Prince Gong (Qing dynasty)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2015)|
- This is a Manchu name; the family name is Aisin-Gioro.
|Photo of Prince Gong, taken by Felice Beato on 2 November 1860 at the Convention of Beijing|
|Prince Gong of the First Rank|
25 February 1850 – 29 May 1898
|Appointed by||Daoguang Emperor|
|Preceded by||(None. Title created.)|
|Leader of the Zongli Yamen|
20 January 1861 – 8 April 1884
also bore the title Prince-Regent (議政王)
|Succeeded by||Prince Qing|
29 September 1894 – 29 May 1898
|Preceded by||Prince Qing|
|Succeeded by||Prince Duan|
|Chief Councillor of the Grand Council|
|Born||11 January 1833|
|Died||2 November 1860
|Relations||Daoguang Emperor (father)
Empress Xiaojingcheng (mother)
Xianfeng Emperor (half-brother)
Tongzhi Emperor (nephew)
Guangxu Emperor (nephew)
|Children||Gulun Princess Rongshou
|Residence||Prince Gong Mansion|
|Aisin Gioro Yixin|
Yixin (Manchu: ᡳ ᡥᡳᠨ I Hin, Chinese: 奕訢; 11 January 1833 – 29 May 1898), commonly known by his title Prince Gong (or Prince Kung), was an imperial prince of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the late Qing dynasty in China. He was the sixth son of the Daoguang Emperor and a half-brother of the Xianfeng Emperor. He remained an influential figure in Chinese politics throughout the reigns of the Tongzhi and Guangxu Emperors, and served as Prince-Regent from 1861–65. Having established the Zongli Yamen – a government body in charge of foreign affairs – in 1861, Prince Gong is best remembered for advocating greater constructive engagement between the Qing Empire and the great powers of that era, as well as for his attempts to modernise China in the late 19th century. The last decades of his career were marred by his conflict with conservative elements in the Qing imperial court – particularly Empress Dowager Cixi – and ended with his death in relative disgrace.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Service under the Xianfeng Emperor
- 3 Service under the Tongzhi Emperor
- 4 Service under the Guangxu Emperor
- 5 Family
- 6 Names and titles
- 7 Prince Gong Mansion
- 8 Portrayals in media
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
Yixin was born in the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing dynasty, as the sixth son of the Daoguang Emperor. He was the third son of his mother, Imperial Noble Consort Jing, who was from the Mongol Borjigin clan. He studied in the imperial library and practised martial arts with his fourth brother, Yizhu. He created 28 qiang (spear) movements and 18 dao (sword) movements, which were respectively named "Lihua Xieli" (棣華協力) and "Bao'e Xuanwei" (寶鍔宣威) by his father. His father also gave him a White Rainbow Sword (白虹刀) as a gift.
Yixin was mentored by Zhuo Bingtian (卓秉恬) and Jia Zhen (賈楨), two eminent scholar-officials who obtained the position of jinshi (進士; successful candidate) in the imperial examination in 1802 and 1826 respectively.
In 1850, when the Daoguang Emperor became critically ill, he summoned Zaiquan (載銓), Zaiyuan, Duanhua, Sengge Rinchen, Mujangga, He Rulin (何汝霖), Chen Fu'en (陳孚恩) and Ji Zhichang (季芝昌) to Shende Hall (慎德堂) in the Old Summer Palace, where he revealed to them a secret edict he wrote previously. According to the edict, the Fourth Prince, Yizhu, would become the new emperor while Yixin, the Sixth Prince, would be made a qinwang (Prince of the First Rank). He died on the same day.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2015)|
When the Daoguang Emperor was selecting an heir from among his sons, he was unable to decide between Yizhu and Yixin initially, but eventually chose the former and wrote the secret edict in 1846. Three years later, he had a tomb constructed in the Consorts' Resting Gardens (妃園寢; i.e. the tombs of imperial consorts) for Yixin's mother, Imperial Noble Consort Jing, and ordered that she be buried there after death. The emperor's action hinted that he would never make Yixin his successor because if Yixin became the emperor later, his mother would be posthumously honoured as an empress. In the Qing dynasty, empresses who died before their husbands were buried together with their husbands; those who died after their husbands had individual tombs for themselves. Since the Daoguang Emperor already made interment arrangements for Yixin's mother, this meant that he regarded her as only a secondary spouse (i.e. not an empress), so her son would never become the emperor.
