Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia (1828–1885)
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Prince Friedrich Karl Nicolaus of Prussia (20 March 1828 – 15 June 1885) was the son of Prince Charles of Prussia (1801–1883) and his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877). Prince Frederick Charles was a grandson of King Frederick William III of Prussia and a nephew of Frederick William IV and William I. He was born at Schloss Klein in Berlin.
From 1842 to 1846, Frederick Charles was under the military tutelage of then major Albrecht von Roon, who accompanied the Prince to the University of Bonn in 1846. After his studies, the Prince served as a captain on Wrangel's staff during the Schleswig campaign of 1848. Promoted to major on the general staff, he partook in a campaign in Baden during which he was wounded. During the following peace years he was promoted to colonel in 1852, major general in 1854 and lieutenant general in 1856. In 1860, the Prince published a military book, titled, "Eine militärische Denkschrift von P. F. K.". Promoted to General der Kavallerie, the Prince took part in the Second Schleswig War of 1864 against Denmark, where he held command over the Prussian troops in the Austro-Prussian expeditionary force but interfered in the plans of his chief of staff, von Blumenthal, who turned to Crown Prince Frederick William for support.
He served with distinction in the Austro-Prussian War, where he commanded the First Army; consisting of 2nd, 3rd and 4th corps. Arriving first at Königgrätz, he held the numerically superior Austrians at bay until his cousin the Crown Prince (who now had General von Blumenthal as his Chief of Staff) and his Second army came up and attacked the Austrians in the flank.
At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, the Prince was given command of the Second Army, with which he distinguished himself at the Battle of Spicheren and the battles of Vionville-Mars la Tour and Gravelotte-St.Privat and the following Siege of Metz. After the fall of Metz, his army was sent to the Loire to clear the area around Orléans, where French troops, first under Aurelle de Paladines, then under Chanzy, were trying to march north to relieve Paris. He won battles at Orleans and Le Mans. For his services he was promoted to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall. After the war, the Prince was made Inspector-General and was given the rank of Field Marshal of Russia by Alexander II of Russia.
He died at Jagdschloss Glienicke.
Family and Children
|Princess Marie Elisabeth Luise Friederike of Prussia||14 September 1855||20 June 1888||married twice (1) Prince Henry of the Netherlands; (2) Prince Albert of Saxe-Altenburg|
|Princess Elisabeth Anna of Prussia||8 February 1857||28 August 1895||married Frederick Augustus II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg|
|Princess Anna Victoria Charlotte Augusta Adelheid of Prussia||26 February 1858||6 May 1858|
|Princess Luise Margarete Alexandra Victoria Agnes of Prussia||25 July 1860||14 March 1917||married Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn|
|Prince Joachim Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Leopold of Prussia||14 November 1865||13 September 1931||married Princess Louise Sophie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg|
He received the following decorations and awards:
- German honours
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Knight with Collar of the Black Eagle
- Pour le Mérite, with Crown and Oak Leaves
- Grand Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords, Order of the Red Eagle
- Knight 1st Class, Order of the Prussian Crown
- Grand Commander with Star and Swords, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern
- Knight of Justice, Johanniter Order
- Grand Cross, Iron Cross
- Lifesaving Medal
- Service Award Cross
- Hohenzollern: Cross of Honour 1st Class with Swords, Princely House Order of Hohenzollern
- Kingdom of Hanover:
- Duchy of Anhalt: Grand Cross with Swords, Order of Albert the Bear
- Kingdom of Bavaria:
- Duchy of Brunswick: Grand Cross, Order of Henry the Lion
- Ernestine Duchies: Grand Cross, Saxe-Ernestine House Order
- Grand Duchy of Hesse:
- Lippe-Detmold: Military Merit Medal
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross with Crown and Swords, House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross, Order of the White Falcon
- Kingdom of Saxony:
- Schaumburg-Lippe: Military Merit Medal
- Württemberg: Grand Cross, Military Merit Order
- Foreign honours
- Austrian Empire:
- Belgium: Grand Cordon, Royal Order of Leopold I
- Kingdom of Greece: Grand Cross, Order of the Redeemer
- Kingdom of Hawaii: Grand Cross, Royal Order of Kalākaua
- Ottoman Empire:
- Romania: Grand Cross, Order of the Star of Romania
- Russian Empire:
- Kingdom of Sardinia:
- Siam: Knight, Order of the Royal House of Chakri
- Spain: Knight of the Golden Fleece, 1871
- Sweden-Norway: Knight of the Seraphim, 19 July 1874
- Tunisia: Husainid House Order
- United Kingdom: Honorary Grand Cross (military), Order of the Bath, 3 July 1878
Portrayal in media
- "Anna Victoria Charlotte Auguste Adelheid von Preussen". Find A Grave. 13 November 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Preußen (1884-85), Genealogy p. 2
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Hohenzollern Principe Federico Carlo" (in Italian), Il sito ufficiale della Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 2018-08-14.
- Boettger, T. F. "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or - Knights of the Golden Fleece". La Confrérie Amicale. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "Sveriges statskalender (1877) p. 369" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org.
- "Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia", The Irish Times, 27 July 1878
- Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, page 197