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Princess Caroline of Great Britain

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Princess Caroline
Portrait by Jacopo Amigoni, c. 1730s
Born(1713-06-10)10 June 1713 (New Style)
Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover
Died28 December 1757(1757-12-28) (aged 44)
St James's Palace, London
Burial5 January 1758
FatherGeorge II of Great Britain
MotherCaroline of Ansbach

Princess Caroline Elizabeth of Great Britain (10 June 1713 – 28 December 1757) was the fourth child and third daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his wife Caroline of Ansbach.

Early life[edit]

Princess Caroline[a] was born at Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover, Germany, on 10 June 1713 (New Style Gregorian calendar). Her father was George Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Hanover, the eldest son of George Louis, Elector of Hanover. Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.[3] As a granddaughter of the Elector of Hanover, she was styled Princess Caroline of Hanover at birth. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, she was seventh in the line of succession to the British throne. She was baptised the day after her birth at Herrenhausen Palace.[citation needed]

Great Britain[edit]

In 1714, Queen Anne died and Caroline's grandfather became George I and her father Prince of Wales. At the age of one year, Caroline accompanied her mother and elder sisters, the Princesses Anne and Amelia, to Great Britain, and the family resided at St James's Palace, London. She was then styled as a Princess of Great Britain. A newly attributed list from January–February 1728 documents her personal expenses, including charitable contributions to several Protestant groups in London.[4]

In 1722, at the direction of her mother, she was inoculated against smallpox by variolation, an early type of immunisation popularised by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Charles Maitland.[5]

Princess Caroline was her mother's favourite,[6] and became known as "the truth-telling Caroline Elizabeth" (or "the truth-loving").[7] When any disagreement took place among the royal children, her parents would say, "Send for Caroline, and then we shall know the truth!"[8] According to Dr. John Doran, "The truth-loving Caroline Elizabeth was unreservedly beloved by her parents, was worthy of the affection, and repaid it by an ardent attachment. She was fair, good, accomplished and unhappy."[citation needed]

Later life[edit]

Lord Hervey

According to popular belief, Caroline's unhappiness was due to her love for the married courtier Lord Hervey. Hervey, who was bisexual, may have had an affair with Caroline's elder brother, Prince Frederick, and was romantically linked with several ladies of the court, including Frederick's then mistress Anne Vane, as well. [9] When Hervey died in 1743, Caroline retired to St. James's Palace for many years prior to her own death, accessible to only her family and closest friends.[10] She gave generously to charity.[10]

Princess Caroline died, unmarried and childless, on 28 December 1757, aged 44, at St James's Palace. She was buried at Westminster Abbey.[citation needed]

Horace Walpole, of the death of Princess Caroline, wrote: "Though her state of health had been so dangerous for years, and her absolute confinement for many of them, her disorder was, in a manner, new and sudden, and her death unexpected by herself, though earnestly her wish. Her goodness was constant and uniform, her generosity immense, her charities most extensive; in short, I, no royalist, could be lavish in her praise."[11]


On 31 January 1719, as a grandchild of the sovereign, Caroline was granted use of the arms of the realm, differenced by a label argent of five points, each bearing three roses gules. On 30 August 1727, as a child of the sovereign, Caroline's difference changed to a label argent of three points, each bearing three roses gules.[12]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ The London Gazette (i.e. those on[1] and after[2] her death) refers to her as only Princess Caroline


  1. ^ "No. 9752". The London Gazette. 27 December 1757.
  2. ^ "No. 9753". The London Gazette. 31 December 1757.
  3. ^ Lodge, Edmund (1838). The Genealogy of the Existing British Peerage: With Sketches of the Family Histories of the Nobility. Saunders and Otley. p. 5. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  4. ^ Ilias Chrissochoidis, "Princess Carolina's list of monthly expenses, January–February 1727/8," Notes & Queries 58/3 (September 2011), 401–403.
  5. ^ Van der Kiste, p. 83
  6. ^ Van der Kiste, p. 163
  7. ^ Lives of the Princesses of Wales, page 160
  8. ^ The royal princesses of England: from the reign of the George the First by Mrs. Matthew Hall, pages 114-125
  9. ^ Van der Kiste, p. 115
  10. ^ a b Van der Kiste, p. 197
  11. ^ Gland, N (1871). The royal princesses of England, from the reign of George the First. GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SON. p. 123.
  12. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
  13. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 55.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Weir, Alison (1996) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. London: Random House. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9, pp. 272–275
  15. ^ Otto Veh (1974), "Johann Friedrich", Neue Deutsche Biographie (in German), vol. 10, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 476–476; (full text online)
  16. ^ Weir (1996), pp. 277–278
  17. ^ a b Hanns Hubert Hofmann (1953), "Albrecht V.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (in German), vol. 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 163–163; (full text online)
  18. ^ Hengerer, Mark; Schön, Gerhard (eds.). "Oettingen, Joachim Ernest". Personendatenbank der Höflinge der österreichischen Habsburger (in German). Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  19. ^ Ernst Wülcker (1881), "Johann Georg I. (Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach)", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (in German), vol. 14, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 365–366
  20. ^ Sayn, Hildegard (1979). "Louise Juliane von Sayn". Lebensbilder aus dem Kreise Altenkirchen. Altenkrichen: Heimatverein für den Kreis Altenkirchen. pp. 83–85.


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