Prince of Polotsk
The Princes of Polotsk ruled the Principality of Polotsk within the realm of Kievan Rus or within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the mid ninth century to 1307.
Rogvold, a non-Rurikid Varangian, was the first Prince of Polotsk. When Vladimir the Great returned from exile in Scandinavia in 980 to try to claim the Kievan throne that his brother, Yaropolk, held, he sought an alliance with Rogvolod through a marriage with his daughter, Rogneda. When she refused, calling Vladimir the "son of a slave," he attacked Polotsk, killed Rogvold and his son, and took Rogneda by force to be his wife. Polotsk was then granted to Vladimir's son, Izyaslav, around the time of Christianization (988), and when Izyaslav predeceased his father in 1001, the throne of Polotsk was passed on to Izyaslav's son, Briacheslav, and the Polotsk line (the senior branch of Vladimir's sons) became izgoi and was not legally allowed to succeed to the Kievan throne, although Bryacheslav's son, Vseslav, held briefly the Kievan throne in 1068-1069, after it was granted to him by the veche following the Kiev Uprising.
List of princes of Polotsk
- Ragnvald Olafsson, fl. 977
Rurikids / Izyaslavichi of Polotsk
- 987–1001 Iziaslav I Vladimirovich
- 1001–1003 Vseslav I Iziaslavich
- 1003–1044 Briacheslav I Iziaslavich
- 1044–1069 Vseslav II Briacheslavich
- 1069 Vseslav II Briacheslavich, Sviatopolk I Iziaslavich and Mstislav I Iziaslavich
- 1069–1071 Vseslav II Briacheslavich and Sviatopolk I Iziaslavich
- 1071-1101 Vseslav II Briacheslavich (alone)
- 1101–1129 Davyd Vseslavich
- 1127–1128 Boris I Vseslavich
- 1129–1132 Iziaslav II Mstislavich
- 1132–1132 Sviatopolk II Mstislavich
Vseslavichi of Polotsk
- 1132–1144 Vasilko Sviatoslavich (Prince of Vitebsk)
- 1144–1151 Rogvolod Borisovich (Prince of Drutsk)
- 1151–1159 Rostislav Glebovich (Prince of Minsk)
- 1159–1162 Rogvolod Borisovich (again)
- 1162–1167 Vseslav III Vasilkovich (Prince of Vitebsk)
- 1167–1167 Volodar Glebovich (Prince of Minsk)
- 1167–1180 Vseslav III Vasilkovich (Prince of Vitebsk)
- 1186–1215 Vladimir Vseslavich (Princes of Vitebsk)
- 1215–1222 Boris II Vseslavich (Prince of Drutsk)
- 1222–1232 Sviatoslav Mstislavich
- 1232–1242 Bryachislav II Vasilkovich (Prince of Vitebsk)
- 1252–1263 Tautvilas
- 1264–1267 Gerdine
- 1267–1270 Iziaslav III of Vitebsk (?)
- 1270–1290 Konstantin the Armless
- 1290–1307 occupation by the Livonian Order (Archbishopric of Riga)
- Janet Martin, Medieval Russia 980-1584 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 1.
- Martin, Medieval Russia, 27.
- Martin, Medieval Russia, 29.
- Алексеев Л. В. Полоцкая земля // Древнерусские княжества Х—XIII вв. — М., 1975., pp. 202—239.
- Богуславский В. В. Славянская энциклопедия. Киевская Русь — Московия: в 2 т. — М.: Олма-Пресс, 2001.
- Данилович В. Е. Очерк истории Полоцкой земли до конца XIV столетия. — К., 1896. p. 731
- Martin, Janet, Medieval Russia, 980-1584, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995
- Рыжов К. Все монархи мира. Россия. — Москва, Вече, 1998.