Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
|Duke of Cambridge (more)|
The Duke of Cambridge in November 2014
21 June 1982 |
St Mary's Hospital, London, England, United Kingdom
|Spouse||Catherine Middleton (m. 2011)|
|Issue||Prince George of Cambridge
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
|Father||Charles, Prince of Wales|
|Mother||Diana, Princess of Wales|
|Service/branch|| British Army
Royal Air Force
|Years of service||2006–2013 (end of active service)|
|Unit||Blues and Royals
RAF Search and Rescue Force
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, KG, KT, PC, ADC(P) (William Arthur Philip Louis;[fn 1] born 21 June 1982) is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. He is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, after his father.
William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews. He spent parts of a gap year in Chile, Belize, and some parts of Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, he qualified as a pilot (earning his wings) by completing pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell. He then underwent helicopter flying training in order to become a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. His service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013.
William married Catherine Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. Hours before the wedding, he was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus. The couple's first child, Prince George, was born on 22 July 2013, and their second, Princess Charlotte, was born on 2 May 2015.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Education
- 3 Military career
- 4 Royal duties
- 5 Personal interests
- 6 Courtship and marriage
- 7 Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 8 Ancestry
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
William, the first child of the Prince and Princess of Wales, was born at St Mary's Hospital, London, on 21 June 1982 at 9:03 pm. His names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace a week later on 28 June. He was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August (the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie.[fn 2] He was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William was affectionately called "Wombat" by his parents or "Wills" (the latter a name coined by the press).
At age seven, William reportedly told his mother that he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her; a statement to which his brother Harry responded: "Oh, no you can't. You've got to be King." William's first public appearance was on 1 March 1991 (Saint David's Day), during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff, Wales. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, thereby demonstrating that he was left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the side of the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club. He did not lose consciousness, but suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar". He was reported to have said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all".
His mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children. She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless. She bought them typical teenage items, such as video games. Diana, who was by then divorced from the Prince of Wales, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William, then aged 15, along with his brother who was 12, and father, was staying at Balmoral Castle at the time. The Prince of Wales waited until his sons woke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. At his mother's funeral, William accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather and maternal uncle in walking behind the funeral cortège from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey.
William began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age. In 1983, he accompanied his parents on an overseas tour to Australia and New Zealand, a decision made by the Princess of Wales that was considered to be unconventional; not only was William so young, but both the first and second in line for the throne would be travelling together.
William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham, Berkshire, and was privately tutored during summers by Rory Stewart. At Ludgrove he also participated in football—along with swimming, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, and cross country running. William sat the entrance exam to Eton College and was admitted. There, he studied Geography, Biology and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an 'A' in Geography, a 'C' in Biology and a 'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team, and took up water polo. The decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun (William's grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended); however, Diana's father and brother had both attended Eton. The Royal Family and the tabloid press agreed that William would be allowed to study free of paparazzi intrusion in exchange for regular updates on the Prince's life. The chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, John Wakeham, said of the arrangement: "Prince William is not an institution; nor a soap star; nor a football hero. He is a boy: in the next few years, perhaps the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."
After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, and for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile. As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores, including cleaning the toilet, and also volunteered as the guest radio jockey for the local radio station.
By 2001, William was back in the United Kingdom and had enrolled at the University of St Andrews. News of this caused a temporary increase in the number of applications to St Andrews, mostly from young women who wanted an opportunity to meet him. The extra attention did not deter him, though, and he embarked on a degree course in Art History, later changing his main subject to Geography, and going on to earn a Scottish Master of Arts degree with upper second class honours. While at university, he represented the Scottish national universities water polo team at the Celtic Nations tournament in 2004. He was known as "Steve" by other students to avoid any journalists overhearing and realising his identity.
William returned to St Andrews in February 2011 as patron of the university's 600th Anniversary Appeal.
To prepare for eventually managing the Duchy of Cornwall Estate, in 2014 William enrolled in a vocational agricultural management course at Cambridge organised by the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership (CPSL), whose patron is his father, the Prince of Wales. The estate is a "£760 million (about $1.25 billion) entity established in 1337 to provide a private income for use by the reigning monarch's eldest son", which William will inherit when his father becomes King.
