Prince Andrew, Duke of York

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Prince Andrew" redirects here. For other meanings, see Prince Andrew (disambiguation).
"The Duke of York" redirects here. For other people, see Duke of York.
Prince Andrew
Duke of York (more)
Prince Andrew August 2014 (cropped).jpg
The Duke of York in August 2014
Born (1960-02-19) 19 February 1960 (age 56)
Buckingham Palace, London, United Kingdom
Spouse Sarah Ferguson
(m. 1986; div. 1996)
Issue Princess Beatrice of York
Princess Eugenie of York
Full name
Andrew Albert Christian Edward[1]
House Windsor
Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Mother Elizabeth II
Religion Church of England

Prince Andrew, Duke of York, KG, GCVO, CD, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960), is the second son and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to succeed his mother; as of 2016 he is sixth in line.

He holds the rank of commander and the honorary rank of vice admiral (as of February 2015) in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active duty helicopter pilot and instructor and as the captain of a warship. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, and casualty evacuation.

In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; the couple's marriage, subsequent separation and eventual divorce in 1996 attracted a high level of media coverage. As well as carrying out various official engagements, he served as Britain's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011.

Early life and education[edit]

Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960,[2] the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He was baptised in the Palace's Music Room on 8 April 1960 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[4] He is the namesake of his paternal grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, who died 16 years before he was born.[citation needed]

Gordonstoun

Prince Andrew was the first child born to a reigning monarch since the birth in 1857 of Queen Victoria's youngest child, Princess Beatrice (Andrew named his elder daughter Beatrice). As with his older siblings, Andrew was looked after by a governess, who was responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace. He was sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire. In September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had attended before him. While there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Canada. He left Gordonstoun in July two years later with A-Levels in English, history, economics, and political science. He did not go to university but instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth.

Military service[edit]

Royal Navy[edit]

The Royal Household announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year. In December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, and interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan. During March and April 1979, the prince was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, and entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.[5] During 1980 he also took the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course.

After passing out from Dartmouth, the prince went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, and later, basic flying training with the navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter.[5] After being awarded his "wings", he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, and conducted operational flying training until 1982. He joined carrier-based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible.[5]

Falklands War[edit]

The Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory claimed by Argentina,[6] were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War. Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands.

Prince Andrew's place on board and the possibility of the Queen's son being killed in action made the British Government apprehensive, and the Cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict. The Queen, though, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship. Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation, transport, and search and air rescue.[citation needed] He witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor.[7]

At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, where the Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew in welcoming the vessel home. The Argentinean military government reportedly planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982.[8] Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, and the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. Commander Nigel Ward's memoir, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, described Prince Andrew as "an excellent pilot and a very promising officer."[9]

Following his return from the Falklands War and until his marriage to Sarah Ferguson, Prince Andrew dated actress Koo Stark.

Career naval officer[edit]

The Duke of York with the US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta commemorating the 100th anniversary of Naval Aviation at the National Building Museum in 2011

In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 1 February 1984, whereupon the Queen appointed him as her personal aide-de-Camp.[5] Prince Andrew served aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986,[5] including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2. He undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, and, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland. He also served on HMS Edinburgh as an Officer of the Watch and Assistant Navigating Officer until 1989, including a six-month deployment as part of exercise Outback 88 to the Far East.[5]

The Duke of York served as flight commander and pilot of the Lynx HAS3 on HMS Campbeltown from 1989 to 1991, during which he also acted as Force Aviation Officer to Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 while the Campbeltown was flagship of the NATO force in the North Atlantic from 1990 to 1991.[5] He passed the squadron command examination on 16 July 1991, attended the Staff College, Camberley, the following year, and completed the Army Staff course. He was promoted to Lieutenant-Commander on 1 February and passed the ship command examination on 12 March 1992. From 1993 to 1994, Prince Andrew commanded the Hunt-class minehunter HMS Cottesmore.[5]

