|Disney's Aladdin character|
|First appearance||Aladdin (1992)|
|Created by||Ron Clements
|Voiced by||Linda Larkin (speaking)
Lea Salonga (singing, Aladdin)
Liz Callaway (singing, The Return of Jafar and Aladdin and the King of Thieves)
|Title||Princess Jasmine of Agrabah|
|Family||The Sultan (father)|
Princess Jasmine is a fictional character who appears in Walt Disney Animation Studios' 31st animated feature film Aladdin (1992). Voiced by American actress Linda Larkin – with a singing voice provided by Filipina singer Lea Salonga – Jasmine is the spirited Princess of Agrabah, who has grown weary of her life of palace confinement. Despite an age-old law stipulating that the princess must marry a prince in time for her upcoming birthday, Jasmine is instead determined to marry someone she loves for who he is as opposed to what he owns. Created by directors Ron Clements and John Musker with screenwriters Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio, Jasmine is based on Badroulbadour, a princess who appears in the One Thousand and One Nights folktale "Aladdin and the Magical Lamp".
Originally conceived as a spoiled, materialistic princess, the writers eventually re-wrote Jasmine into a stronger and more prominent heroine following the elimination of Aladdin's mother from the script, while borrowing story elements from the romantic comedy Roman Holiday (1953). Several months after securing the role, Larkin was nearly fired from the project because Disney executive Jeffrey Katzenberg felt that her voice was not suitable for a princess, but Clements and Musker managed to convince him otherwise. Discovered by casting director Albert Tavares, Salonga was cast as Jasmine's singing voice based on her performance in the musical Miss Saigon; this unprecedented casting decision made Jasmine the first Disney character to have her speaking and singing voices provided by two different actors. Animated by Mark Henn, Jasmine's design is an eclectic combination of unique sources, including an anonymous theme park guest, Henn's own sister, and actress Jennifer Connelly, while elements of the Taj Mahal were incorporated into the character's hair, clothing and physique.
Unlike most of Disney's princesses, Jasmine holds the distinction of being a supporting character in her own film, having been relegated to the secondary role of love interest. The character has garnered mixed reviews, with much denunciation directed towards her storyline and personality, both of which critics have dismissed as uninteresting and unoriginal; they have also accused Jasmine of lacking the depth of her predecessors Ariel and Belle from The Little Mermaid (1989) and Beauty and the Beast (1991), respectively, to whom she continues to be heavily compared. However, as the sixth Disney Princess and the franchise's first non-white member, the character is credited with introducing racial diversity to Disney's princess genre, although she has at the same time been criticized for being Westernized and Anglicized in both appearance and demeanor. Jasmine has made subsequent appearances in Aladdin's sequels The Return of Jafar (1994) and Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996), as well as its television series and a Broadway musical adaption of the film. Both Larkin and Salonga have been awarded Disney Legends for their contributions to the role.
- 1 Development
- 2 Themes
- 3 Appearances
- 4 Reception
- 5 Impact and legacy
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Conception and writing
Jasmine is based on the princess who appears in the Middle Eastern folk tale collection One Thousand and One Nights, specifically the story "Aladdin and the Magical Lamp". Lyricist Howard Ashman and composer Alan Menken had first begun to develop Aladdin while they were still writing songs for The Little Mermaid (1989), but further development was abandoned in favor of working on Beauty and the Beast (1991) instead. However, Aladdin was finally resurrected as Beauty and the Beast neared completion. While the princess in the original tale is named Badroulbadour, the studio decided to rename the character the more familiar "Jasmine" after actress Jasmine Guy. Additionally, the name was also among the decade's most popular at the time. In Ashman's original treatment of the film, Aladdin had two potential love interests: both Jasmine and a "Judy Garland-y tomboy" whose romantic feelings for Aladdin were not reciprocated by the hero. Screenwriter Linda Woolverton eventually drafted a screenplay based on the film The Thief of Baghdad (1940), a revision that included a handmaiden for Jasmine, who was ultimately completely replaced by a pet tiger.
Directors and writers Ron Clements and John Musker eventually disregarded Woolverton's script in favor of developing something more similar to Ashman's version albeit making several changes to his treatment, among them approaching the character of Jasmine "a little differently" while maintaining Woolverton's vision of "a princess that Aladdin could woo." Following the elimination of Aladdin's mother from the script, Jasmine and Aladdin's relationship was expanded upon to the point of which it became a focal point of the film, ultimately allowing more screen time for the princess. Thus, Jasmine was developed into a more prominent character. Unlike Disney's previous adaptations of fairy tales, the princess is not the film's main character, and therefore the story does not revolve around her. Despite the presence of a prominent princess character, the directors decided to treat Aladdin more-so like "an Arabian adventure" as opposed to a traditional Disney fairy tale or princess film in the vein of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) or Beauty and the Beast. This decision made Jasmine the first Disney Princess who does star in the film in which she appears. The decision to make Aladdin a high comedy ultimately eliminated the need to explore some of Jasmine's deeper storylines.
