya Oblast was established as the easternmost division of the Russian Empire in 1856. It included the territory of modern Primorsky Krai as well as the territories of modern Khabarovsk Krai and Magadan Oblast, stretching from Vladivostok to the Chukchi Peninsula in the far north.
In the period from 1859 to 1882, ninety-five settlements were established in the Primorye region, including Vladivostok, Ussuriysk, Razdolnoye, Vladimiro-Aleksandrovskoye, Shkotovo, Pokrovka, Tury Rog, and Kamen-Rybolov. The population was primarily engaged in hunting, fishing and cultivation. These activities involved more than two-thirds of the territory's inhabitants.
The latter part of the 19th century saw significant economic development in Primorye. Coal mining became a prominent industry as did the export of sea-kale, velvet antlers, timber, crab, dried fish, and trepangs. The rapid economic expansion of Primorye was financed in large measure by Russian and foreign capital investment.
After the Russian Revolution, Primorskaya Oblast was replaced by the Zemstvo of Maritime Territory, and later by Far-Eastern Republic (1920–1922). Within the Russian SFSR, this became Far-Eastern Oblast (1922–1926) and then Far-Eastern Krai (1926–1938).
The area became a battleground for allied and Bolshevik troops in the Siberian Intervention. In 1922, shortly before the end of the Civil War, Primorye came under Bolshevik control, and the economic, scientific, and cultural development of the territory was dictated by the new government. The Soviet Government spent the following ten years combating "bourgeois ideology" in many areas of life and culture. As a result, the music, theater, literature, and the fine arts of Primorye were censored.
Primorsky was also the center of the Korean minority of Russia, with the Pos'et Korean National Raion being created under the policy of korenizatsiya. The Krai had 105 both fully and mixed Korean towns which used the Korean language. There were nearly 200,000 living in the Krai by the time of their deportation in 1938.
The period also saw the beginnings of centralized planning. As in the rest of the Soviet Union, priority was given to heavy industry, with a special emphasis on mining and commercial fishing. Rail and sea transit was greatly expanded, and new port facilities were constructed.
Primorsky Krai was formed by further subdivision of Far-Eastern Krai in 1938, as part of the Stalin-era policy of "unbundling". Primorsky Krai, as defined in 1938, corresponds to the northeastern part of the historical region of Outer Manchuria.
On April 18, 1942, the region became unwillingly involved in World War II as Primorsky Krai became the location of the landing of one of the 16 United States Army Air Corps B-25 Mitchell medium bombers which had been launched from USS Hornet to carry out the famous Doolittle Raid on Japan. Japan and the Soviet Union were not then at war. The landing occurred 40 miles (65 km) west of Vladivostok, the bomber's crew deciding to abort their mission while en route from Tokyo due to excessive fuel consumption.
The 1970s witnessed an expansion of scientific institutions in Primorye, especially in the city of Vladivostok. As a result, the city possesses several large research institutions such as the Institute of Biology and Agriculture, the Pacific Institute of Bio-organic Chemistry, the Institute of Marine Biology, the Pacific Institute of Geography, the Pacific Oceanological Institute, as well as several Institutes affiliated with the Far Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Science.
By the early 1990s, the once-small enterprises had developed into large companies. Some of the most prominent include the DVMP (FESCO) shipping company, the Dalmoreprodukt [clarify], Progress Arsenyev Aircraft Works, and Vostok Mining. Commercial fishing plays an important part in the economy of the Primorye and includes firms like Vladivostok Trawling and Refrigerating Fleet (VBTRF), the Active Marine Fisheries Base of Nakhodka, and the Fishing and Marine Transport Fleet of Primorye. Numerous enterprises of the Russian Military Industrial Complex were also established in Primorye.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Primorsky CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). After 1991, the head of the Oblast administration and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Primorsky Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai is the province's regional standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Primorsky Krai's economy, the most balanced in the Russian Far East, is also the largest in absolute terms. Food production is the most important sector, represented mainly by fish processing. Annual catch exceeds two million tonnes, or one half of the Russian Far East total. Second is machine building, where half of the output is geared toward the fishing industry and shipyards. Defense is another important sector, producing naval vessels and military aircraft. The construction materials industry here provides for the whole Russian Far East. Lead smelting is conducted in Rudnaya Pristan on the coast.