From 1995 to 1996, the Duke was posted as Senior Pilot of 815 Naval Air Squadron, then the largest flying unit in the Fleet Air Arm. His main responsibility was to supervise flying standards and to guarantee an effective operational capability.[5] He was promoted to Commander on 27 April 1999,[5] finishing his active naval career at the British Ministry of Defence in 2001, as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Staff. In July of that year, the Duke of York was retired from the Active List of the Navy.[5] Three years later, he was made an Honorary Captain, rather than the substantive rank of Captain, as would be customary. On 19 February 2010, his 50th birthday, he was promoted to Honorary Rear Admiral. Five years later, he was promoted to Honorary Vice Admiral.[10]

Marriage and divorce[edit]

The Duke and Duchess of York on their wedding day.

Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey on 23 July 1986. The same day, the Queen created him Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killyleagh,[11] all titles previously held by both his maternal great-grandfather and grandfather. Prince Andrew had known Ferguson since childhood; they had met occasionally at polo matches, and became re-acquainted with each other at Royal Ascot in 1985.

The couple appeared to have a happy marriage and had two daughters together, presenting a united outward appearance during the late 1980s. His wife's personal qualities were seen as refreshing in the context of the formal protocol surrounding the Royal Family. However, the Duke of York's frequent travel due to his military career, as well as relentless, often critical, media attention focused on the Duchess of York, led to fractures in the marriage. On 19 March 1992, the couple announced plans to separate and did so in an amicable way. Some months later, pictures appeared in the tabloid media of the Duchess in intimate association with John Bryan, her financial advisor at the time, which effectively ended any hopes of a reconciliation between the Duke and Duchess. The marriage was ended in divorce on 30 May 1996.[12] The Duke of York spoke fondly of his former wife: "We have managed to work together to bring our children up in a way that few others have been able to and I am extremely grateful to be able to do that."[13]

The couple agreed to share custody of their two daughters, and the Duchess continued to live at the Duke's home, Sunninghill Park, until 2004, when he moved to the Royal Lodge. In 2003, Richard Kay, in his first gossip column for the Daily Mail, asserted that the Duke was about to marry the businesswoman Amanda Staveley. She was reported in The Sunday Telegraph as saying, "I will not be marrying Andrew now or in the future." In 2007, Sarah, Duchess of York, purchased Dolphin House, a mansion directly beside the Royal Lodge. In 2008, a fire at Dolphin House resulted in Sarah moving into the Royal Lodge, again sharing a house with the Duke of York. Prince Andrew's lease of Royal Lodge is for 75 years, with the Crown Estate as landlord, and there is no annual tenancy charge.[14]

In May 2010, Sarah, Duchess of York, was filmed by a News of the World reporter claiming that her former husband had agreed that if she were to receive £500,000, he would meet the donor and pass on useful top-level business contacts. She was filmed receiving, in cash, $40,000 as a down payment. The duke's entourage emphatically denied he knew of the situation.[15]

In July 2011, Sarah, Duchess of York, stated that her multi-million pound debts had been cleared due to the intervention of her former husband, whom she compared to a "knight on a white charger".[16]

Trade, business, activities, and charitable work[edit]

The Duke of York in his role as the UK's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment at the World Economic Forum on the Middle East, 2008.

From 2001 until July 2011, the Duke of York worked with UK Trade & Investment, part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.[17] The post, previously held by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, involved representing and promoting the UK at various trade fairs and conferences around the world. His suitability for the role was challenged in the House of Commons by Shadow Justice Minister Chris Bryant in February 2011, at the time of the 2011 Libyan civil war, on the grounds that he was "not only a very close friend of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, but also ... a close friend of the convicted Libyan gun smuggler Tarek Kaituni".[18] The Duke is Patron of the Middle East Association (MEA), the UK's premier organisation for promoting trade and good relations with the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and Iran.[19] Since that ended the Duke continued to support UK enterprise without a special role. Robert Jobson claims he does this work well and wrote, "He is particularly passionate when dealing with young start-up entrepreneurs and bringing them together with successful businesses at networking and showcasing events. Andrew is direct and to the point, and his methods seem to work." [20]