Military training and secondments
Having decided to follow a military career, in October 2005 William attended the four-day Regular Commissions Board at Westbury in Wiltshire, where he underwent selection to judge his suitability to become an army officer. Having passed selection, William was admitted to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 2006. Successfully completing the course, William was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant at Sandhurst on 15 December 2006; the graduation parade was attended by the Queen and the Prince of Wales, along with other members of the Royal Family. William officially received his commission as a lieutenant at midnight. With his rank obtained, as "Lieutenant Wales" (a name based on his father's title, Prince of Wales), he followed his younger brother into the Blues and Royals as a troop commander in an armoured reconnaissance unit, after which he spent four months in training for the post at Bovington Camp, Dorset.
Once officially enrolled and commissioned in the armed forces, William wanted active service; in this there were recent precedents: his great-great-uncle Edward VIII, when Prince of Wales, served in France during the First World War; his great-grandfather King George VI served during World War I with the Navy at the Battle of Jutland and in France with the Air Force; and his paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, served with distinction during World War II. More recently, his uncle Prince Andrew, Duke of York, served in the Falklands War.
Though Major-General Sir Sebastian Roberts, General Officer commanding the Household Division, had said William's deployment was possible, the Prince's position as second in line to the throne, and the convention of ministers advising against the person in that position being put into dangerous situations, cast doubts on William's chances of seeing combat. These doubts increased after Prince Harry's deployment was cancelled in 2007, due to "specific threats". William, instead, went on to training in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, obtaining his commission as a sub-lieutenant in the former and flying officer in the latter (both broadly equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the army). With this complete, William undertook an attachment with the Royal Air Force, undergoing an intensive four-month training course at RAF Cranwell. Upon completing the course on 11 April 2008, he was presented with his RAF wings by his father, who had himself received his wings after training at the same college. During this secondment Prince William flew to Afghanistan in a C-17 Globemaster, which repatriated the body of Trooper Robert Pearson. William had been affectionately known by his fellow airmen as "Billy the Fish", a pun on the name "William Wales".
William was then seconded to train with the Royal Navy for two months, from June to August 2008, during which he spent three weeks at the Britannia Royal Naval College, training on units of the surface fleet and submarines, as well as with the Fleet Air Arm and the Royal Marines. He spent a day on submarine HMS Talent. During a five-week deployment on HMS Iron Duke in the Caribbean, he took part in a joint operation with the United States Coast Guard that identified and captured a speedboat carrying 900 kg of cocaine worth about £40 million. The ship also took part in other raids.
Owing to William's future role, a long-term career in the military was considered out of the question; due to his position his desire to see active service was always unlikely to be fulfilled. William originally joined the military on a short-service commission lasting three years. However, it was announced in September 2008 that he would be extending his time in the forces, first by taking on another secondment in 2008, including working at the MOD and non-operational flying with the Army Air Corps. Then it was announced that he would transfer from the Army to the RAF in order to train as a full-time search and rescue helicopter pilot, a role that would enable him to take an active role in the armed forces without being deployed on combat operations.
Royal Air Force service
In January 2009, William transferred his commission to the RAF and was promoted to Flight Lieutenant. He trained to become a helicopter pilot with the RAF's Search and Rescue Force. In January 2010, he graduated from the Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury, where he had been under the instruction of Squadron Leader Craig Finch. On 26 January 2010, he transferred to the Search and Rescue Training Unit at RAF Valley on Anglesey to receive training on the Sea King search and rescue helicopter; he graduated from this course on 17 September 2010. This made him the first member of the British Royal Family since Henry VII to live in Wales.
It was announced on 15 April 2010 that William would remain at RAF Valley for his operational tour, being assigned to C Flight No. 22 Squadron and initially performing co-pilot duties. His operational tour was expected to last 30 to 36 months.
His first rescue mission (as co-pilot of an RAF Sea King Helicopter) was a response to an emergency call from the Liverpool Coastguard on 2 October 2010. William, who was excited to finally take part in an active mission, and the other three members of the crew, flew from their base at RAF Valley to an offshore gas rig in Morecambe Bay, northwest England. A man who had suffered an apparent heart attack on the rig was airlifted to a local hospital. In November 2011, he participated in a search and rescue mission involving a sinking cargo ship in the Irish Sea, when as a co-pilot, he helped rescue two sailors.
William deployed to the Falkland Islands for a six-week tour with No. 1564 Flight, beginning in February and ending in March 2012. The deployment of the Duke to the Falklands close to the 30th anniversary of the beginning of the conflict (2 April 1982) was condemned by Argentina as a "provocative act".
In June 2012 Prince William gained a qualification to be captain or pilot in command of a Sea King rather than a co-pilot. His active service as an RAF search and rescue pilot ended in September 2013.