Service under the Xianfeng Emperor
Yizhu ascended the throne in 1850 after the death of the Daoguang Emperor and named his period of reign "Xianfeng", thus he is historically known as the Xianfeng Emperor. The newly enthroned emperor conferred upon Yixin the title "Prince Gong (of the First Rank)" (恭親王) in the same year. In 1851, the Xianfeng Emperor established an office for Prince Gong, gave him permission to enter the inner imperial court, assigned him to be in charge of patrol and defence matters, and ordered him to continue carrying the White Rainbow Sword given to him by their father.
In October 1853, as the Taiping rebels closed in on Jinan (畿南; the area south of the Hai River), Prince Gong was appointed to the Grand Council, which was in charge of military affairs. The following year, he received three additional appointments: dutong (都統; Banner Commander), you zongzheng (右宗正; Right Director of the Imperial Clan Court) and zongling (宗令; Head of the Imperial Clan Court). He was publicly praised in May 1855 after the Taiping rebels were driven out of Jinan.
Prince Gong and his mother, Imperial Noble Dowager Consort Kangci (formerly Imperial Noble Consort Jing), allegedly forged an imperial edict in the Xianfeng Emperor's name that honoured her as the "Empress Dowager". The emperor was very displeased but did not rescind the edict because he wanted to save himself from public embarrassment.
When Prince Gong's mother died in August 1855 after being the empress dowager for only eight days, the Xianfeng Emperor reprimanded Prince Gong for failing to observe court protocol and removed him from his Grand Council, zongling and dutong appointments. However, Prince Gong was still permitted to enter the inner imperial court and the imperial library. He was restored to his position as a dutong in June 1856, and further appointed as an Inner Minister (內大臣) in May 1859.
Role in the Convention of Beijing
In September 1860, during the Second Opium War, as the Anglo-French forces closed in on the capital Beijing, the Xianfeng Emperor ordered Zaiyuan and Muyin (穆廕) to negotiate for peace at Tongzhou with the enemy. The Anglo-French delegation, which included Harry Smith Parkes and Henry Loch, were taken prisoner by the Mongol general Sengge Rinchen during the negotiations. Sengge Rinchen then led his elite Mongol cavalry to attack the Anglo-French forces at the Battle of Baliqiao but was defeated. The Xianfeng Emperor recalled Zaiyuan and Muyin from Tongzhou, fled with most of his imperial court to Rehe Province, and appointed Prince Gong as an Imperial Commissioner with Discretion and Full Authority (欽差便宜行事全權大臣).
Prince Gong moved to Changxindian (長辛店; in present-day Fengtai District, Beijing) and called for an assembly of the troops stationed there to enforce greater discipline and raise their morale. On one hand, Qinghui (慶惠) suggested to the Xianfeng Emperor to release Harry Smith Parkes and let Prince Gong continue negotiating. On the other hand, Yidao (義道) urged the emperor to surrender Beijing to the enemy. In the meantime, the British and French looted and burnt down the Old Summer Palace in the northwest of Beijing.
On 24 October 1860, Prince Gong concluded the negotiations with the British, French and Russians, and signed the Convention of Beijing on behalf of the Qing Empire. He then wrote a memorial to the Xianfeng Emperor, requesting to be punished for signing the unequal treaty. The emperor replied, "The responsibility assigned to Prince Gong to carry on peace negotiations is not an easy one to shoulder. I deeply understand the difficult situation he was put into. There is no need to punish him." Prince Gong settled the affairs in Beijing by the end of 1860.
In 1861, Prince Gong set up the Zongli Yamen, which functioned as the Qing government's de facto foreign affairs ministry, and placed Guiliang (桂良) and Wenxiang in charge of it. He wrote a memorial to the Xianfeng Emperor, proposing to enhance the training of Banner Troops in Beijing and let the Qing troops stationed in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces train with the Russian Empire's forces and stockpile military supplies. The generals Shengbao (勝保), Jingchun (景淳) and others were ordered to train the troops in Beijing and northeast China.