The Duke is also Patron of Fight for Sight, a charity dedicated to research into the prevention and treatment of blindness and eye disease,[21] and was a member of the Scout Association.[22] He tours Canada frequently to undertake duties related to his Canadian military role. Rick Peters, the former Commanding Officer of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada stated that Prince Andrew is "very well informed on Canadian military methods."[23]

The Duke of York in Titanic Belfast on 29 January 2013

The Duke of York receives a £249,000 annuity from the Queen.[24] The Sunday Times reported in July 2008 that for "the Duke of York's public role,... he last year received £436,000 to cover his expenses."[25]

On 8 March 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported: "In 2010, the Prince spent £620,000 as a trade envoy, including £154,000 on hotels, food and hospitality and £465,000 on travel."[26]

On 3 September 2012, the Duke of York was among a team of 40 people who abseiled down The Shard (tallest building in Europe) to raise money for educational charities the Outward Bound Trust and the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund.[27][28]

In 2013, it was announced that the Duke was becoming the Patron of London Metropolitan University [29] and the University of Huddersfield.[30][31] In July 2015 he was installed as Chancellor of the University of Huddersfield.[32] He became the Patron of the charity Attend[33] in 2003, and is a member of the International Advisory Board of the Royal United Services Institute.

Controversies[edit]

Alleged comments on corruption and Kazakhstan[edit]

As the United Kingdom's Special Trade Representative, the Duke of York travelled the world to promote British businesses. It was revealed in the United States diplomatic cables leak that the Duke had been reported on by Tatiana Gfoeller, the United States Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan, discussing bribery in Kyrgyzstan and the investigation into the Al-Yamamah arms deal.

The Duke, she explained, "was referencing an investigation, subsequently closed, into alleged kickbacks a senior Saudi royal had received in exchange for the multi-year, lucrative BAE Systems contract to provide equipment and training to Saudi security forces."

The dispatch continued: "His mother's subjects seated around the table roared their approval. He then went on to 'these (expletive) journalists, especially from the National Guardian [sic], who poke their noses everywhere' and (presumably) make it harder for British businessmen to do business. The crowd practically clapped!"

Earlier in 2010, it was revealed that the Kazakhstan President's billionaire son-in-law Timur Kulibayev paid the Duke of York's representatives £15 million – £3 million over the asking price – via offshore companies, for the Duke's Surrey mansion, Sunninghill Park. Kulibayev frequently appears in US dispatches as one of the men who have accumulated millions in gas-rich Kazakhstan.[34]

In May 2012, it was reported that Swiss and Italian police investigating "a network of personal and business relationships" allegedly used for "international corruption" were looking at the activities of Enviro Pacific Investments which charges "multi-million pound fees" to energy companies wishing to deal with Kazakhstan.[35] The trust is believed to have paid £6 million towards the purchase of Sunninghill which now appears derelict.[35] In response, a Palace spokesman said "This was a private sale between two trusts. There was never any impropriety on the part of The Duke of York".[35]

Libby Purves wrote in The Times in January 2015: "Prince Andrew dazzles easily when confronted with immense wealth and apparent power. He has fallen for 'friendships' with bad, corrupt and clever men, not only in the US but in Libya, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tunisia, wherever."[36]

In May 2016, a fresh controversy broke out when the Daily Mail alleged that the Duke had brokered a £385 million deal to assist a Greek and Swiss consortium secure a £385 million contract to build water and sewerage networks in two of Kazakhstan's largest cities, while working as British trade envoy, and had stood to gain a £4 million payment in commission.[37] The newspaper published an email from the Duke to Kazakh oligarch Kenges Rakishev, (who had allegedly brokered sale of the Prince's Berkshire mansion Sunninghill Park), and claimed that Rakishev had arranged meetings for the consortium. After initially claiming the email was a forgery, Buckingham Palace sought to block its publication as a privacy breach.[38] The Palace strongly denied the allegation that the Duke had acted as a "fixer" calling the article "untrue, defamatory and a breach of the editor's code of conduct."[38]