Although several details of the original folk tale were altered for the film adaptation, Jasmine's main storyline – being pressured into marriage – remained mostly untouched. However, while Badroulbadour initially resents Aladdin, Jasmine on the other hand is almost immediately charmed by Aladdin. Screenwriters Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio re-wrote Jasmine into a "stronger" character who actively longs for freedom from her "regal confinement". According to Dave Smith of the Disney Archives, the "liberated" Jasmine primarily "seeks to escape her present lifestyle." The idea of a disguised Jasmine stowing away from her palace in the middle of the night was inspired by the romantic comedy film Roman Holiday (1953), in which Princess Ann, portrayed by actress Audrey Hepburn, similarly escapes the royal embassy in disguise in order to spend one day exploring Rome on her own.
The casting of American actor and comedian Robin Williams as the Genie inspired the studio to recruit similarly talented voice actors capable of matching his pace. The filmmakers had originally envisioned Jasmine's voice as similar to that of actress Lauren Bacall. Jasmine's speaking voice is provided by American actress Linda Larkin. The role was only one of several auditions Larkin had scheduled during the same week in which she auditioned for Aladdin, and she originally underestimated the scope of the project, joking, "I thought it was going to be something like Duck Tales (sic)". Initially presented with only a few pages of the screenplay, Larkin found that she was particularly drawn to Jasmine's "spirit of activism", in addition to the ways in which character was both similar to and different from previous Disney heroines. Princesses Snow White, Cinderella and Aurora had been childhood favorites of the actress. Larkin's first audition was held in a Burbank, California recording studio, in which she performed solely for the film's casting director. The side used for Larkin's first audition was the scene in which Jasmine meets Aladdin in the marketplace – their first encounter. Jasmine's line "It's all so magical" helped convince Larkin that she was "meant" to voice the character. Although Larkin's voice was significantly different from what the filmmakers had originally envisioned for the character, her interpretation gradually changed their minds.
In the form of an extensive series of callbacks, Larkin returned to the studio on several different occasions over the next few months. While the audience of studio executives and filmmakers continued to increase, the amount of actresses competing for the role gradually decreased accordingly as the audition process neared completion. Larkin's final audition lasted a total of four hours, during which she read through the entire script for the first time. The animators were also provided with an opportunity to animate to Larkin's voice for the first time. The actress was finally cast several months later, by which time she had nearly forgotten she had ever auditioned. Six months into recording, however, Larkin was forced to re-audition for the role by Disney executive Jeffrey Katzenberg, who felt that the actress' voice lacked the authority required to voice a princess. However, Clements and Musker disagreed with him, and managed to trick Katzenberg into not firing Larkin by staging a fake recording session during which they had the actress speak lower and slower in Katzenberg's presence, only to have her return to her natural voice thereafter. Larkin recorded only one scene alongside her co-stars Williams and Scott Weinger, voice of Aladdin. Apart from some rough, unfinished storyboards and drawings, Larkin did not see much of her character until the film was finally screened at the Museum of Modern Art.
Before discovering Larkin, Disney had been insisting on auditioning exclusively performers who were capable of singing as well as they could act. However, after Williams' recruitment, the studio relented in favor of casting "strong actors" instead. When Larkin first auditioned for the role, "A Whole New World", Jasmine's only surviving song, had not yet been written; she admitted, "there's no way I would have even auditioned ... if there had been a song from the beginning." After writing Jasmine's first song, the filmmakers asked Larkin if she would be interested in recording it and providing the character's singing voice. Larkin immediately declined, joking, "I do [sing] ... but not like a princess!" Thus, Disney decided to recruit a singer who could mimic Larkin's speaking voice instead, despite the actress' fear that the studio would completely replace her with a professional singer altogether.
Jasmine's singing voice is provided by Filipina singer and actress Lea Salonga. Salonga's Tony Award-winning performance in the musical Miss Saigon helped her garner the interest of casting director Albert Tavares, who proceeded to leave a note for the singer on the stage door before leaving a show he had attended. Salonga's agent then scheduled her audition, at which she performed "Part of Your World" from The Little Mermaid. Salonga finally began recording a demo of "A Whole New World" a few days later. With the casting of Salonga, Larkin became one of Disney's first voice actors to not provide the singing voice of the character she voices, and thus Jasmine marked the first time Disney decided to separate a character's speaking and singing voices. Describing Salonga as "an incredible singer", Larkin herself was pleasantly surprised by how much Salonga's voice resembled her own when she first heard "A Whole New World", joking, "the filmmakers almost had me convinced that I sang it".