Service under the Tongzhi Emperor
Before the Xianfeng Emperor died in August 1861 in the Chengde Summer Palace, he appointed a group of eight regents – led by Zaiyuan, Duanhua and Sushun – to assist his underage son and successor, Zaichun. Upon request, Prince Gong was granted permission to travel to Chengde to attend the funeral. In Chengde, he met the Empress Dowagers Ci'an and Cixi and told them about how the eight regents monopolised state power. When the Xianfeng Emperor's coffin arrived back in Beijing in November 1861, Prince Gong and the two empress dowagers launched a coup – historically known as the Xinyou Coup (辛酉政變) to oust the eight regents from power. The regents were arrested and removed their positions of power.
Zaichun, who was enthroned as the "Tongzhi Emperor", appointed Prince Gong as Prince-Regent (議政王) and granted him some privileges, which included: Prince Gong's title of nobility being made hereditary; his salary being increased to twice that of a qinwang (Prince of the First Rank); exemptions from having to kowtow in the emperor's presence and having to write his name on memorials submitted to the emperor. Prince Gong firmly declined to have his title made hereditary, and instead sought to be concurrently appointed as zongling (宗令; Head of the Imperial Clan Court) and put in charge of the Shenjiying (a firearms-equipped unit in the Qing army). The two empress dowagers also ordered Prince Gong to supervise Hongde Hall (弘德殿; a hall in the Forbidden City), where the Tongzhi Emperor studied.
In 1864, Qing forces finally suppressed the Taiping Rebellion after a war lasting more than a decade, and recaptured Jiangning (江寧; in present-day Nanjing) from the rebels. The imperial court issued a decree to praise Prince Gong for his effective leadership in the regency that led to the end of the rebellion – in addition to conferring more prestigious titles on his sons Zaicheng, Zaijun and Zaiying.
As the longstanding leader of the Zongli Yamen, which he established in 1861, Prince Gong was responsible for spearheading various reforms in the early stages of the Self-Strengthening Movement, a series of measures and policy changes implemented by the Qing government with the aim of modernising China. He also founded the Tongwen Guan in 1862 for Chinese scholars to study technology and foreign languages.
Fall from grace
In around April 1865, Cai Shouqi (蔡壽祺) accused Prince Gong of "monopolising state power, accepting bribes, practising favouritism, behaving arrogantly, and showing disrespect towards the Emperor". The Empress Dowagers Ci'an and Cixi publicly reprimanded Prince Gong and stripped him off his position as Prince-Regent. Yishen (奕脤), Yixuan, Wang Zheng (王拯), Sun Yimou (孫翼謀), Yin Zhaoyong (殷兆鏞), Pan Zuyin, Wang Weizhen (王維珍), Guangcheng (廣誠) and others pleaded with the empress dowagers to pardon Prince Gong and make him Prince-Regent again. However, the empress dowagers did not restore Prince Gong as Prince-Regent even though they permitted him to remain in the inner imperial court and continue running the Zongli Yamen. Prince Gong personally thanked the empress dowagers and made a tearful apology. The empress dowagers issued a decree announcing: "The Prince practised favouritism. As we are bound by a common cause and have high expectations of him, we cannot show leniency in punishing him. He will still be allowed to oversee the Grand Council."
In March 1868, as the Nian rebels approached the suburbs of Beijing, Prince Gong was tasked with mobilising troops and managing defence arrangements. He was also appointed as you zongzheng (右宗正; Right Director of the Imperial Clan Court).
In 1869, An Dehai, a court eunuch and close aide of Empress Dowager Cixi, was arrested and executed in Shandong by Ding Baozhen, the governor of the province. This was because it was a capital crime for eunuchs to travel out of the Forbidden City without authorisation. The empress dowager became more suspicious of Prince Gong because she believed that he insitgated Ding Baozhen to execute An Dehai.