A former Foreign Office minister, MP Chris Bryant stated: "When I was at the Foreign Office it was very difficult to see in whose interests he [the Duke] was acting. He doesn't exactly add lustre to the Royal diadem."[38] There were calls for an official enquiry, the head of campaign group Republic saying "this appears to represent abuse of Andrew's position as trade envoy."[39]

Friendship with Jeffrey Epstein[edit]

The Duke of York riding in the carriage procession at Trooping the Colour, 16 June 2012

In March 2011, it was reported that the Duke's friendship with Jeffrey Epstein, a man with a conviction in Florida for soliciting an underage girl for prostitution, was producing "a steady stream of criticism". Sarah, Duchess of York, disclosed that the Duke helped arrange for Epstein to pay off some of her debts.[40] The Duke strolled publicly with Epstein after the latter's release from prison, allegedly while negotiating this financial help.[41] In July 2011, the Duke was reported to have cut all ties with Epstein,[42] but in July 2011 the Duke's role as Trade Envoy was terminated.[43]

In January 2015, there was renewed media pressure for Buckingham Palace to explain the Duke's connection with Epstein.[44] Peter Oborne, writing in The Daily Telegraph in January 2015, stated that "the proven facts are grim enough. What was the prince doing, in the first place, with Epstein, a paedophile who was jailed in 2008 for soliciting young girls for under-age prostitution?"[45]

Election to Royal Society[edit]

Andrew's election to the Royal Society prompted "Britain's leading scientists" to "revolt" due to Andrew's lack of scientific background, with some noting he had only a high-school level education.[46] In an op-ed in The Sunday Times, Humboldt Prize recipient David Colquhoun opined, in references to Andrew's qualifications, that "if I wanted a tip for the winner of the 14.30 at Newmarket, I’d ask a royal. For most other questions, I wouldn’t."[46][47]

Sex abuse allegations[edit]

In January 2015, Virginia Roberts made allegations of sexual impropriety against the Duke in court papers related to a civil action in Florida arising from the Epstein affair, but to which the Duke was not a party. Roberts claimed that the Duke was among men, including "a former prime minister" and Alan Dershowitz, who had sex with her while she was a teenager. She alleged she was first introduced to and, for £10,000,[48] had sex with the Duke on a trip to London in 2001, when she was 17[49] (which is above the age of consent in the United Kingdom[50]), and again in New York (where the age of consent is 17). Flight logs show the Duke and Virginia Roberts were in the same places when she alleges sex happened.[51] The Duke and Roberts were also photographed together with the Duke's arm round Roberts' waist.[52] Roberts said she was pressured to have sex with the Duke and "wouldn't have dared object" and feared leaving, as she felt Epstein, through contacts, could have got her "killed or abducted". The allegations have, as of early 2015, not been tested in any court,[36] but Roberts repeated allegations against the Duke and against Epstein in a sworn legal statement under penalty of perjury.[53]

Buckingham Palace stated that "any suggestion of impropriety with underage minors is categorically untrue", later repeating the denials.[54][55] Lawyers for Roberts claim a request to the Duke for a statement under oath about the allegations was returned unanswered.[56][57] Further, when the Duke was asked if he planned to reply under oath, he refused to answer and left the room.[58] The American government may also be trying to prevent the Duke having to testify under oath.[59]

Dershowitz said, "she's lied about me ... she should not be believed about anyone else ... it must be presumed all her allegations against Prince Andrew were false as well."[60] Dershowitz initiated legal proceedings contesting the allegations and he and Epstein are suing the lawyers representing Roberts.[44][61] In response Virginia Roberts stated she would not "be bullied back into silence."[62]