Personality and design
The character's blurb on the official Disney website reads, "Jasmine is an independent, fiery beauty capable of taking care of herself" who "longs to experience life outside the palace." The writers had originally conceived Jasmine as a spoiled and materialistic princess whose interests were limited to clothing and jewelry, but eventually developed her into a stronger, more mature character. Larkin described Jasmine as "a very strong, well defined character from the very beginning." Mark Henn served as Jasmine's supervising animator. Having originally been hired to animate Aladdin's mother, the removal of the character from the film ultimately provided Henn with the opportunity to animate Jasmine instead. Throughout Disney's previous animated film Beauty and the Beast, the design of the heroine Belle – whom Henn had also helped animate – suffered from various inconsistencies due to the character having been animated at two completely separate studio locations. To avoid experiencing a similar dilemma with Jasmine, the filmmakers ultimately decided to have the princess animated entirely at one studio. Because Jasmine is the film's love interest as opposed to its main character, the princess was animated at the company's secondary studio in Florida, while Aladdin was animated in California. However, the more intimate love scenes between the two leads proved particularly difficult to animate as a result of the 2000 mile distance between the two studios and animators. Out of his desire to incorporate Arabian architecture into the film, art director Bill Perkins based Jasmine's design on the famous mausoleum the Taj Mahal, particularly the curves demonstrated in the characters hair, clothes and jewelry.
Having just recently animated two previous Disney heroines – Ariel from The Little Mermaid and Belle from Beauty and the Beast, respectively – Henn initially suffered from a severe case of "artist's block" while attempting to design his third heroine, Jasmine. While working on the character at Disney-MGM Studios in Florida, Henn noticed a young female amusement park guest with long black hair, and ultimately decided to use her as his initial inspiration for Jasmine; the guest's identity remains anonymous to-date. Earliest sketches of Jasmine were based on various exotic-looking supermodels in addition to her namesake Jasmine Guy, but the actress' facial features were ultimately considered to be too "severe" for an animated character. In search of "something fresh to help with the physical look of her", Henn was eventually inspired by a high school graduation photograph of his younger sister Beth Allen, who wore her hair in a style similar to what would ultimately become Jasmine's. Henn credits his sister with helping him overcome his artist's block, and the directors ultimately approved of Henn's concept design. The character's facial features were further inspired by actress Jennifer Connelly, specifically her eyebrows. Additionally, some of Larkin's own mannerisms and physical traits were incorporated into the character. Henn credits one particular dinner conversation he had shared with Larkin with proving very inspirational in terms of helping him discover Jasmine's emotional side.
The final appearance of Jasmine consequently inspired the studio to redesign Aladdin accordingly because Katzenberg felt that the main character, who was originally depicted as a younger, "scrawny" underdog, did not resemble a suitable leading man for Jasmine, which they feared would result in unconvincing chemistry between the couple. Thus, they ultimately decided to base Aladdin on actor Tom Cruise instead. Henn's favorite sequence to animate was the scene in which Jasmine discovers Aladdin's true identity and gives him "a look". The filmmakers decided to dress Jasmine in blue to symbolically represent water, which is "the most precious substance one can find in a desert". The animators sat the character next to a fountain when she is first introduced in the film to further emphasize this motif and comparison. With her appearance finalized, Jasmine became Disney's first non-white princess as opposed to being of European heritage.
Characteristics and beliefs
As a character, Jasmine is both similar to and different from Disney heroines who proceeded her. She possesses many qualities associated with traditional Disney Princesses, grace and beauty among them. However, marketed by Disney as "a heroine of the Nineties", Jasmine is "born-before-her-time", and thus her intelligence and ambitions tend to more-so resemble contemporary incarnations, namely Belle. Brian Lowry of Variety likened Jasmine's strong-willed personality to that of Belle, describing her as an "anachronistically liberated" heroine. Meanwhile, The Hollywood News' Rob Burch observed that the princess is very similar to Ariel, being "independent, beautiful, and desperate for the chance to live her own life," while at the same time concealing kindness beneath "a shield of anger". Belonging to "a series of spunky heroines" inspired by both contemporary feminism and the girl power movement, Hearing a Film, Seeing a Sermon: Preaching and Popular Movies author Timothy B. Cargal recognized Jasmine as a member of Disney's "continued efforts to reshape their heroines for a more feminist age", in addition to providing young girls with strong female role models with whom they can identify. At only 15 years of age, Jasmine is already more resourceful than her two immediate predecessors, while sharing their same preference for assertiveness and empowerment over passiveness, traits echoed by several other Disney Princesses introduced throughout the decade. At the same time, Jasmine is depicted as being feistier than Belle and less naive than Ariel.
Distinctively, Jasmine is not Aladdin's protagonist, a role held instead by title character Aladdin, while Jasmine herself occupies a secondary role as the film's love interest, consequently lacking significant character development. The First Novels Club observed that Jasmine essentially "ends up the same person as when she started." Little is known about Jasmine's interests, hobbies and goals. The Art of the Princess and the Frog author Jeff Kurrti wrote that although "Jasmine is less prominent as a heroine ... she made decisions and was a little more strong-willed". Samantha Rullo of Bustle agreed that, despite her secondary role, Jasmine remains "determined to live her life the way she wants to, rather than letting others make her decisions for her", and thus ranks among Disney's most rebellious princesses. Jasmine's personality continues to rank among Disney's "strongest" heroines because she is not concerned about wealth or social class, despite her opulent upbringing. Similarly, Jasmine is not interested in marrying someone who is capable of only offering her everything she already owns, opting for excitement and companionship instead.