Air ambulance pilot
In 2014, it was announced that the Duke would take on a full-time role as a pilot with the East Anglian Air Ambulance (EAAA), based at Cambridge Airport. Although a qualified military pilot authorised to operate as a Sea King captain, William needed a civil pilot's licence and further training before being permitted to take command of the Air Ambulance. The position is paid, but it was announced that the Duke would donate his full salary (estimated as about £40,000 per year) to the Air Ambulance charity. The Duke of Cambridge spent time at Norwich Airport as part of his training as an EAAA pilot. On 13 July 2015, the Duke started his new job, which he felt was a natural progression from his previous job as a search-and-rescue pilot with the Royal Air Force.
Upon graduation from university, William began to undertake public duties of his own, as well as obtaining private work experience by interning in land management at Chatsworth House and in banking at HSBC.
At the age of 21, Prince William was appointed as a Counsellor of State, and first served in that capacity when the Queen was in Nigeria to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 2003. For his 21st birthday, William accompanied his father on a tour of Wales, visiting the Anglesey Food Fair and opening a centre for the homeless in Newport. By July 2005, he was on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand, to participate in World War II commemorations on behalf of his grandmother in her role as Queen of New Zealand. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity, The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were interviewed together for the first time by television personalities Ant & Dec. In July 2007, Prince William accompanied his grandmother's cousin the Duke of Kent, who is president of the UK Scout Association, in opening the 21st World Scout Jamboree, celebrating the centennial of the founding of the Scout Movement.
Tina Brown said in her 2007 biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, that Prince William had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia. Prime Minister of Australia John Howard said: "We have for a long time embraced the idea that the person who occupies that post should be in every way an Australian citizen."
Manning personally accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington on behalf of the Queen; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed by a Māori chief. William succeeded Lord Attenborough in 2010 as the fifth president of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.
In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, after the recent earthquake, and spoke at the memorial service at Hagley Park, on behalf of his grandmother. Upon leaving New Zealand, William travelled to Australia, to visit areas badly affected by flooding in the states of Queensland and Victoria. After twice accompanying his parents to Canada, Prince William, with his wife, toured the country and visited the United States in June and July 2011, attending Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill. On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre for supplying food to malnourished African children in Copenhagen, Denmark. In September 2012, they toured Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands as part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations.
In April 2014, the Duke and Duchess undertook a royal tour together to New Zealand and Australia. From 20–21 September, he took his wife's place on a tour of Malta, for the island's 50th anniversary of its independence from Britain. On 21 October, the Duke and Duchess met the President of Singapore Tony Tan as part of his state visit to the United Kingdom. In December 2014, he met U.S. President Barack Obama in the Oval Office, publicly advocating against illegal wildlife trade.
In 2015, Prince William visited Beijing, Shanghai and Yunnan in China from 1 to 4 March. Chinese President Xi Jinping welcomed him as he began the first visit to the mainland by a member of the British royal family in almost three decades.
Following his parents' examples, William took interest in various causes from a relatively early age. His mother's charitable work with HIV/AIDS aid and prevention and the Prince of Wales' work with the natural environment and the inner-city disadvantaged directed William into those areas. He also showed a desire to focus on the needy in Africa, sometimes working with his brother's charity, Sentebale.
Humanitarian and environmental causes
William became aware of HIV/AIDS in the mid-1990s, when his mother began to take her two sons to visit shelters and clinics for those suffering from the disease. In January 2005, William and his brother volunteered at a British Red Cross aid distribution centre to pack emergency supplies for countries that were affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. Later, in September, William granted his patronage to Centrepoint, a charity that assists the homeless. During the period when his mother had been patron of Centrepoint, he had accompanied her on visits to its headquarters and projects.
William also worked in the children's unit at The Royal Marsden Hospital for two days of work experience in 2005, as well as helping out in the medical research, catering, and fund raising departments. The same year, he spent two weeks in North Wales with a mountain rescue team. In May 2007, William became patron of both organisations (his mother had also previously been patron of the Royal Marsden Hospital) and he became attracted to Mountain Rescue England and Wales in order to, in his words, "highlight and celebrate the vital, selfless and courageous work of our mountain rescue organisations".
Prince William also became a patron of the Tusk Trust in December 2005, a charity that works towards conserving wildlife and initiating community development, including providing education, across Africa. He became associated with the organisation after he witnessed its work first hand in Africa. Saying "rural African initiatives that foster education, responsibility and participation in the local community light the way to conservation", he carried out his first official duty with the trust in launching a 5,000-mile (8,000 km) bike ride across the African continent in 2007. In 2010, he also became a patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds Philanthropic Initiatives.