On 7 April 2015, Judge Kenneth Marra ruled that the "sex allegations made against Prince Andrew in court papers filed in Florida must be struck from the public record".[63][64] Marra made no ruling as to whether claims by Roberts are true or false, specifically stating that Roberts may later give evidence when the case comes to court. [65]

Meetings with Ilham Aliyev[edit]

As of November 2014, the Duke had met Ilham Aliyev, the president of Azerbaijan, on 12 separate occasions.[66] He had to stand down as a trade envoy for the UK in 2011 following controversy over his friendship with Mr. Aliyev, who has been criticised for corruption and for abuses of human rights by Amnesty International, but he has continued to visit him in Azerbaijan since standing down.[66]

Arms sales[edit]

In March 2011 Kaye Stearman of the Campaign Against the Arms Trade told Channel 4 News CAAT sees Prince Andrew as part of a bigger problem, "He is the front man for UKTI. Our concerns are not just Prince Andrew, it's the whole UKTI set up. They see arms as just another commodity but it has completely disproportionate resources. At the London office of UKTI the arms sector has more staff than all the others put together. We are concerned that Prince Andrew is used to sell arms, and where you sell arms it is likely to be to despotic regimes. He is the cheerleader in chief for the arms industry, shaking hands and paving the way for the salesmen."[67]

In January 2014 Prince Andrew took part in a delegation to Bahrain. Spokesman for CAAT, Andrew Smith said, "We are calling on Prince Andrew and the UK government to stop selling arms to Bahrain. By endorsing the Bahraini dictatorship Prince Andrew is giving his implicit support to their oppressive practices. When our government sells arms it is giving moral and practical support to an illegitimate and authoritarian regime and directly supporting their systematic crackdown on opposition groups. (...) We shouldn't allow our international image to be used as a PR tool for the violent and oppressive dictatorship in Bahrain."[68]

Andrew Smith has also said, "The prince has consistently used his position to promote arms sales and boost some of the most unpleasant governments in the world, his arms sales haven’t just given military support to corrupt and repressive regimes. They've lent those regimes political and international legitimacy."[69]

Personal interests[edit]

The Duke is a capable golfer, playing off a low single-figure handicap.[70] He was Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews between 2003 and 2004—during the club's 250th anniversary season—is patron of a number of royal golf clubs, and has been elected as an honorary member of many others. The Duke is also a keen skier [71] and has bought an exclusive skiing chalet in Verbier, Switzerland, for between £8 million and £13 million jointly with Sarah Ferguson.[72]

The Duke is a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, the senior maritime City livery company.[73] In recent years, he has developed strong links with Kazakhstan and is a regular goose hunting companion of the country's President Nursultan Nazarbayev.[74]

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 19 February 1960 – 23 July 1986: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew
  • 23 July 1986 – present: His Royal Highness The Duke of York

Andrew has been a British prince from birth. His present style and title in full is: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew Albert Christian Edward, Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, Baron Killyleagh,[75] Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Canadian Forces Decoration, Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty.

For May 2007 only, Andrew became entitled to be called (albeit academically) His Grace The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.

Naval ranks[edit]

Honours[edit]

See also List of honours of the British Royal Family by country

Royal Victorian Order UK ribbon.png South Atlantic Medal w rosette BAR.svg QEII Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon.png
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon.png QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon.png CD-ribbon.png
New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal ribbon.png SCM ribbon.png St Olavs Orden storkors stripe.svg

Orders
Decorations
Medals
Foreign orders

Appointments[edit]

Personal
Fellowships

Honorary military appointments[edit]

Canada Canada
New Zealand New Zealand
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Arms[edit]

Personal flag for Canada[edit]

Flag of the Duke of York for use in Canada

Since 2014, the Duke of York has a personal heraldic flag for use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of an "A" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, the centre one charged with an anchor.[83][84]