Alongside Aladdin's other main characters, Jasmine embodies the film's central theme of longing for freedom from some form of confinement or oppression. Both the film and its characters are influenced by Jasmine's "power of choice". The character's desire for both freedom and a sense of agency is constantly threatened by other characters and situations; the sole decision Jasmine maintains complete agency over during the entire film is who she falls in love with – aided by the Genie's refusal to use his magical powers to force characters to fall in love – although not who she marries. Although Jasmine yearns to explore her kingdom beyond the confines of her palace, she only gets as far as the marketplace before returning home. Jasmine explores "the idea that enclosing yourself behind walls can make you more vulnerable, not less", as evidenced by the fact that the character is unprepared and knows little about money when she ventures into the marketplace for first time. In the film, Jasmine releases a flock of birds from their cage, which serves as a metaphor for her own situation, being "caged from a world she has never seen and yearns to be released." Jasmine's bedroom is also shaped like a bird cage to represent her own confinement. Jasmine's story also explores themes such as civil rights, racial tolerance, social hierarchy, and Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Feminism, marriage laws and gender
Jasmine demonstrates several traits, beliefs and ideologies associated with feminism, exercising much "feminist potential", although notably less explicit than Belle's. Nonetheless, the character still adheres to traditional romance-oriented aspirations commonly associated with Disney's princess characters despite "her modern, feminist attitude", although her yearning for romance is much more subdued in comparison. Steve Daly of Entertainment Weekly identified Jasmine as "a sexually aware, proto-feminist princess". "New" Exoticisms: Changing Patterns in the Construction of Otherness author Isabel Santaolalla wrote that Jasmine appears to have inherited "the legacy bequeathed by the 1960s Women's Movement." Having "stepped out of the 90s" according to The Washington Post's Desson Howe, Jasmine is appropriately opposed to the glass ceiling." Defying marriage laws and arranged marriages are also among Jasmine's central themes. Larkin believes that her character is responsible for inspiring a change in her kingdom's marriage laws, explaining, "Jasmine didn't just believe in something, she fought against something that she saw was an injustice ... She actively sought change and made it happen." Musker agreed that the princess "rebel[s] against the social structure in choosing to marry someone of her own free will". According to singer Brad Kane, who provides Aladdin's singing voice, "Aladdin is a stealth feminist movie" because Jasmine is "willing to give up being a princess to not get stuck marrying someone." Jasmine's defiance eventually successfully convinces her father to change the constitution.
The only named, speaking female character in a male-dominated film, Jasmine lacks both female companions and a motherly figure (the male characters account for 90% of the film's dialogue). The character has come to resent the patriarchal society in which she lives. Movies and the Mind: Theories of the Great Psychoanalysts Applied to Film author William Indick observed that Jasmine represents "the rejection of the father-king's domination and control over his daughter's life", resembling "a strong and assertive heroine who rebels against her father's tyranny rather than passively accepting his will." Jasmine's life is almost entirely determined by men, by whom she refuses to be ordered, constantly voicing her disapproval by rejecting arrogant suitors and yelling at men who attempt to make decisions on her behalf, while challenging traditional gender roles and male authority figures. Jasmine's father, the Sultan, responds to his daughter's constant rejection of potential suitors with "I don't know where she gets it from. Her mother wasn't nearly so picky", indicating that Jasmine's mother "belonged to a generation of docile pre-feminist ... women." At times Jasmine can seem judgmental; she originally has a thoroughly negative opinion of all princes until she meets a disguised Aladdin. In Ulrich Marzolph's book The Arabian Nights Reader, the author described the character as "the mouthpiece of opposition to a vaguely defined Middle Eastern backwardness and authoritarianism."
Film and television
Jasmine debuted in Aladdin (1992) as the dissatisfied daughter of the Sultan of Agrabah. Frustrated with having decisions constantly made for her and being pressured into marrying a prince by an antiquated law, Jasmine disguises herself as a peasant and stows away from the palace. In the marketplace, she befriends notorious street thief Aladdin after he rescues her from an angry vendor. Escaping to Aladdin's hideout, the pair bonds over the realization that they both feel trapped in their environments and want better lives for themselves. When Aladdin is soon arrested by the palace guards, Jasmine is angered to learn that her orders for his immediate release are overruled by Jafar, the Sultan's scheming grand vizier. When the princess confronts Jafar, he lies and tells her that Aladdin has already been executed, leaving Jasmine distraught and feeling guilty; in reality, Jafar is using Aladdin to retrieve a magical lamp containing a genie. When the Genie, who saves and befriends Aladdin, grants his wish to be transformed into a prince to better his chances of wooing Jasmine, Aladdin introduces himself to her. Although initially unimpressed, Jasmine is charmed after joining him for a magic carpet ride, during which she discovers that the prince is, in fact, the same peasant she met in the marketplace. However, Aladdin convinces Jasmine that he truly is a prince who, much like her, only occasionally disguises himself as a commoner. When Jafar learns that the prince is in fact Aladdin, he steals the lamp, becoming the Genie's master, banishing Aladdin and making himself Sultan, while enslaving both Jasmine and her father. After refusing to marry him, Jasmine kisses Jafar to distract him while Aladdin returns in time to trick Jafar into wishing himself into a Genie and thus trapping himself inside the lamp. Jasmine is then rescued from the hourglass in which she has been imprisoned by Aladdin, and the two become engaged after the Sultan, seeing how much his daughter loves Aladdin, abolishes the law so that she may marry whomever she loves.