In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who wanted to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities instead. The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple's choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflect the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.
William plays polo for charitable causes. He is a fan of football and supports Aston Villa. He became President of England's Football Association in May 2006 and vice royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) in February 2007 (supporting the Queen as patron of the WRU). The same year, the WRU's decision to name a new cup for test matches between Wales and South Africa the Prince William Cup caused controversy, with some believing it would have been more fitting to name the trophy after Ray Gravell.
In 2006, William, along with other Sandhurst officers, took part in running one mile to support the charity Sport Relief, as he had done in 2004 with a team from Clarence House. In May 2007, William became patron of the English Schools' Swimming Association. In 2013 he succeeded his grandfather the Duke of Edinburgh as president of the UK charity Fields in Trust, formerly the National Playing Fields Association.
William and his brother are both enthusiastic motorcyclists, with William owning a Ducati 1198 S Corse.
Courtship and marriage
As with his father, William's private life became the subject of tabloid speculation, especially around his relationship with Catherine Middleton, who had been one of William's university flatmates and whom William began dating in 2003. Middleton attended William's passing-out parade at Sandhurst, which was the first high-profile event that she attended as his guest. The relationship between them was followed so closely that bookmakers took bets on the possibility of marriage, and the retail chain Woolworths produced memorabilia bearing the likenesses of the couple. Media attention became so intense that William asked paparazzi to keep their distance from Middleton.
It was reported in April 2007 that the couple had split, though Middleton, in June, attended a party at Lulworth Camp as a guest of Prince William and in July the Concert for Diana, which had been organised by Princes William and Harry. In subsequent months, she accompanied William on holiday and joined the Royal Family on private outings and at public events.
Marriage and fatherhood
On 16 November 2010, Clarence House announced that Prince William and Middleton were to marry; the couple had become engaged in Kenya in October. The engagement ring given by William to Catherine was that which had belonged to his mother.
The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in Westminster Abbey, London. A few hours prior to the ceremony, William's new titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced.
His wife's first pregnancy was announced on 3 December 2012. She was admitted on 22 July 2013 to the Lindo Wing, St Mary's Hospital, London, where Prince William himself had been delivered. Later that day, she gave birth to a son – Prince George. On 8 September 2014, it was announced that the Duchess of Cambridge was pregnant with her second child. She was admitted on 2 May 2015 to the same hospital where she had first given birth and gave birth to Princess Charlotte.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 21 June 1982 – 29 April 2011: His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales
- 29 April 2011 – present: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge
The hereditary titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus were announced on the morning of his wedding, and formally patented a month later.[fn 3] He is a Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, a Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, and a Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen.
As a British prince, William does not use a surname for everyday purposes. For formal and ceremonial purposes, the children of the Prince of Wales use the title of "prince" or "princess" before their Christian name and their father's territorial designation after it. Thus, Prince William was styled as "Prince William of Wales". Such territorial designations are discarded by women when they marry and by men if they are given a peerage of their own, such as when Prince William was given his dukedom.
For the male-line grandchildren of Elizabeth II, however, there is currently some uncertainty over the correct form of family surname to use, or even whether there is a surname. The Queen has stipulated that all her male-line descendants "who do not bear the titular dignity of prince" shall use Mountbatten-Windsor as their family surname (although Letters Patent exist stipulating the name Windsor, but with the same caveat). According to their flight suits as seen in television interviews, Princes William and Harry both used Wales as their surname for military purposes; this continues to be the case for William since his creation as Duke of Cambridge.
- January 2006: Officer Cadet
- 16 December 2006: Cornet (Second lieutenant), The Blues and Royals (short service commission)
- 16 December 2006: Lieutenant, The Blues and Royals
- 1 January 2008: Sub-lieutenant, Royal Navy
- 1 January 2008: Flying Officer, Royal Air Force
- 1 January 2009: Lieutenant, Royal Navy
- 1 January 2009: Captain, The Blues and Royals (and transferred to a full regular commission)
- 1 January 2009: Flight Lieutenant, Royal Air Force
- 1 January 2016: Lieutenant Commander, Royal Navy
- 1 January 2016: Major, British Army
- 1 January 2016: Squadron Leader, Royal Air Force
- 23 April 2008: Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG)
- 25 May 2012: Extra Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT)
Prince William is the 1,000th member of the register of the Order of the Garter, and was officially invested by the Queen on 16 June 2008 at a service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. The last time a monarch appointed a grandchild into the Order of the Garter was in 1894, when Queen Victoria invested Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
- 6 February 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
- 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal
- Commonwealth honours
- 1 October 2016: Tuvalu Order of Merit
- 17 March 2013 – present: Personal Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty The Queen (AdC(P))
- 9 June 2016 – present: Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council (PC)
- Since 6 July 2009: Bencher of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple
- Since 23 June 2010: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)
- Since 1 March 2017: Royal Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (HonFRSE)
Honorary military appointments
- Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of HMNB Clyde
- Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of the Royal Navy Submarine Service
- Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of Scotland
- Since 3 October 2008: Honorary Air Commandant of RAF Coningsby
- Since 10 February 2011: Colonel of the Irish Guards
- Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario
- Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's Parks Canada Youth Ambassadors Program
In September 2013, the Queen granted a conjugal coat of arms to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, consisting of their individual arms displayed side by side, beneath a helm and coronet denoting the Duke's status as grandson of the Sovereign.