Demotion and restoration
In October 1872, when the Tongzhi Emperor married the Jiashun Empress, he made Prince Gong's title hereditary again. He officially took over the reins of power from his regents in around February 1873. In the same year, Prince Gong displeased Empress Dowager Cixi when he strongly opposed her plan to rebuild the Old Summer Palace.
In August 1874, Prince Gong was reprimanded and punished again for failing to observe court protocol. This time, he was demoted from the status of a qinwang to a junwang (Prince of the Second Rank). Zaicheng, Prince Gong's eldest son, also lost his beile title. Despite his demotion, Prince Gong was still allowed to remain in the Grand Council. The following day, the empress dowagers ordered Prince Gong to be restored as a qinwang and Zaicheng as a beile. Towards the end of the year, the Tongzhi Emperor increased Prince Gong's salary by more than twice that of a qinwang, but died not long later in around December
Service under the Guangxu Emperor
The Guangxu Emperor, who succeeded the Tongzhi Emperor in 1875, continued the practices of exempting Prince Gong from having to kowtow in the emperor's presence and having to write his name on memorials submitted to the emperor. Prince Gong was also appointed as zongling (宗令; Head of the Imperial Clan Court).
In 1884, when the French invaded Vietnam, Prince Gong and the members of the Grand Council were unable to arrive at a decision on whether or not to intervene in Vietnam and go to war with the French. As a consequence, Empress Dowager Cixi reprimanded Prince Gong and his colleagues for their dispirited and indecisive attitude towards the war, and removed them from their positions. Prince Gong stopped receiving his double salary and was ordered to retire to recuperate from illness. However, he started receiving his double salary again from November 1886 and was allowed to receive his share of the offerings from ceremonial events. He remained in Jietai Temple in western Beijing for most of the time.
Prince Gong's seventh brother, Yixuan, replaced him as the head of the Grand Council. Some officials such as Baoyun (寶鋆), Li Hongzao, Jinglian (景廉) and Weng Tonghe, who previously served in Prince Gong's administration were also dismissed from office. The incident is known as the "Cabinet Change of Jiashen" (甲申易樞) or "Political Change of Jiashen" (甲申朝局之變) because it took place in the jiashen year according to the Chinese sexagenary cycle.
First Sino-Japanese War
In 1894, when the Japanese invaded Korea and the situation became dire, Empress Dowager Cixi summoned Prince Gong back to the imperial court, placed him in charge of the Zongli Yamen again, and tasked him with supervising the Beiyang Fleet (the Qing navy) and military affairs. Although Prince Gong had been recalled to politics, Empress Dowager Cixi also decreed that since he had not yet recovered from illness, he was exempted from having to constantly attend court sessions.
In 1898, Prince Gong was appointed as zongling again, but he became critically ill by the end of April. Empress Dowager Cixi visited him thrice during this period of time. He eventually died at the age of 67 (by East Asian age reckoning) in May.
The Guangxu Emperor personally attended Prince Gong's funeral and, as a sign of mourning, cancelled imperial court sessions for five days and ordered mourning attire to be worn for 15 days. The emperor also granted Prince Gong the posthumous name ""Zhong" (忠; lit. "loyal"), gave him a place in the Imperial Ancestral Temple, and issued an edict honouring Prince Gong as a role model of loyalty that all Qing subjects should learn from.
- Spouse: Lady Guwalgiya (瓜爾佳氏), the daughter of Guiliang (桂良). Prince Gong married her in 1848 by his father's decree.
- Zaicheng (載澂; 1858–85), Prince Gong's eldest son. He was promoted from the status of a beile to a junwang (Prince of the Second Rank), and given the posthumous name "Guomin" (果敏) after his death.
- Zaiying (載瀅; 1861–1909), Prince Gong's second son. He was adopted by Yilu (奕硉), Prince Zhongduan of the Second Rank (鍾端郡王), and inherited the title of a beile. He was later stripped off his title after committing an offence. He was also the only one among Prince Gong's four sons who did not die before their father.
- Zaijun (載濬), Prince Gong's third son.
- Zaihuang (載潢), Prince Gong's fourth son. He held the title of a buru bafen fuguo gong (不入八分輔國公).