Issue[edit]

Name Birth Marriage Issue
Princess Beatrice of York 8 August 1988
Princess Eugenie of York 23 March 1990

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A 1960 Order-in-Council giving the surname Mountbatten-Windsor to the male-line descendants of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Elizabeth II specifically refers only to such descendants without a royal title, as those with one generally have no need for a surname. Despite this, the Duke of York (like his sister Princess Anne) entered this surname in the marriage register.
  2. ^ The London Gazette: no. 41961. p. 1377. 20 February 1960.
  3. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings". 
  4. ^ His godparents were: the Duke of Gloucester (his maternal great-uncle); Princess Alexandra of Kent (his first cousin once removed); Hugh Fitzroy, Earl of Euston; the Lord Elphinstone (his first cousin once removed); and Mrs Harold Phillips.[3]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Duke of York – Naval Career". The Duke of York official website. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  6. ^ Cahill, Kevin (2010). Who Owns the World: The Surprising Truth About Every Piece of Land on the Planet. New York: Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-0-446-55139-7. 
  7. ^ "Prince Andrew talks of Falklands horror". Glasgow Herald. 14 November 1983. p. 2. 
  8. ^ "Argentines planned to kill Prince Andrew". Montreal Gazette. Reuters. 17 October 1983. pp. C6. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  9. ^ Ward, 'Sharky' (5 August 1993). Sea Harrier Over the Falklands. Pen and Sword. p. 113. ISBN 9780850523058. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  10. ^ Low, Valentine (12 February 2015). "Queen makes Prince Andrew a vice-admiral". The Times. London. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  11. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 50606. p. 1. 23 July 1986.
  12. ^ "Andrew Albert Christian Edward Windsor, 1st Duke of York". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  13. ^ Castle, Stephen (4 February 2008). "From Prince Andrew, critical words for U.S. on Iraq". The New York Times. 
  14. ^ National Audit Office report, 2005. "The Crown Estate – Property Leases with the Royal Family".
  15. ^ "Duchess of York 'wanted cash for Prince Andrew access'". BBC News. 23 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  16. ^ Collins, Nick (25 July 2011). "Duchess of York clears debts thanks to 'knight on white charger' Andrew". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  17. ^ "Prince Andrew to stand down as UK trade envoy", BBC News, 21 July 2011
  18. ^ "Duke of York must lose trade job, says Labour MP", BBC News, 1 March 2011.
  19. ^ "The Middle East Association". Global Arab Network. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 
  20. ^ Robert Jobson (23 January 2015). "What's the point of Prince Andrew?". CNN. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  21. ^ "Message from the Royal Patron", Fight for Sight, accessed 4 February 2015
  22. ^ "Royal Support for the Scouting and Guiding Movements". Official Website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2008. 
  23. ^ Hurst, Jeff; "Princely plans for Andrew", Cambridge Times (Canada), 1 May 2007. Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ "Financial arrangements of members of the Royal Family". Royal Household. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011. 
  25. ^ "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection", The Sunday Times (London), July 2008, retrieved 7 March 2011.
  26. ^ Swinford, Steven (7 March 2011). "Duke of York costs taxpayers £15m". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  27. ^ "Prince Andrew rappels down U.K. building for charity". cbc. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  28. ^ "Prince Andrew descends Europe's tallest building". cbsnews. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  29. ^ "By Royal Appointment: London Met welcomes new Patron". London Metropolitan University. 3 June 2013. 
  30. ^ "Duke of York becomes University Patron". University of Huddersfield. 2 July 2013. 
  31. ^ "The Duke of York to be Patron of the University of Huddersfield". ITV News. 2 July 2013. 
  32. ^ "HRH The Duke of York installed as University Chancellor". University of Huddersfield. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  33. ^ "Attend VIPs". Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  34. ^ Leigh, David; Evans, Rob; Brooke, Heather (29 November 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: 'Rude' Prince Andrew shocks US ambassador". The Guardian. London. 