Personal flag for Canada
In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic flag for the Duke of Cambridge's use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves and shells, within which is a depiction of a "W" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, charged with a red shell.
Prince William is a member of the House of Windsor. By direct paternal ancestry, via his grandfather the Duke of Edinburgh, he is a descendant of Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg, from the House of Oldenburg, one of Europe's oldest royal houses, and more specifically the cadet branch known as the House of Glücksburg, founded by William's paternal ancestor Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. William's ancestors on the male line include five kings: Christian I of Denmark, Frederick I of Denmark, Christian III of Denmark, Christian IX of Denmark and George I of Greece, and also eleven counts of Oldenburg, two dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, five dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, and one duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.
Via his mother, William descends from: the Earls Spencer (a cadet branch of the Spencer family, descended from the Earls of Sunderland; the senior branch are now also Dukes of Marlborough); the Barons Fermoy; and more anciently from Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, two of the illegitimate sons of King Charles II. As king, William would be the first monarch since Anne to descend from Charles I, and the first to descend from Charles II.
William descends matrilineally from Eliza Kewark, a housekeeper for his great-great-great-great-great-grandfather Theodore Forbes, a Scottish merchant who worked for the East India Company in Surat. She is variously described in contemporary documents as "a dark-skinned native woman", "an Armenian woman from Bombay", and "Mrs. Forbesian". Genealogist William Addams Reitwiesner assumed she was Armenian. In June 2013, BritainsDNA announced that genealogical DNA tests on two of William's distant matrilineal cousins confirm that Eliza Kewark was matrilineally of Indian descent.
- Royal William, a German red rose named after Prince William shortly after his birth
- As a member of the Royal Family entitled to be called His Royal Highness, William need not use a surname. He has used both Mountbatten-Windsor, and – at university and in his military career – Wales. According to letters patent of February 1960, his house and family name is Windsor. The middle name Louis is pronounced //.
- William had six godparents: former King Constantine II of Greece (his paternal second cousin once removed); Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Mrs Ogilvy (his paternal first cousin twice removed); the Duchess of Westminster; Lady Susan Hussey; Lord Romsey (his paternal second cousin once removed); and Sir Laurens van der Post.
- The Letters Patent formalising these titles were signed and passed under the Great Seal on 26 May 2011.
- Lichfield, John (19 September 2012). "William and Kate win legal battle – but lose war to keep topless photos under wraps". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Duke of Cambridge to deploy to Falklands". Ministry of Defence. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Succession". Royal Household. 30 May 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- Withnall, Adam (12 September 2013). "Prince William completes last shift as RAF pilot to take up full-time job of being royal". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Prince William to swap armed forces for royal and charity duties". BBC News. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "Prince William's his name". The Evening News. London. AP. 28 July 1982. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "The Duke of Cambridge – Biography". Office of the Prince of Wales. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "no. 49027". The London Gazette. 21 June 1982. p. 8215. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "William baptized". The Palm Beach Post. London. AP. 5 August 1982. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings". Uniserve. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Princess Diana enters hospital in early labor". Youngstown Vindicator. London. AP. 21 June 1982. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Dateline NBC, NBC, 6 October 2007
- "The Saint that looked after Wills". The Sunday Herald. 26 June 2005.
- "Prince William". People. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Prince William marks the end of the first term of his third university year with an interview". Prince of Wales. 14 December 2003. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- Pierce, Andrew (18 March 2009). "Prince William has 'Harry Potter' scar from golf accident". The Telegraph. UK.
- "Prince William Biography". People. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Timeline: How Diana died". BBC News. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "The Prince of Wales – Countries Visited". Princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Wetherby Pre-Preparatory School". London Pre-Prep. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Stratton, Allegra (26 October 2009). "Former royal tutor Rory Stewart selected for safe Tory seat". The Guardian. London.