- Gulun Princess Rongshou (榮壽固倫公主), Prince Gong's daughter.
- Yuzhan (毓嶦; 1923-), Puwei's son.
- Puru's children:
- Taohua (韜華)
- Yuli (毓岦)
- Yucen (毓岑)
- Yuqi (毓岐)
|Ancestors of Prince Gong (Qing dynasty)|
Names and titles
- Clan name / family name: Aisin Gioro (爱新觉罗; 愛新覺羅; Àixīn Juéluó)
- Personal name: Yixin (奕䜣; 奕訢; Yìxīn; I-hsin)
- Art name: Master of the Yuedao Hall (乐道堂主人; 樂道堂主人; Yuèdàotáng Zhǔrén)
- Formal title: Prince Gong of the First Rank (恭亲王; 恭親王; Gōng Qīnwáng), or simply Prince Gong (Prince Kung in Wade–Giles)
- Posthumous title (in full): Prince Gongzhong of the First Rank (恭忠亲王; 恭忠親王; Gōngzhōng Qīnwáng)
- Other names
- Sixth Prince (六皇子; Lìu Huángzǐ), or informally as "Liu Wangye" (六王爷; 六王爺; Lìu Wángyé)
- "Devil Number Six" (鬼子六; Guǐ Zǐ Lìu)
Prince Gong Mansion
Prince Gong's former residence in Xicheng District, Beijing is now open to the public as a museum and tourist attraction known as the Prince Gong Mansion. It was also previously the residence of Heshen.
Portrayals in media
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yixin, 1st Prince Gong.|
- Fang, Chao-ying (1943). "I-hsin". In Arthur W. Hummel. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. pp. 380–384.
- (恭忠親王奕訢，宣宗第六子。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (孝靜成皇后，博爾濟吉特氏，刑部員外郎花良阿女。後事宣宗為靜貴人。累進靜皇貴妃。 ... 文宗即位，尊為皇考康慈皇貴太妃，居壽康宮。咸豐五年七月，太妃病篤，尊為康慈皇太后。越九日庚午，崩，年四十四。上謚，曰孝靜康慈弼天撫聖皇后，不系宣宗謚，不祔廟。葬慕陵東，曰慕東陵。 ... 子三：奕綱、奕繼、奕訢。女一，下嫁景壽。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 214.
- (與文宗同在書房，肄武事，共制槍法二十八勢、刀法十八勢，宣宗賜以名，槍曰「棣華協力」，刀曰「寶鍔宣威」，並以白虹刀賜奕訢。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- Qing Shi Liezhuan vol. 40.
- (賈楨，字筠堂，山東黃縣人。 ... 十六年，入直上書房，授皇六子讀。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 390.
- (丙午，上不豫。丁未，上疾大漸。召宗人府宗令載銓，御前大臣載垣、端華、僧格林沁，軍機大臣穆彰阿、賽尚阿、何汝霖、陳孚恩、季芝昌，總管內務府大臣文慶公啟鐍匣，宣示御書「皇四子立為皇太子」。是日，上崩於圓明園慎德堂苫次。硃諭「封皇六子奕訢為親王」。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 19.