  35. ^ a b c Lewis, Jason (26 May 2012). "Money laundering probe puts spotlight on the £15 million sale of the Duke of York's home". Sunday Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  36. ^ a b Greenslade, Roy "Prince Andrew story runs and runs - but editors should beware", The Guardian (blog), 5 January 2015
  37. ^ Adams, Guy Andrew and 'a £4m kickback': Duke brokered £385m deal for Greek firm and corrupt regime while acting as British trade envoy... So is that how he paid for his £13m ski chalet?, Daily Mail, 21 May 2016 ; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3601690/Andrew-4-million-kickback-Duke-brokered-385m-deal-Greek-firm-corrupt-regime-acting-British-trade-envoy.html
  38. ^ a b c Sawer, Patrick Prince Andrew brokered £385m deal with Kazakh regime while working as British trade envoy, Daily Telegraph, 21 May 2016; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/20/duke-brokered-385m-for-corrupt-regime-while-working-as-british-t/
  39. ^ Tominey, Camilla Prince Andrew ‘acted as a £4m fixer’, Sunday Express, 22 May 2016; http://www.express.co.uk/news/royal/672567/Prince-Andrew-acted-4m-fixer
  40. ^ "Duchess of York admits Duke arranged for convicted paedophile Jeffrey Epstein to pay off her debts". Telegraph.co.uk. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  41. ^ "Duke of York 'appealed to Jeffrey Epstein to help Duchess pay debt'". Telegraph.co.uk. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  42. ^ "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy". BBC News. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  43. ^ Lewis, Paul; Swaine, Jon (2015-01-10). "Jeffrey Epstein: inside the decade of scandal entangling Prince Andrew". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-22. 
  44. ^ a b Robert Booth. "Palace digs in over Prince Andrew's links to sex offender Jeffrey Epstein". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  45. ^ Oborne, Peter "It was all going so well for the Royal Family", The Daily Telegraph (London), 5 January 2015
  46. ^ a b Leake, Jonathan (5 May 2013). "Royal Society bust-up over Andrew". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 21 April 2016. 
  47. ^ Colquohon, David (5 May 2013). "Dukes of York don't belong in our Royal Society". Sunday Times. Retrieved 21 April 2016. 
  48. ^ "Prince Andrew 'sex abuse victim' Virginia Roberts 'was introduced to the Queen'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 5 January 2015. 
  49. ^ Rayner, Gordon (4 January 2015). "Prince Andrew prepares for grim year ahead as 'sex abuse' claims refuse to go away". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  50. ^ "BBC Advice - Age Of Consent". BBC. 
  51. ^ "Prince Andrew under renewed pressure to speak about 'sex abuse' claims after flight logs emerge". Telegraph.co.uk. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  52. ^ "The Independent". The Independent. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  53. ^ Prince Andrew arrives in Davos to answer claims of 'sex orgy with nine teenagers'
  54. ^ Withnall, Adam (4 January 2015). "Teenage 'sex slave' Virginia Roberts claims she was paid £10,000 by Jeffrey Epstein to have sex with Prince Andrew". The Independent. London. 
  55. ^ Booth, Robert; Lewis, Paul (4 January 2015). "Palace takes unusual step to deny Prince Andrew underage sex claims". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  56. ^ Tim Walker (22 January 2015). "Virginia Roberts sex claims: Prince Andrew arrives in Davos amid calls for him to answer 'sex slave' allegations under oath". The Independent. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  57. ^ "Prince Andrew set for first public event since sex claim". BBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  58. ^ "It's time for Prince Andrew to man up". New York Post. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  59. ^ "US Government Is Trying to Prevent 'Sex Slave' Virginia Roberts From Making Prince Andrew Testify Under Oath". Music Times. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  60. ^ "Prince Andrew sex claims woman 'should not be believed'". BBC News. 3 January 2015. 
  61. ^ "US lawyer takes legal action in Prince Andrew sex claim case", BBC News, 6 January 2015
  62. ^ Lewis, Paul. "Prince Andrew named in US lawsuit over underage sex claims". The Guardian. London. 