In the first direct-to-video sequel, The Return of Jafar (1994), Jasmine begins to question her trust in Aladdin after he defends Iago, Jafar's former pet parrot who had terrorized her father, but she quickly gets over these questions with Iago's help (who convinces her that she cares about Aladdin by calling her bluff). She later accepts Iago as a friend after he helps her mend her relationship with Aladdin, frees the Genie to save Aladdin, and defeats Jafar under risk of his own life.
Finally, in the second direct-to-video/DVD movie, Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996) she and Aladdin are finally about to wed, when their wedding is interrupted by the Forty Thieves. After learning what they were after, Aladdin finds out from the Oracle that his father Cassim is still alive. Jasmine convinces him to seek out for his father, and that their wedding can be delayed a little bit longer. While he is away, Jasmine grows worried, and Genie cheers her up by goofing around. When Aladdin returns with Cassim, she and the Sultan take an immediate liking to him. However, he later tries to steal the Oracle, and is put in prison; Aladdin helps him escape, which result in punishment. Jasmine and the Genie convince the Sultan that he helped his father out of love. At that moment, Iago (who was with Cassim) returns, telling them that Cassim has been captured by Sa'luk and the remaining Thieves. Jasmine goes with Aladdin to rescue his father, and afterward they return for their wedding, which Cassim attends from the shadows. They go for a ride on Carpet, waving good-bye to the Merchant from the first film and Iago and Cassim as they ride off.
Disney Princess Enchanted Tales: Follow Your Dreams
Princess Jasmine (Linda Larkin) is tired and bored of her usual princess duties. She is no longer satisfied with overseeing shop openings and assisting in the sale of a camel at the local market place. While having her portrait painted as a "Peacock Princess," Jasmine loses patience and says she wants more responsibility. The Sultan (Jeff Bennett) gives her the job of "Royal Assistant Educator" at the Royal Academy. Jasmine is thrilled until she meets her pupils. They run amok, draw on the walls, pillow fight, and throw books. She calls Rajah (Frank Welker) to try to scare the children into behaving, but they ignore him and chase Jasmine and Rajah into the mud and up a tree. Jasmine gives up. Later that night, her lady-in-waiting tells her that she needs patience and perseverance and that with these tools, she can do anything she wants. The next day, Hakeem (Zack Shada), the stable boy, seeks Jasmine's help. The Sultan's prized horse, Sahara, is missing from the Stables. Jasmine takes it upon herself, with Carpet, Abu (Welker), and Iago's (Gilbert Gottfried) help, to find Sahara and return him to the Palace.
Jasmine is an official member of the Disney Princess line, a prominent franchise directed to young girls. The franchise covers a wide variety of merchandise, including but not limited to magazines, music albums, toys, video games, clothes and stationery. She is featured prominently in Disney Princess Enchanted Tales: Follow Your Dreams, where she is the main character of one of the film's segments.
Princess Jasmine has made many appearances outside of the Aladdin films, including appearances at the Walt Disney Parks and Resorts as a meetable character. She is a frequently-seen character, and often accompanies Aladdin, and occasionally Genie. Jasmine is a featured character in the Mickey's PhilharMagic 3D show at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom and Hong Kong Disneyland. Jasmine, Aladdin, Carpet, Abu and Genie make cameo appearances in the Hong Kong Disneyland version of It's a Small World. Jasmine also appears in various television series and was featured as a main character in the animated series based on the original 1992 feature. The series picked up where The Return of Jafar left off, with Aladdin still living on the streets of Agrabah, engaged to Jasmine. The character also made cameo appearances in Disney's House of Mouse and Hercules: The Animated Series. Recently, Jasmine appeared in the episode "Two to Tangu" of the Disney Junior series Sofia the First, in which she helps Sofia and Amber tame a wild magic carpet.
Jasmine appears in Kingdom Hearts as a supporting character in Agrabah, based on the Aladdin films. She is one of the Princesses of Heart kidnapped by Maleficent. She appears again in Kingdom Hearts II, and explains the strange behavior of Aladdin to Sora, Duck and Goofy. The cause of Aladdin's behavior is his loneliness after Genie went to see the other worlds. When Genie comes back all is well again. Linda Larkin reprises her role in the English version. Aside from the Kingdom Hearts series, Jasmine makes appearances in the video game adaptations of the 1992 film.