- (文宗即位，封為恭親王。咸豐二年四月，分府，命仍在內廷行走。內大臣辦理巡防，命仍佩白虹刀。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (三年九月，洪秀全兵逼畿南，以王署領侍命在軍機大臣上行走。四年，迭授都統、右宗正、宗令。五年四月，以畿輔肅清，予優叙。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (七月，孝靜成皇后崩，上責王禮儀疏略，罷軍機大臣、宗令、都統，仍在內廷行走，上書房讀書。七年五月，復授都統。九年四月，授內大臣。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (十年八月，英吉利、法蘭西兵逼京師，上命怡親王載垣、尚書穆廕與議和，誘執英使巴夏禮，與戰，師不利。文宗幸熱河，召回載垣、穆廕，授王欽差便宜行事全權大臣。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (王出駐長辛店，奏請飭統兵大臣激勵兵心，以維大局。克勤郡王慶惠等奏釋巴夏禮，趣王入城議和。英、法兵焚圓明園。豫親王義道等奏啟城，許英、法兵入。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (王入城與議和，定約，悉從英、法人所請，奏請降旨宣示，並自請議處。上諭曰：「恭親王辦理撫局，本屬不易。朕深諒苦衷，毋庸議處。」十二月，奏通商善後諸事。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (初設總理各國事務衙門，命王與大學士桂良、侍郎文祥領其事。王疏請訓練京師旗兵，並以吉林、黑龍江與俄羅斯相議練兵籌餉。上命都統勝保議練京兵，將軍景淳等議練東三省兵。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (十一年七月，文宗崩，王請奔赴，兩太后召見，諭以贊襄政務王大臣載垣、端華、肅順等擅政狀。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (穆宗侍兩太后奉文宗喪還京師，譴黜載垣等，授議政王，在軍機處行走，命王爵世襲，食親王雙俸，並免召對叩拜、奏事書名。王堅辭世襲，尋命兼宗令、領神機營。同治元年，上就傅，兩太后命王弘德殿行走，稽察課程。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (三年，江寧克復。上諭曰：「恭親王自授議政王，於今三載。東南兵事方殷，用人行政，徵兵籌餉，深資贊畫，弼亮忠勤。加封貝勒，以授其子輔國公載澂，並封載濬輔國公、載瀅不入八分輔國公。」) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (四年三月，兩太后諭責王信任親戚，內廷召對，時有不檢，罷議政王及一切職任。尋以惇親王奕脤、醇郡王奕枻及通政使王拯、御史孫翼謀、內閣學士殷兆鏞、左副都御史潘祖廕、內閣侍讀學士王維珍、給事中廣誠等奏請任用，廣誠語尤切。兩太后命仍在內廷行走，管理總理各國事務衙門。王入謝，痛哭引咎，兩太后復諭：「王親信重臣，相關休戚，期望既厚，責備不得不嚴。仍在軍機大臣上行走。」) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (七年二月，西捻逼畿輔，命節制各路統兵大臣。授右宗正。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (十一年九月，穆宗大婚，復命王爵世襲。十二年正月，穆宗親政， ...) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (.... 十三年七月，上諭責王召對失儀，降郡王，仍在軍機大臣上行走，並奪載澂貝勒。翌日，以兩太后命復親王世襲及載澂爵。十二月，上疾有間，於雙俸外復加賜親王俸。旋復加劇，遂崩。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
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- (二十年，日本侵朝鮮，兵？有慶屢增護事急，太后召王入見，復起王管理總理各國事務衙門，並總理海軍，會同辦理軍務，內廷行走；仍諭王疾未癒，免常川入直。尋又命王督辦軍務，節制各路統兵大臣。十一月，授軍機大臣。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (二十四年，授宗令。王疾作，閏三月增劇，上奉太后三臨視，四月薨，年六十七。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (上再臨奠，輟朝五日，持服十五日。諡曰忠，配享太廟，並諭：「王忠誠匡弼，悉協機宜，諸臣當以王為法。」) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (桂良，字燕山，瓜爾佳氏，滿洲正紅旗人， ... 二十八年，召來京，以其女妻皇六子奕訢，授鑲紅旗漢軍都統。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 388.
- (子四：載澂，貝勒加郡王銜，卒，諡果敏； ...) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (... 載瀅，出為鍾端郡王奕硉後，襲貝勒，坐事奪爵歸宗； ...) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (載澂、載濬、載潢皆前王卒。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (... 載濬，與載瀅同時受封； ...) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (... 載潢，封不入八分輔國公。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- (王薨，以載瀅子溥偉為載澂後，襲恭親王。) Qing Shi Gao vol. 221.
- Fang, Chao-ying (1943). "I-hsin". In Arthur W. Hummel. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. pp. Volume I 380–384.
- Wang, Zhonghan, ed. (1987). Qing Shi Liezhuan (Historical Biographies of Qing). China: Zhonghua Book Company.
- Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao). China.
Prince Gong (Qing dynasty)Born: 11 January 1833 Died: 29 May 1898
None. Title created.
|Prince Gong of the First Rank