- [dead link] "Prince William gives an interview at the start of his university career". 22 September 2001.
- "What is it like at Eton College?". BBC News. 4 July 2005. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- Bates, Stephen (18 August 2000). "William makes the grade". The Guardian.
- "The Prince of Wales – Interests". Princeofwales.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Rugged prince scores PR triumph". BBC News. 11 December 2000. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Prince of Wales.gov personalprofiles & royal.gov The Duke of Cambridge Retrieved 8 February 2012
- Summerskill, Ben (23 September 2001). "Welcome to Will's new world". The Observer. London. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- Howie, Michael (24 June 2005). "William Wales M.A. collects his degree". The Scotsman. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "The Prince of Wales – Prince William gives an interview at the start of his university career". Princeofwales.gov.uk. 22 September 2001. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- St-Andrews University (charity registered No SC013532) News/archive – Andreea Nemes thesaint-online Retrieved 27 January 2012
- Victoria Arbiter (8 January 2014). "Opinion: Why Prince William is right to go back to school". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Prince William begins agriculture course at Cambridge". BBC. 7 January 2014.
- Rayner, Gordon (30 December 2013). "Duke of Cambridge to study agriculture at Cambridge University". Telegraph Media.
- Davies, Caroline (22 October 2005). "Prince William to join his brother at Sandhurst". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "William joining Harry's regiment". BBC News. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- [dead link] "Prince William ready for Search and Rescue role". meeja.com.au. 16 September 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- Pierce, Andrew (13 January 2009). "Prince William starts as a search and rescue helicopter pilot". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- Staff (12 April 2008). "Kate watches William get his wings". Deutsche Presse-Agentur (via The Sydney Morning Herald). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Prince William awarded RAF wings". BBC News. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
- "William visits Afghanistan troops". BBC News. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- "RAF helicopter crashes at base where Prince William is training". Daily Mail. London. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "William's Navy posting revealed". BBC News. 31 May 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
- Allen, Nick (20 June 2008). "Prince William in secret submarine mission". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- "Prince William helps bust $80m drug smuggling boat". CNN. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "William's ship seizes drugs haul". BBC News. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- Browning, Eliza (28 July 2008). "Prince William in Caribbean Drug Bust". ABC News. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- "Prince William: Military Secondments in Autumn, 2008". princeofwales.gov.uk. 31 July 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- Bonnett, Tom (15 January 2010). "Royal Heir Force: Prince's Career Takes Off". Sky News. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Prince William starts RAF rescue training on Anglesey". BBC News. 26 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- "The Tatler List – Duke of Cambridge". Tatler. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Palmer, Richard (12 September 2013). "Preparing to be King: Prince William says goodbye to RAF after more than seven years". Sunday Express. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Bingham, John (15 April 2010). "Prince William to be posted to RAF base on Anglesey". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Prince William set to join RAF Search and Rescue". Royal Air Force. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
- "Co-pilot Prince William rescues man from oil rig". BBC News. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Bingham, John; Bunyan, Nigel (27 November 2011). "Prince William spearheads rescue for stricken Russian sailors". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Prince William to deploy to Falkland Islands". CTV News. Associated Press. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Prince William arrives in the Falkland Islands". The Guardian. Press Association. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Argentina condemns Prince William Falklands posting". BBC News. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Goñi, Uki (1 February 2012). "Argentina criticises Prince William's tour of duty of Falkland Islands". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Prince William to command search and rescue missions". BBC News. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Prince William to join East Anglian Air Ambulance". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Rosa McMahon. "Prince William starts training for East Anglian Air Ambulance job at Norwich airport". Eastern Daily Press.
- "Prince William starts new job as air ambulance pilot". The Guardian.
- "The Prince of Wales: Prince William: Biography: Growing Up". Clarence House. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "Australian leaders dismiss the idea of Prince William as governor-general". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "William for GG not on: PM". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 June 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- Nikkhah, Roya (10 February 2011). "Mentor helps Kate Middleton prepare for Royal life". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "Prince William's royal magic captures the crowds". The New Zealand Herald. New Zealand Press Association. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Prince William Appointed Academy President". BAFTA. 21 February 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Manhire, Toby (17 March 2011). "Prince William tours Christchurch earthquake damage". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Booker, Jarrod (18 March 2011). "Service inspires weary Cantabrians". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Mclean, Tamara (19 March 2011). "Prince William heads to Queensland". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Christchurch quake memorial service: As it happened". TVNZ One News. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce (16 February 2011). "Royal newlyweds are coming to Canada, but not Toronto". Toronto Star. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "Queen calls Canada 'example to the world'". CBC. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "William and Kate visit Unicef famine relief depot in Copenhagen". BBC News. 2 November 2011.