Critical opinions of Jasmine have been generally mixed; some critics appreciated the character for continuing to "break the mold" that had been established by Disney's earliest princesses. Ty Burr of Entertainment Weekly described Jasmine as Disney's "most full-bodied" heroine, while Desson Howe of The Washington Post commended the character for providing the film with "feminist consciousness". The Christian Science Monitor's David Sterrit wrote that Jasmine "is less carefully worked out [than Aladdin] but equally likable as a personality type." Contactmusic.com agreed that the character exhibits "likeably cynical streaks" despite being an "essentially bland" character. Gary Thompson of the Philadelphia Daily News wrote, "Princess Jasmine is also more barbed, yet without the obvious feminist makeover given to Belle". Similarly, James Berardinelli of ReelViews commended Jasmine for "show[ing] the same streak of stubborn independence exhibited by Ariel and Belle," but ultimately criticized the fact that "she doesn't fill a more pressing role than that of Aladdin's 'love interest.'" Agreeing that Jasmine appears "bland" in comparison to Aladdin's supporting characters, Mari Ness of Tor.com wrote, "Jasmine follows in the footsteps of Ariel and Belle as someone unhappy with the restrictions of her world and her lack of choices: like both of them, she takes active steps to change this, and it's not entirely her fault that she's a secondary character in a film not all that interested in her ... She's perceptive, and fast thinking, but this isn't her movie, and in the end, although she does get to choose her own husband, she doesn't really get a chance, like Ariel and Belle, to move out of her world. She can be shown the world, but she stays in her palace."
Other critics have been much less forgiving; common critiques have derided the princess as a spoiled, shallow, bland and overly sexualized character. Common Sense Media criticized Jasmine for lacking an original predicament and premise, while Creative Loafing's Matt Brunson described the character as a "liberated" but "stiff" heroine. Janet Maslin of The New York Times panned Jasmine: "the sloe-eyed Princess Jasmine ... a nymph in harem pants, use[s] words like 'fabulous' and 'amazing' to express unremarkable thoughts", concluding, "Luckily, [she is] surrounded by an overpowering array of secondary characters who make the film's sidelines much more interesting than its supposed center." While Time Out called the character disappointing, TV Guide described her as "bland". Film critic Roger Ebert cited Jasmine among the film's weaknesses, dismissing the relationship between her and Aladdin as "pale and routine" in comparison to Belle and the Beast's. Additionally, Ebert wrote that the characters "look unformed, as if even the filmmakers didn't see them as real individuals." Ed Gonzalez of Slant Magazine derided the character as "another 'free-spirited' type in the Barbie-doll tradition, a faux feminist who wants everyone to know that she can do everything the boys can". Orange Coast's Henry A. Giroux dismissed Jasmine as little more than "an object of [Aladdin]'s immediate desire" and "stepping stone to social mobility."
The reverse cover of Aladdin's original home video release proudly touted Jasmine as "a heroine of the Nineties." However, It's Not the Media: The Truth about Pop Culture's Influence on Children author Karen Sternheimer strongly disagreed with this sentiment, writing that despite being "strong-willed and almost given feminist qualities", Jasmine nonetheless "resembles heroines of old, waiting for her 'prince' to come and rescue her and using traditional feminine wiles to get her out of trouble." The character continues to be heavily discussed among feminist critics. Bustle included Jasmine's first encounter with Aladdin on the website's ranking of the most feminist Disney Princess moments, with author Samantha Rullo crediting the scene with demonstrating "how strong-willed and independent she truly is." In a similar "Feminist Ranking Of All The Disney Princesses", Bustle's Chelsea Maze appreciated Jasmine for refusing "to let the men in her life boss her around", ultimately placing the character at number eight because she possesses "the agency to choose her own mate and follow her heart, all while financially supporting the guy she loves." Mize concluded that Jasmine is "a pretty strong woman with a solid feminist streak".