  63. ^ Sherwell, Philip. "Prince Andrew sex abuse allegation thrown out by judge". UK Daily Telegraph - 7 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. A US judge has ruled that sex allegations made against Prince Andrew in court papers filed in Florida must be struck from the public record. 
  64. ^ Buncombe (New York), Andrew. "Prince Andrew sex claims case: Judge orders that allegations against Duke of York be thrown out". The Independent UK, 7 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. A US judge has ordered that “lurid” sex allegations made against Prince Andrew and which led to a major crisis for the member of the royal family, be struck from the record 
  65. ^ Jon Swaine. "Judge orders Prince Andrew sex allegations struck from court record". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  66. ^ a b Armitage, Jim (12 November 2014). "Duke of York to meet Azeri despot Ilham Aliyev for 12th time". The Independent. London. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  67. ^ "Prince Andrew: 'Cheerleader in chief for the arms industry'". Channel 4 News. 10 March 2011.
  68. ^ "Campaigners call for UK to halt arms exports to Bahrain as Prince Andrew joins sales drive". Campaign Against Arms Trade. 15 January 2014.
  69. ^ "What Scandal Involving Prince Andrew Says - Al Jazeera America". Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  70. ^ Royal, by Robert Lacey, 2002.
  71. ^ "Prince Andrew flies home amid growing crisis over under-age sex claims". Daily Mail. London. 4 January 2015. 
  72. ^ "Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson buy luxury chalet". BBC News. 10 January 2015.
  73. ^ "HRH The Duke of York installed as Liveryman". The Worshipful Company of Shipwrights. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. 
  74. ^ Foggo, Daniel; Swinford, Steven; Mikhailova, Anna (27 July 2008). "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 4 September 2008. On one of his most recent visits, in May, he [Prince Andrew] is understood to have spent a weekend on a goose-shooting excursion with Nursultan Nazarbayev, the president of Kazakhstan. ... Timur Kulibayev, 41, is a billionaire oil and gas tycoon who is known to Andrew, not least through their attendance at hunting parties thrown by Nazarbayev. ... Kulibayev has also been busy inviting VIPs, reportedly including the prince, to regular hunting meets hosted by the Kazakh president. 
  75. ^ "The Duke of York – Style and titles". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  76. ^ The London Gazette: no. 56951. p. 6753. 2 June 2003.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Duke of York – Honours and Decorations". The Duke of York official website. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  78. ^ "St George's Chapel > History > Orders of Chivalry". St George's Chapel. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  79. ^ "The Duke of York appointed GCVO, 21 February 2011". Official Website of The British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  80. ^ Jackson, Michael (Summer 2007). "Honours of the Crown" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News. Monarchist League of Canada. p. 12. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  81. ^ Johnson, Alice (26 November 2010). "Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders". Gulf News. Dubai. 
  82. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Duke of York – Service appointments". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  83. ^ "Canadian Flags of the Royal Family". Canadian Crown. Government of Canada. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  84. ^ "The Prince Andrew, Duke of York". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 

External links[edit]

Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Born: 19 February 1960
Lines of succession
Preceded by
Prince Henry of Wales
Line of succession to the British throne
6th position
Followed by
Princess Beatrice of York
Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
& Duke of Rothesay
Gentlemen Succeeded by
The Earl of Wessex
Preceded by
The Duke of Cambridge
Gentlemen
in current practice
Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir Patrick Stewart
Chancellor of the University of Huddersfield
2015–present
Incumbent
Sporting positions
Preceded by
The Duke of Kent
President of The Football Association
2000–2006
Succeeded by
Prince William of Wales
Other offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Kent
Special Representative for International Trade and Investment
2001–2011
Vacant