Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen
|Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|
Portrait by Johann Ernst Heinsius
|Born||11 September 1751|
Frankfurt am Main, Free Imperial City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire
|Died||25 April 1827 (aged 75)|
Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia
|Spouse||Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|
|Issue||Ernest, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg |
|Father||Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen|
|Mother||Landgravine Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal|
Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen (German: Marie Charlotte Amalie Ernestine Wilhelmine Philippine, Prinzessin von Sachsen-Meiningen) (11 September 1751, Frankfurt am Main, Free Imperial City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – 25 April 1827, Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia) was a member of the House of Saxe-Meiningen and a Princess of Saxe-Meiningen by birth and a member of the House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Duchess consort of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg through her marriage to Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Charlotte was the eldest child and daughter of Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and his second wife, Landgravine Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal. Charlotte was an elder sister of Charles William, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Charlotte married Ernest, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (later Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg), son of Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and his wife Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen, on 21 March 1769 in Meiningen. Charlotte and Ernest had four children:
- Ernest, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. Gotha, 27 February 1770 – d. Gotha, 3 December 1779).
- Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. Gotha, 23 November 1772 – d. Gotha, 27 May 1822)
- Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. Gotha, 28 November 1774 – d. Gotha, 11 February 1825).
- Prince Ludwig of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. Gotha, 21 October 1777 – d. Gotha, 26 October 1777).
Charlotte's husband, Ernest, was regarded as an enlightened monarch and a great patron of art and science, who led his country into a cultural flowering. He was assisted in his cultural undertakings by his wife, Charlotte.
Like her husband, Charlotte was a patron of astronomy. She counted relief panels for the court astronomer Franz Xaver von Zach and she also participated in observations. Charlotte also participated in the First European Astronomy Congress in 1798 at the Seeberg Observatory and independently corresponded with the leading astronomers of her time.
After her husband's death in 1804, there were difficulties with Charlotte's son, Augustus, upon his succession. Charlotte left Gotha with Zach and spent some time in Eisenberg. Later she traveled with Zach throughout southern Europe and lived several years in Marseilles, and later in Genoa, where she died in 1827.
Titles and styles
- 11 September 1751 – 21 March 1769: Her Serene Highness Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony
- 21 March 1769 – 10 March 1772: Her Serene Highness The Hereditary Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Princess of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony
- 10 March 1772 – 20 April 1804: Her Highness The Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Princess of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony
- 20 April 1804 – 25 April 1827: Her Highness The Dowager Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Princess of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony
|Ancestors of Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen|
- Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 104.
- Bärbel Raschke: Charlotte Amalie Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (1730–1801). Leben und Wirken im Kontext westeuropäischer und deutscher Aufklärung. In: Francia 2. Bd. 25, 1999, ISSN 0937-7743, S. 69-103.
- Ingeborg Titz-Matuszak und Peter Brosche (Hrsg.): Das Reisetagebuch 1807 der Herzogin Charlotte Amalie von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg. Thüringisches Staatsarchiv Gotha, Gotha 2003 (=Reihe: Schriften des Thüringischen Staatsarchivs Gotha. Bd.1. ISSN 1612-0582).
- Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen in the German National Library catalogue
- Katalog der Theaterbibliothek Herzogin Charlottes von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen
Cadet branch of the House of WettinBorn: 11 September 1751 Died: 25 April 1827
Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen
| Duchess consort of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
10 March 1772 – 20 April 1804
Karoline Amalie of Hesse-Kassel