According to Meghan O'Keefe of Overthinking It, Jasmine possesses "tremendous" yet "ineffectual ... potential to be a feminist heroine" due to her lack of interest in books, music, social interaction, and the "violent thirst for learning" exhibited by both Ariel and Belle, despite being "feisty and brave". O'Keefe concluded, "Jasmine's complaints to Aladdin about palace life sound less like a budding feminist finding her voice, and more like the spoiled muse of Pulp's 'Common People'". Charles I. Schuster, author of Speculations: Readings in Culture, Identity, and Values, agreed that, in terms of feminism, the character offers very little apart from her "defiance of an arbitrary law". Bust's Sholeh Hajmiragha started off by praising Jasmine's progressiveness: "she challenges her ascribed life as a princess, is skeptical of marriage, and, by falling in love with poor Aladdin, upsets the class system." However, in the end the author criticized the character for being "very sexualized", explaining, "While female sexuality is something to be proud and in control of, it maybe isn't the best message for young girls." Opining that Jasmine's role lacks significance, Feminist Fiction received her as an example of how "Disney treats its female characters when they're not the protagonist of the story", elaborating, "it looks like Disney put a lot of effort into giving Jasmine girl power and independence, at least in her dialogue and attitude. Unfortunately, they didn't follow through and give her strength in the plot itself." The website also observed that the character's feminism does not appear to extend beyond "lipservice", ultimately criticizing Jasmine of using her sexuality instead of her intelligence to "save the day" before finally reverting to the role of a damsel in distress awaiting rescue. The Routledge Companion to Media & Gender author Cynthia Carter believes that Jasmine becomes "the possession of [her] husband". Within the realm of the internet, the scene during which Jasmine kisses Jafar in order to distract him from Aladdin is oftentimes viewed as a point of contention among feminist writers and bloggers; Meredith Ancret of The Snark Who Hunts Back argued that both the Sultan and Genie are similarly enslaved by Jafar. Ancret continued to defend Jasmine for being of her own mind, bravely defying Jafar on numerous occasions, and praised her distraction of the villain for being instrumental to Aladdin's success. Also defending Jasmine's decision to kiss Jafar, feminist critic Mari Rogers explained to The Daily Dot that "Jasmine was a strong character and I think in many ways the story's focus on Aladdin sort of makes us forget this", concluding, "Even in her own movie, she was always the force behind her decisions. She went out seeking things". Awarding Aladdin a "neutral" grade in terms of feminism, Fanny Pack wrote that "What stops Aladdin from being wholly negative ... is the sheer strength of Jasmine as a character" who "seems to take the best parts of Ariel and Belle and build them into an even better, stronger, and sassier princess".
BuzzFeed compiled a list citing "15 Times Jasmine From 'Aladdin' Was The Most Feminist Disney Princess". The same website included Jasmine rejecting traditional standards of marriage second on its list of "27 Feminist Disney Moments That Unapologetically Smashed The Patriarchy". Ranking Jasmine second on a list analyzing "Which Disney Princess Most Embodies Feminist Principles", author Shannon Larson of The Huffington Post appreciated the character for rejecting the idea of marriage being necessary, asserting her right to marry whomever and owning her sexuality, but criticized the fact that she does not complete her attempt to escape royal opression. Sonia Saraiya of Nerve ranked Jasmine fifth in her article "Ranked: Disney Princesses From Least To Most Feminist". Saraiya praised her personality, likening her boldness, curiosity, and skepticism of marriage to that of Belle while commending her for "falling for a completely inadequate 'street rat' and whisking him out of poverty, instead of the other way around." However, Saraiya labeled Jasmine's use of sexuality her "only power", criticizing her for sending a negative message to young girls. When questioned about whether or not Jasmine is a positive role model because "all she wants to do is get married", Larkin defended her character, explaining, "That's not true. Jasmine says to a generation of little kids about marriage that the law is wrong. She risks everything—her safety, her comfort, everything she knows—and goes out and finds a way to change the marriage law ... Yeah, she's a good role model!' Really good! Whether it's connected or not, that person that the writers created that I got to portray, I'm so proud of her. And I feel like she was ahead of her time." Meanwhile, Jasmine's inability to recognize Aladdin despite his disguise has been met with controversy, comparing this characteristic to the relationship between Lois Lane and Clark Kent/Superman, and questioning the princess' intelligence.
Famously, Jasmine was Disney's first princess of color; her unprecedented ethnicity is credited with ultimately inspiring the studio to become more ethnically diverse, as evidenced by the subsequent introduction of their non-white princesses Pocahontas and Mulan. While the fact that the princess is Middle Eastern is considered to be "a breakthrough", at the same time the characteristics of both Jasmine and Aladdin have been met with controversy; observers widely criticized the characters for being Westernized and Anglicized. In her book Thinking Class: Sketches from a Cultural Worker, author Joanna Kadi joked that Jasmine is "as Arab as baseball and apple pie." The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee was particularly disgruntled by the treatment of the leads characters, with Don Bustany accusing Disney of teaching "that anyone with an accent is bad." The Arabian Nights Reader author Ulrich Marzloph observed that the character speaks "perfect American English" despite her "ostensibly Middle Eastern features", and have American accents in spite of their "alleged Arab ethnicity". In his book The Mouse that Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence, author Henry A. Giroux accused "the anglicized Jasmine and Aladdin" of communicating in American English, while the film's villains have strong foreign accents.
