Princess Carolina of Parma
|Carolina of Parma|
|Princess Maximilian of Saxony|
22 November 1770|
1 March 1804 (aged 33)|
|Spouse||Prince Maximilian of Saxony|
Maria Ferdinanda, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Frederick Augustus II, King of Saxony
Maria Anna, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
John, King of Saxony
Maria Josepha Amalia, Queen of Spain
|Father||Ferdinand, Duke of Parma|
|Mother||Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria|
Carolina Maria Teresa Giuseppa of Parma (22 November 1770 – 1 March 1804) was a Princess of Parma by birth, and Princess of Saxony by marriage to Prince Maximilian of Saxony. Carolina was the eldest child of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma, and his wife Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria.
Her full baptismal name was Carolina Maria Teresa Giuseppa. She was named after her godparents, her paternal great-uncle Charles III of Spain and her maternal grandmother Empress Maria Theresa.
Carolina was the eldest of nine children born to Ferdinand, Duke of Parma by his wife Maria Amalia of Austria. By the time of the visit of her maternal aunt Maria Christina in Parma in 1774, she was described as a beautiful but melancholic child. Carolina and her brother Luigi were the favorites of their parents. They were personally instructed in religion by their father, despite the fact that their younger children was actually more interested in the subject than they were. In 1778, her brother Luigi hit his head on a marble table while playing with Carolina, and afterward suffered from epilepsy.
The mother of Carolina preferred her to marry a German prince. Reportedly, however, her marriage was not arranged. Instead, her mother introduced Carolina to Maximilian during his frequent trips to Italy, and when the Parmesan Ducal family visited Saxony in the late 1780s, Carolina was able to spend time with Maximilian and reportedly fell in love with him. Consequently, she was described as eager to marry him, and her mother Amalia gave her permission despite the fact that Maximilian was not the heir to a throne. The marriage and life of Carolina in Saxony are described as happy and harmonious. When her mother moved to Prague in 1804, she was able to have more contact with her, though she was not able to visit her before her death.
Princess Carolina died of fever on March 1, 1804 in Dresden. More than two decades after, her husband married her niece Princess Maria Luisa Carlota of Parma.
Marriage and issue
They had seven children:
- Maria Amalia Friederike Augusta Karolina Ludovica Josepha Aloysia Anna Nepomucena Philippina Vincentia Franziska de Paula Franziska de Chantal (b. Dresden, 10 August 1794 – d. Pillnitz, 18 September 1870), known as Amalia. 
- Maria Ferdinanda Amalia Xaveria Theresia Josepha Anna Nepomucena Aloysia Johanna Vincentia Ignatia Dominica Franziska de Paula Franziska de Chantal (b. Dresden, 27 April 1796 – d. Schloss Brandeis, Bohemia, 3 January 1865), known as Maria; married on 6 May 1821 to Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (father-in-law of her younger sister).
- Frederick Augustus II Albert Maria Clemens Joseph Vincenz Aloys Nepomuk Johann Baptista Nikolaus Raphael Peter Xavier Franz de Paula Venantius Felix (b. Dresden, 18 May 1797 – d. Brennbüchel, 9 August 1854), King of Saxony (1836).
- Klemens Maria Joseph Nepomuk Aloys Vincenz Xavier Franz de Paula Franz de Valois Joachim Benno Philipp Jakob (b. Dresden, 1 May 1798 – d. Pisa, 4 January 1822), known as Klemens.
- Maria Anna Carolina Josepha Vincentia Xaveria Nepomucena Franziska de Paula Franziska de Chantal Johanna Antonia Elisabeth Cunigunde Gertrud Leopoldina (b. Dresden, 15 November 1799 – d. Pisa, 24 March 1832), known as Anna; married on 16 November 1817 to Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
- Johann I Nepomuk Maria Joseph Anton Xaver Vincenz Aloys Franz de Paula Stanislaus Bernhard Paul Felix Damasus (b. Dresden, 12 December 1801 – d. Pillnitz, 29 October 1873), King of Saxony (1854).
- Maria Josepha Amalia Beatrix Xaveria Vincentia Aloysia Franziska de Paula Franziska de Chantal Anna Apollonia Johanna Nepomucena Walburga Theresia Ambrosia (b. Dresden, 6 December 1803 – d. Aranjuez, 17 May 1829), known as Josepha; married on 20 October 1819 to King Ferdinand VII of Spain.
|Ancestors of Princess Carolina of Parma|
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 22 November 1770 – 22 April 1792 Her Royal Highness Princess Carolina of Parma
- 22 April 1792 – 1 March 1804 Her Royal Highness Princess Carolina of Saxony
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- Justin C. Vovk: In Destiny's Hands: Five Tragic Rulers, Children of Maria Theresa (2010)