The timber industry, though in recession, is still second only to Khabarovsk Krai's with an annual yield of about 3 million cubic meters of timber. Primorsky Krai is the largest coal producer in the Russian Far East and generates more electricity than any other Russian Far East administrative division, but power shortages are common. Agriculture is also important; the krai produces rice, milk, eggs, and vegetables.
The krai's proximity to Pacific Rim markets gives it an edge over most other Russian Far East administrative divisions in developing foreign trade. Major trade items are seafood products, timber products, and ferrous metals. Major trading partners are Japan, China, and South Korea.
The economy will be further diversified with the addition of as many as 8 government sanctioned casinos to be built in the Primorye Gambling Zone, which encompasses the entire Primorsky Krai. Primorsky Entertainment Resort City, under development by NagaCorp Ltd. of Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia, will be the largest. The development is expected to cost in the region of RUB11.6 billion (approximately HK$2.7 billion, US$350 million) and have a total footprint of 214.89 hectares.
Primorsky Krai's compact territory is well endowed with infrastructure. Its railway density is twice the Russian average. Railroads connect it with China and North Korea. Vladivostok, the eastern terminus of the Trans-Siberian railway, was surpassed as a port by the nearby Nakhodka-Vostochny Port container, coal and timber terminals. Primorsky Krai-based shipping companies provide 80% of marine shipping services in the Russian Far East. All the krai's significant ports are now open to international shipping.
Demographics in the past
Population: According to the 2010 Census, the population of the krai is 1,956,497, down from 2,071,210 recorded in the 2002 Census, and further down from 2,258,391 recorded in the 1989 Census. Due to its geographical location, the krai boasts a mixture of not only ethnic Russians, but also Koreans, Volga Germans, Buriats, Nanais, and Orochs. The indigenous Udege and their sub-minority, the Taz, are the region's aboriginals.
- Ethnic groups
In the 2010 Census, the following ethnic groups were listed:
- Russian 92.5%
- Ukrainian 2.8%
- Korean 1%
- Tatar 0.6%
- Uzbek 0.5%
- Belorussian 0.3%
- Armenian 0.3%
- Azeri 0.2%
- Mordvin 0.1%
- Chinese 0.2%
- others 1.5%
- 144,927 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
- Birthrate (2012): 12.4
- Deathrate (2012): 13.7 Russian demographics#Population statistics
Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.51 | 2010 - 1.49 | 2011 - 1.53 | 2012 - 1.65 | 2013 - 1.68 | 2014 - 1.73 | 2015 - 1.76(e)
Average life expectancy in 1994 — 62.5 years (male — 56.8, female — 69.4).
According to a 2012 official survey 26.6% of the population of Primorsky Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox churches or is an Orthodox believer without belonging to any church, and 1% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or to local Siberian native faiths. In addition, 24% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious, 35% is atheist, and 6.4% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
The krai is the location of the massive Sikhote-Alin meteorite, which fell February 12, 1947, in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, near the village of Paseka (approximately 440 km northeast of Vladivostok).
- Gangwon, South Korea
- Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
- Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
- Osaka Prefecture, Japan
- Toyama Prefecture, Japan
- Outer Manchuria
- Winter storms of 2009–10 in East Asia
- Primorsky Krai Police
- Green Ukraine - projected country in the Russian Far East.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Regnum.ru. Медведев принял отставку губернатора Приморья Дарькина (Russian)
- Charter, Article 8.4
- Charter, Article 8.3.1
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 05 апреля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of April 05, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Pohl 1999, p. 10
- See the article on the Doolittle Raid.
- "Russia Casino Gambling". [World Casino Directory]. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
- "NagaCorp's Primorsky Entertainment Resort City in Vladivostok". [World Casino Directory]. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "ВПН-2010". perepis-2010.ru.
- "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". gks.ru.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Alberta-Korea trade
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- №14-КЗ 6 октября 1995 г. «Устав Приморского края», в ред. Закона №359-КЗ от 18 декабря 2008 г. (#14-KZ October 6, 1995 Charter of Primorsky Krai, as amended by the Law #359-KZ of December 18, 2008. ).
- А. Р. Артёмьев и др. "История Российского Приморья". Дальнаука, 1998.
(A. R. Artyomyev et al. History of Russian Primorye. Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 1998)