Critics have also derided that the film's "bad" characters appear to be exaggerated in appearance, overweight, drawn with dark skin, large noses and damaged teeth, while Jasmine's skin tone remains lighter in comparison. Slim in stature, Jasmine also lacks obvious character flaws in both her personality and speech Jasmine. Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice Ð 3rd Edition author Paul Kivel dubbed this "racial coding", a practice also believed to have been used to differentiate the good from bad characters in Disney's The Lion King (1994). According to Debating Disney: Pedagogical Perspectives on Commercial Cinema author Douglas Brode, Aladdin "perpetuates the same racial pyramid" present in most of Disney's films, observing that Jasmine, Aladdin and the Sultan – characters at high up on the social hierarchy – appear to be the film's "whitest" characters, while the villainous Jafar speaks with a thick accent and exhibits far more Arabian features. Brode accused Jasmine of "perpetuat[ing] damaging stereotypes." Observing that "underneath their multicultural skin [Disney Princesses] all conform to the white, middle-class, thin, feminine ideal of beauty", Gary Burns, author of A Companion to Popular Culture, accused Jasmine of being "an American-accented girl ... who battles the traditions of older, heavily accented, traditional Arabs." Despite Disney's attempt to accurately portray the culture of the time period during which the film is set such as a lack of women in powerful positions, Isabel Santaolalla, author of "New" Exoticisms: Changing Patterns in the Construction of Otherness, agreed that Jasmine remains "a vehicle for contemporary gender politics in America" despite her Middle Eastern appearance, explaining, "the film's PC credibility is reserved for Jasmine, but this feistiness probably reflects developments in America more than the realities of 1990s Basrah or Baghdad." Critics also did not appreciate the scene in which Jasmine nearly gets her hand cut off by a merchat as punishment for unintentionally stealing an apple.
Impact and legacy
According to The Fiscal Times, Aladdin is Disney's fourth most profitable princess film in terms of box office returns. Having successfully established herself as a popular character, Jasmine ultimately became one of the original members of the Disney Princess franchise, and remains the only member of the lineup who is not the main character in her film. Consequently, Aladdin remains the only Disney Princess film whose featured princess is not its protagonist, and Jasmine became the first Disney Princess to marry a character who is not a prince. Chronologically, Jasmine is the Disney Princess franchise's sixth member. After Aladdin's release in 1992, Jasmine remained Disney's only traditional fairy tale princess for the next 17 years. Before the character debuted, all of Disney's princesses in the studio's 55-year history had been either white or European in appearance. As Disney's first non-white princess, Jasmine is credited with introducing both racial and ethnic diversity to Disney's animated fairy tale genre. The character has since been succeeded by three princesses of color: Pocahontas from Pocahontas (1995), Mulan from Mulan (1998) and Tiana from The Princess and the Frog (2009), ultimately "paving the way in letting children believe that anyone of any race can be a princess". Alongside Pocahontas, Mulan and Tiana, Jasmine is one of four non-white members of the Disney Princess franchise. Additionally, as one of only two Disney Princesses who wear pants, Jasmine remains Disney's only princess whose official costume is not a gown or dress.
Jasmine's song "A Whole New World", which she performs as a duet with Aladdin, won the Academy Award for Best Original Song at the 65th Academy Awards in 1993. Six years after Aladdin, Salonga would go on to be cast as the singing voice of second Disney Princess, Mulan, in 1998. Salonga joked about being required to audition for the role despite having already voiced a Disney Princess: "Why do I have to audition? ... I was already a princess before. Wasn't that enough?" Meanwhile, Larkin would return to voice Jasmine several times in subsequent media appearances, including films, video games and television series. As the two actresses responsible for giving voice to the character, both Larkin and Salonga were honored with Disney Legends awards for their contributions in 2011 at a ceremony recognized for awarding several other actresses who famously voiced Disney Princesses. In addition to songwriters Menken and Tim Rice, Salonga jokingly thanked Larkin for not being able to sing and thus providing her with a job. Salonga became the award's first Filipina recipient; her hand print is also featured at the Walt Disney headquarters in Burbank, California.
Unranked, Teen Vogue included Jasmine in an article recognizing the "10 Best Disney Princesses of All Time". BuzzFeed ranked Jasmine second on their "A Definitive Ranking Of Disney Princesses", while E! ranked the character fourth. According to PureWow, Jasmine is the fifth best Disney Princess because she "was not OK with her family marrying her off to some random suitor." Seventeen placed the character at number nine on a similar list. Author Jelani Addams Rosa explained, "Our favorite thing about Jasmine is that her and Aladdin take turns rescuing each other", but criticized her for being judgmental. On MTV's "Ultimate Ranking of the Best Disney Princesses of All Time", Jasmine was ranked 10th. Refinery29 readers voted Jasmine the eighth best Disney Princess, garnering 351 votes. Seventeen ranked Jasmine the hottest Disney Princess, crediting her with initiating the sexual awakening of several young boys in 1992. Complex ranked Jasmine second in his article "The 25 Hottest Cartoon Women Of All Time", awarding specific praise to her hair and her eyes. According to Shannon Larson of The Huffington Post, Jasmine's "sexy costumes" have established a legacy. Cosmopolitan placed Jasmine's signature aqua outfit at number 8 on their ranking of "The 37 Best Disney Princess Outfits", praising her for pulling off "a wide, jeweled headband, statement earrings, and a heavy necklace all at once without becoming overwhelmed by them". On Diply's ranking of "8 Disney Princesses Who Are Actually The Worst Role Models", Jasmine was placed fourth. While acknowledging that "Jasmine is a pretty awesome character" due to her resentment of marriage laws, author Mason J. Zimmer criticized her because she appears to "stop trying" after meeting Aladdin as opposed to being motivated to learn more about life outside the palace.
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