Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma
||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2013)|
- There is an earlier Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma who was a Belgian army officer in the First World War.
|Prince Sixtus Henry|
|Duke of Aranjuez|
|House||House of Bourbon-Parma|
|Father||Xavier, Duke of Parma|
|Mother||Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset|
22 July 1940 |
Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France
Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma (Spanish: Don Sixto Enrique de Borbón-Parma y Borbón-Busset; Italian: Sisto Enrico di Borbone Parma; born 22 July 1940) is considered Regent of Spain by some Carlists who accord him the titles Duke of Aranjuez, Infante of Spain, and Standard-bearer of Tradition.
|Parmese Ducal Family|
Sixtus was born in Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques during the World War II Vichy regime of France, the second son of Prince Xavier of Bourbon-Parma (then Prince Regent, later Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain, later titular Duke of Parma) and his wife Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset. He belongs to a cadet branch of the former royal dynasty of France (and current dynasty of Spain), the House of Bourbon which ruled the independent Duchy of Parma in Italy until 1859, and reigns (patrilineally) today in Luxembourg. In exile, his family lived in France.
From an early age Sixtus devoted himself to the cause of Carlism. He studied with the Christian Brothers, Benedictines and Marists, as well as with his preceptress, Professor María Teresa Angulo, from Madrid. He later took courses in law (at Clermont-Ferrand), classical and modern languages, and finance.
Under the nom de guerre of Enrique Aranjuez he enlisted in the Spanish Foreign Legion in 1965. On 2 May that year he swore loyalty to the Spanish flag with the oath then in use, which excluded political compromise (as opposed to the later one, which states fidelity to the Spanish Constitution of 1978). Sixtus later volunteered with the Portuguese Armed Forces in the Angolan War of Independence.
Claim to the Carlist succession
Sixtus's father, Prince Xavier of Bourbon-Parma, was the leader of the National Council of the Traditionalist Communion, the largest faction of Spanish Carlists, and thus claimed to be the rightful monarch of Spain (as "Javier I") from 1952 until his "abdication" in 1972. Xavier's successor, in whose favor Xavier renounced his Carlist claim in 2005, was Sixtus's older brother Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma, who took the title "Carlos IV" as claimant to the Spanish crown.
However, Carlos Hugo's deviations from traditional Carlist ideology—most notably his endorsement of Titoist socialism—caused many Carlists to question his leadership. Carlos Hugo sought to change the political direction of the Carlist movement through the Carlist Party, of which he was the official head during the 1976 Carlist gathering when the fatal Montejurra incident occurred, and at which Sixtus Henry was also present, leading opposition to his brother's reforms.
After the death of Xavier in 1977, Sixtus put forth the claim to be regent, and took the title "Standard-bearer of Tradition". Sixtus' claim was supported by his mother; his father's last wishes were difficult to discern. Sixtus publicly protested when Carlos Hugo donated the Carlist archives to the government of Spain in 2002.
Carlos Hugo renounced his claim to the throne in 1979 or 1980, but reasserted it in 2003. After his death in 2010, his son Carlos, Duke of Parma succeeded him in the eyes of the Carlists loyal to Carlos Hugo (the Partido Carlista), and claimed the kingship as "Carlos Javier II".
However, two other Carlist organizations (the Comunión Tradicionalista and the Comunión Tradicionalista Carlista) recognize Sixtus as the rightful regent. Some of them recognize him as king, under the title "Sixto Enrique I". Sixtus himself has never explicitly asserted his right to the throne; rather, he has stated that he would prefer to remain regent in the hope that one of Carlos Hugo's sons may return to traditional Carlist ideology. Nonetheless, he has not objected to his followers shouting "¡Viva el Rey!" during his speeches.
Although the youngest of six children and the second son of his parents, Sixtus inherited his childhood home, the chateau de Lignières near the middle of France, from his mother whose dowry it had been.
In 2010, he sought a court order to prevent the continued exhibition of artworks by the Japanese artist Takashi Murakami at the Palace of Versailles. He has publicly stated that it "denatures" French culture.
Sixtus was present at the episcopal ordination of four bishops who belong to the Society of Saint Pius X by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre on 30 June 1988 at Écône, Switzerland, and was the first to publicly congratulate him.
Sixtus has travelled widely in Latin America, both Spanish and Portuguese-speaking. In January 2001, while traveling through Argentina, he was in a nearly fatal traffic accident, from which he did not completely recover. He has difficulties walking as a result of the accident, prompting him to limit public appearances.
- Comunión Tradicionalista
- Documentos de don Sixto Enrique de Borbón
- Sixtus' statements on the shootings of Montejurra (1976).
- Official website of the House of Bourbon-Parma
- de Badts de Cugnac, Chantal. Coutant de Saisseval, Guy. Le Petit Gotha. Nouvelle Imprimerie Laballery, Paris 2002, p. 588-590. (French) ISBN 2-9507974-3-1
- "Two slain at Carlist rally", Facts on File World News Digest, June 12, 1976
- MacClancy, Jeremy. The Decline of Carlism. 2000. Montejurra 1976. University of Nevada Press, USA. pp. 178-179. ISBN 978-0-87417-344-4. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Declaración de Doña Magdalena de Borbón" at the Wayback Machine (archived October 25, 2009)
- "Declaración de S.M.C. Don Javier de Borbón" at the Wayback Machine (archived October 25, 2009)
- "Última Declaración Política de Don Javier", in Don Javier: una vida al servicio de la libertad, 417.
- Palabras de S.A.R. el Príncipe Don Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma en al acto de imposición de cruces de la Orden de la Legitimad Proscrita, celebrado el domingo día 28 de septiembre de 2003 en Arbonne (Francia)
- Mensaje al Pueblo Carlista de S.M.C. Don Carlos Javier II de Borbón, Rey de Las Españas – blogspot El Carlismo contra Globalizatión (Spanish)
- El primogénito de Carlos Hugo de Borbón – Nuevo pretendiente carlista a la corona de España – website news agency Europa Press (Spanish)
- "Don Sixto en Haro". Hispanismo.org. July 29, 2005. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- "Aristocrat's anger at Versailles Murakami 'manga' show". BBC. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
- "S.A.R. il Principe Sisto Enrico" – Website Reale e Ducale Casa di Borbone Parma
Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma
Cadet branch of the House of BourbonBorn: 22 July 1940
|Titles in pretence|
Count of Bardi
|Line of succession to
the French throne (Legitimist)
Jean, Grand Duke