- "Photo story: William and Kate visit UNICEF Supply Centre". unicef.org.uk. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Prince William visits Malta in place of pregnant Kate". BBC News. 20 September 2014.
- "Singapore State Visit programme". Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Prince William holds first talks with President Obama". BBC News.
- "Prince William arrives in China and invites President Xi for state visit". telegraph.co.uk. Reuters. 2015-03-02. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
- "Recording of Prince William Visiting in China". people.com.cn. 2015-03-05. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
- "Prince William Visited Beijing". news.sina.com.cn. 2015-03-03. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
- "Prince William visited China with the official invitation from the Queen for President Xi visiting Britain". news.qq.com. 2015-03-03. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
- "The Royal Family – HRH The Prince of Wales – Prince William – Charities and Patronages". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "The Prince of Wales – Prince William – At Work – Charities and Patronages". Clarence House. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Centrepoint – Our patron". Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Tusk Trust". Tusk Trust. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Cycle of Life: News". Cycle of Life. 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Prince William to become Patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds' philanthropic initiatives". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "The Prince William & Miss Catherine Middleton Charitable Gift Fund". royalweddingcharityfund.org. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Ward, Victoria (16 March 2011). "William and Kate ask for charity donations in lieu of wedding gifts – Prince William and Kate Middleton have asked wedding guests and well wishers to donate to their own special charitable fund rather than give them presents, St James's Palace has announced". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Holden, Michael (16 March 2011). "William and Catherine set up royal wedding charity fund". Reuters. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- [dead link] "William and Catherine set up royal wedding charity fund". China Daily. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Staff (17 March 2011). "William and Catherine's gift to Christchurch". Fairfax NZ News (via stuff.co.nz). Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Garton, Christie (29 April 2011). "No wedding gifts, please: William and Catherine request charity donations instead". USA Today. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "Prince George to support Aston Villa, says William". BBC News. 26 October 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- "Prince William to watch namesake cup tie". WalesOnline. 24 November 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "UK Parliament – Early Day Motion 230". UK Parliament. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Prince watches Wales lose his cup". BBC News. 24 November 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Royal Patronage". Fields in Trust.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2014-11-18.
- "Prince William, girlfriend end their relationship". CTV News. 14 April 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- "His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales and Miss Catherine Middleton are engaged to be married" (Press release). Website of the Royal Family. 16 November 2010.
- "Crowds cheer newly-wed couple". BBC News. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Announcement of titles". Buckingham Palace. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Kate and William become Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". BBC News. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Beckford, Martin (29 April 2011). "Prince William and Kate Middleton's new titles revealed". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Beckford, Martin (29 April 2011). "Royal wedding: Prince William and Kate Middleton become Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Duchess of Cambridge pregnant". BBC News. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Saul, Heather (24 July 2013). "Royal baby: The prince meets his people in world media frenzy". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Royal baby: Kate gives birth to boy". BBC News. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "Royal baby: Prince William and Kate expecting second child". BBC News. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Royal baby: Duchess of Cambridge gives birth to daughter". BBC News. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "New appointments to the Order of the Thistle, 29 May 2012". Royal. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012.
- Duke and Duchess of Cambridge – visit the Emirates Arena "The Duke and Duchess, known as the Earl and Countess of Strathearn when in Scotland..." (Accessed 24 July 2013)
- Prince of Wales – Dumfries House (Section: April 5th Official Opening of the Tamar Manoukian Outdoor Centre) "...Their Royal Highnesses The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay and the Earl and Countess of Strathearn..." (Accessed 24 July 2013)
- "no. 59798". The London Gazette. 1 June 2011. p. 10297. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "The Duke of Cambridge: Styles and Titles". Royal. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012.
- "Duke of Cambridge becomes Aide-de-Camp to the Queen". The Telegraph. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "Titles and succession: Royal Family name". Royal. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "A working day in the life of Flight Lieutenant Wales". Clarence House. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
The Duke of Cambridge – who is known in his Royal Air Force working life as Flight Lieutenant Wales
- "(Supplement) no. 58245". The London Gazette. 13 February 2007. p. 2075. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
- "(Supplement) no. 58580". The London Gazette. 15 January 2008. p. 493. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
- "(Supplement) no. 58580". The London Gazette. 15 January 2008. p. 496. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
- "(Supplement) no. 58941". The London Gazette. 6 January 2009. p. 117. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- "(Supplement) no. 58941". The London Gazette. 6 January 2009. p. 119. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- "(Supplement) no. 58941". The London Gazette. 6 January 2009. p. 123. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- "(Supplement) no. 61462". The London Gazette. 4 January 2016. p. 106. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "(Supplement) no. 61462". The London Gazette. 4 January 2016. p. 107. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "RAF – Senior Appointments".
- "(Supplement) no. 61462". The London Gazette. 4 January 2016. p. 108. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Prince William is appointed to the Order of the Garter". Prince of Wales. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "no. 27113". The Edinburgh Gazette. 29 June 2012. p. 1789. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "no. 60195". The London Gazette. 29 June 2012. p. 12473. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "New appointments to the Order of the Thistle". Royal. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Media Centre > Buckingham Palace press releases > Appointment of a new Garter Knight". Royal. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "William made Knight of the Garter". BBC News. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- Palmer, Richard (30 March 2017). "William and Kate to receive highest Tuvalu award... for just VISITING the nation". Express.
- "Orders for 9 June 2016" (PDF). Privy Council Office.
- Office of the Prince of Wales (23 June 2010). "Prince William becomes a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- "RSE Welcomes 60 New Fellows". rse.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "2009 Official Royal Visit > Ontario (Toronto, Hamilton and Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ottawa, Petawawa)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 5 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
- "The Royal Family: Members of the Royal Family: HRH The Prince of Wales: Prince William – Military Career". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- "RAF Regiment Association Official Site". Rafregt.org.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "(Supplement) no. 59740". The London Gazette. 29 March 2011. p. 5860. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Prince William appointed as Colonel of the Irish Guards, 10 February 2011". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
- The Canadian Press (26 July 2011). "UW award honours Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". CTV. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- "University of Waterloo offers Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award". Canada News Wire. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Parks Canada (16 January 2012). "Minister Kent invites young Canadians to apply for Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Parks Canada Ambassador Program". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- "Duke of Cambridge Public School". Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board. Retrieved 11 December 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Prince William–Emblems". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "The coat of arms of HRH Prince William of Wales". The College of Arms, London. Retrieved 24 October 2008.
- Rayner, Gordon (27 September 2013). "Duke and Duchess of Cambridge get a joint coat of arms". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "New Flags for The Prince of Wales and The Duke of Cambridge". Office of the Governor General. June 29, 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- "Canadian Flags of the Royal Family". Canadian Crown. Government of Canada. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- "Prince William, Duke of Cambridge". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Huberty, Michel (1994). L'Allemagne dynastique. Volume 7 ("Oldenbourg"). Le Perreux-sur-Marne: Giraud. ISBN 2-901138-07-1, ISBN 978-2-901138-07-5.
- Sinha, Kounteya (16 June 2013). "Hunt on for Prince William's distant cousins in Surat". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Williamson, D (1981) "The Ancestry of Lady Diana Spencer". Genealogist's Magazine 20(6): 192–199; 20(8): 281–282
- Reitwiesner, William Addams (2006). "The Ethnic ancestry of Prince William". wargs.com. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "A Royal Revelation". BritainsDNA. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Brown, David (14 June 2013). "Revealed: the Indian ancestry of William". The Times. p. 1. (subscription required (. ))
- Hern, Alex (14 June 2013). "Are there ethical lapses in the Times' story on William's 'Indian ancestry'?". New Statesman. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
Although Eliza Kewark was indeed thought of as Armenian, it's not particularly surprising that she would have had Indian ancestors; the Armenian diaspora had been in India for centuries at the time of her birth, and even the most insular communities tend to experience genetic mixing over that timescale.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Prince William, Duke of Cambridge|
- The Duke of Cambridge at the Royal Family website
- The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge
- Prince William graduates from RMAS
- Prince William talks with NBC's Matt Lauer
- Prince William, Duke of Cambridge at the Internet Movie Database
Prince William, Duke of CambridgeBorn: 21 June 1982
|Lines of succession|
The Prince of Wales
|Line of succession to the British throne
Prince George of Cambridge
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
4th creation extinct in 1904
Title last held byPrince George
|Duke of Cambridge
Prince George of Cambridge
|Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom|
The Earl of Wessex
Prince Henry of Wales
The Prince of Wales,
Duke of Rothesay
in current practice
The Duke of York
The Duke of York
|President of The Football Association
The Lord Attenborough
|President of BAFTA
Sir Sebastian Roberts
|Colonel of the Irish Guards